Play Video
1
Extended Interview: Indonesia
Extended Interview: Indonesia's political debate in the media
::2013/06/24::
Play Video
2
VCE Global Politics A History of Indonesia
VCE Global Politics A History of Indonesia
::2013/04/23::
Play Video
3
Islam, Elections, and Politics in Indonesia
Islam, Elections, and Politics in Indonesia
::2009/05/15::
Play Video
4
US-style politics comes to Indonesia
US-style politics comes to Indonesia
::2014/03/05::
Play Video
5
Australian politicians in Indonesia to repair cattle trade dispute
Australian politicians in Indonesia to repair cattle trade dispute
::2013/06/11::
Play Video
6
Jokowi
Jokowi's poor showing may lead to more compromise politics in Indonesia
::2014/04/10::
Play Video
7
Behind The Frequency: Political control of Indonesia
Behind The Frequency: Political control of Indonesia's media
::2013/12/15::
Play Video
8
Alternative politics across the Islamic Terrain: Turkey and Indonesia
Alternative politics across the Islamic Terrain: Turkey and Indonesia
::2009/12/31::
Play Video
9
From Street Singer to President: Music, Politics, and Islam in Indonesia
From Street Singer to President: Music, Politics, and Islam in Indonesia
::2014/03/18::
Play Video
10
Indonesia Update 2013 - Historical & political perspectives
Indonesia Update 2013 - Historical & political perspectives
::2013/10/10::
Play Video
11
A Key Domino? Indonesia
A Key Domino? Indonesia's Death Penalty Politics
::2012/02/29::
Play Video
12
Indonesia-Australia relationship
Indonesia-Australia relationship 'above politics'
::2013/11/19::
Play Video
13
Global Metal - Jewish and the Underground  Politics Movement  in Indonesia
Global Metal - Jewish and the Underground Politics Movement in Indonesia
::2011/05/09::
Play Video
14
Indonesia Current Politics..
Indonesia Current Politics..
::2011/10/17::
Play Video
15
Pornography and Politics - Indonesia
Pornography and Politics - Indonesia
::2007/10/16::
Play Video
16
Saturday
Saturday's Politics Discussion in Indonesia
::2012/03/10::
Play Video
17
INDONESIA: Political parties forced to raise funds via corrupt means
INDONESIA: Political parties forced to raise funds via corrupt means
::2014/04/08::
Play Video
18
INDONESIA: Political parties and their media affiliations
INDONESIA: Political parties and their media affiliations
::2014/04/03::
Play Video
19
How to act Indonesian 16
How to act Indonesian 16
::2014/03/23::
Play Video
20
Rizal Mallarangeng Indonesia Emerging In Business and Politics (4)
Rizal Mallarangeng Indonesia Emerging In Business and Politics (4)
::2008/12/24::
Play Video
21
Rizal Mallarangeng Indonesia Emerging In Business and Politics (1)
Rizal Mallarangeng Indonesia Emerging In Business and Politics (1)
::2008/12/19::
Play Video
22
Book Launch -- Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria
Book Launch -- Growing Apart: Oil, Politics, and Economic Change in Indonesia and Nigeria
::2013/10/08::
Play Video
23
Rizal Mallarangeng Indonesia Emerging In Business and Politics (2)
Rizal Mallarangeng Indonesia Emerging In Business and Politics (2)
::2008/12/24::
Play Video
24
Mount Etna and Sinabung Volcanoes Erupts in Indonesia
Mount Etna and Sinabung Volcanoes Erupts in Indonesia
::2013/11/19::
Play Video
25
Logo Hanura Animasi ~ Politics Indonesia
Logo Hanura Animasi ~ Politics Indonesia
::2014/02/17::
Play Video
26
This is the Spice Island history according to Indonesia colonizer history, some true, some are not
This is the Spice Island history according to Indonesia colonizer history, some true, some are not
::2012/10/19::
Play Video
27
NO MORE MONEY POLITICS INDONESIA BERSIH
NO MORE MONEY POLITICS INDONESIA BERSIH
::2013/02/23::
Play Video
28
exo politics acoustic by yunus muser indonesia
exo politics acoustic by yunus muser indonesia
::2011/07/05::
Play Video
29
The Turning Point - Indonesia
The Turning Point - Indonesia
::2007/11/08::
Play Video
30
Indonesia talks politics- Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Indonesia talks politics- Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
::2012/12/06::
Play Video
31
Investing in Indonesia: Problems and Solutions
Investing in Indonesia: Problems and Solutions
::2013/10/08::
Play Video
32
Springtime in Asia - What Indonesia
Springtime in Asia - What Indonesia's Transition to Democracy Can Teach Us
::2013/09/26::
Play Video
33
This man from Farmer To Parliament for Indonesia ?
This man from Farmer To Parliament for Indonesia ?
::2013/09/24::
Play Video
34
Indonesia illegal and USA relation
Indonesia illegal and USA relation
::2013/10/17::
Play Video
35
Australia moved to heal a deepening rift with Indonesia
Australia moved to heal a deepening rift with Indonesia
::2013/11/22::
Play Video
36
Indonesia-Australia relations
Indonesia-Australia relations
::2014/02/27::
Play Video
37
Indonesia
Indonesia's first female president campaigns
::2014/01/15::
Play Video
38
Indonesia: Global Reach, Regional Role
Indonesia: Global Reach, Regional Role
::2010/12/14::
Play Video
39
iKNOW Politics "Women Leader Series - Spotlight on Andi Timo Pangerang"
iKNOW Politics "Women Leader Series - Spotlight on Andi Timo Pangerang"
::2011/06/22::
Play Video
40
Politics, a post retirement option
Politics, a post retirement option
::2013/07/28::
Play Video
41
Indonesia Interview 1
Indonesia Interview 1
::2014/03/14::
Play Video
42
Indonesia vote to set governor on course for presidency
Indonesia vote to set governor on course for presidency
::2014/04/09::
Play Video
43
Vivienne Westwood
Vivienne Westwood's politics
::2013/07/21::
Play Video
44
Actions of the Indonesian military and police terrorists from orders of the President of Indonesia.
Actions of the Indonesian military and police terrorists from orders of the President of Indonesia.
::2012/07/06::
Play Video
45
Politics over Chhattisgarh encounter  Is this harming the fight against Naxals
Politics over Chhattisgarh encounter Is this harming the fight against Naxals
::2013/07/25::
Play Video
46
Expose politics  Will Kejriwal
Expose politics Will Kejriwal's agenda work
::2013/07/25::
Play Video
47
India Insight  The politics of food security
India Insight The politics of food security
::2013/07/25::
Play Video
48
INDONESIA: Golkar party campaigns for prosperous Indonesia by 2045
INDONESIA: Golkar party campaigns for prosperous Indonesia by 2045
::2014/03/26::
Play Video
49
Dangerous memorial politics in Punjab
Dangerous memorial politics in Punjab
::2013/07/25::
Play Video
50
Raw: Floods Submerge Indonesia
Raw: Floods Submerge Indonesia's Capital
::2014/01/22::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Government of Indonesia)
Jump to: navigation, search
National emblem of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Indonesia
Pancasila (national philosophy)
Constitution
Foreign relations

Politics of Indonesia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two People's Representative Councils. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The 1945 constitution provided for a limited separation of executive, legislative and judicial power. The governmental system has been described as "presidential with parliamentary characteristics."[1] Following the Indonesian riots of May 1998 and the resignation of President Suharto, several political reforms were set in motion via amendments to the Constitution of Indonesia, which resulted in changes to all branches of government.

Reform process[edit]

Map showing the parties/organisations with the largest vote share per province in Indonesia's elections from 1971 to 2009

A constitutional reform process lasted from 1999 to 2002, with four constitutional amendments producing important changes.[2]

Among these are term limits of up to two five-year terms for the President and Vice President, and measures to institute checks and balances. The highest state institution is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), whose functions previously included electing the president and vice president (since 2004 the president has been elected directly by the people), establishing broad guidelines of state policy, and amending the constitution. The 695-member MPR includes all 550 members of the People's Representative Council (DPR) (the House of Representatives) plus 130 "regional representatives" elected by the twenty-six provincial parliaments and sixty-five appointed members from societal groups[3]

The DPR, which is the premier legislative institution, originally included 462 members elected through a mixed proportional/district representational system and thirty-eight appointed members of the armed forces (TNI) and police (POLRI). TNI/POLRI representation in the DPR and MPR ended in 2004. Societal group representation in the MPR was eliminated in 2004 through further constitutional change.[4][5]

Having served as rubberstamp bodies in the past, the DPR and MPR have gained considerable power and are increasingly assertive in oversight of the executive branch. Under constitutional changes in 2004, the MPR became a bicameral legislature, with the creation of the Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD), in which each province is represented by four members, although its legislative powers are more limited than those of the DPR. Through his appointed cabinet, the president retains the authority to conduct the administration of the government.[6]

A general election in June 1999 produced the first freely elected national, provincial and regional parliaments in over forty years. In October 1999 the MPR elected a compromise candidate, Abdurrahman Wahid, as the country's fourth president, and Megawati Sukarnoputri — a daughter of Sukarno, the country's first president — as the vice president. Megawati's PDI-P party had won the largest share of the vote (34%) in the general election, while Golkar, the dominant party during the Soeharto era, came in second (22%). Several other, mostly Islamic parties won shares large enough to be seated in the DPR. Further democratic elections took place in 2004 and 2009.

The Indonesian political system before and after the constitutional amendments

Executive branch[edit]

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono DPD 20 October 2004
Vice-president Boediono Non-Party 20 October 2009

The president and vice president are selected by vote of the citizens for five-year terms. Prior to 2004, they were chosen by People's Consultative Assembly. The last election was held 8 July 2009. The president heads the United Indonesia Cabinet (Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu) The President of Indonesia is directly elected for a maximum of two five-year terms, and is the head of state, commander-in-chief of Indonesian armed forces and responsible for domestic governance and policy-making and foreign affairs. The president appoints a cabinet, who do not have to be elected members of the legislature.[7]

Legislative branch[edit]

The legislative building complex

The People's Consultative Assembly (Indonesian: Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR) is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political system. Following elections in 2004, the MPR became a bicameral parliament, with the creation of the DPD as its second chamber in an effort to increase regional representation.[8] The Regional Representatives Council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD) is the upper house of The People's Consultative Assembly. The lower house is The People's Representative Council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), sometimes referred to as the House of Representatives, which has 550 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies.

Political parties and elections[edit]

The General Elections Commission (Indonesian: Komisi Pemilihan Umum, KPU ) is the body responsible for running both parliamentary and presidential elections in Indonesia. Article 22E(5) of the Constitution rules that the Commission is national, permanent, and independent. Prior to the General Election of 2004, KPU was made up of members who were also members of political parties. However, members of KPU must now be non-partisan.

e • d  Summary of the 8 July 2009 Indonesian presidential election results
Seats Votes %
Democratic Party coalition
Presidential candidate: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Running mate: Boediono
314 73,874,562 60.80
150
57
43
37
27
  • 18 unseated parties
0
Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle and Great Indonesia Movement Party coalition
Presidential candidate: Megawati Sukarnoputri
Running mate: Prabowo Subianto
121 32,548,105 26.79
95
26
  • 7 unseated parties
0
Golkar and People's Conscience Party coalition
Presidential candidate: Jusuf Kalla
Running mate: Wiranto
125 15,081,814 12.41
107
18
Total 560 121,504,481 100.00
Source: Tempo[9] and Jakarta Globe[10]
Note: A party or coalition had to win 112 (20 percent) of 560 People's Representative Council seats in the
April legislative election in order to nominate candidates for president and vice president.
e • d  Summary of the 9 April 2009 Indonesian People's Representative Council election results
Parties Votes % Seats % +/-
Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat, PD) 21,655,295 20.85 148 26.43 +93
Party of the Functional Groups (Partai Golongan Karya, Golkar) 15,031,497 14.45 106 18.93 -22
Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan, PDI–P) 14,576,388 14.03 94 16.79 -15
Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera, PKS) 8,204,946 7.88 57 10.18 +12
National Mandate Party (Partai Amanat Nasional, PAN) 6,273,462 6.01 46 8.21 -7
United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan, PPP) 5,544,332 5.32 38 6.79 -20
National Awakening Party (Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa, PKB) 5,146,302 4.94 28 5.00 -24
Great Indonesia Movement Party (Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya, Gerindra) 4,642,795 4.46 26 4.64 n/a
People's Conscience Party (Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat, Hanura) 3,925,620 3.77 17 3.03 n/a
Crescent Star Party (Partai Bulan Bintang, PBB) 1,864,642 1.79 0 0.00 -11
Ulema National Awakening Party (Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama, PKNU) 1,527,509 1.47 0 0.00 n/a
Prosperous Peace Party (Partai Damai Sejahtera, PDS) 1,522,032 1.48 0 0.00 -13
Concern for the Nation Functional Party (Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa, PKPB) 1,461,375 1.40 0 0.00 –2
Reform Star Party (Partai Bintang Reformasi, PBR) 1,264,150 1.21 0 0.00 –14
National People's Concern Party (Partai Peduli Rakyat Nasional, PPRN) 1,260,950 1.21 0 0.00 n/a
Indonesian Justice and Unity Party (Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan Indonesia, PKPI) 936,133 0.90 0 0.00 –1
Democratic Renewal Party (Partai Demokrasi Pembaruan, PDP) 896,959 0.86 0 0.00 n/a
National Front Party (Partai Barisan Nasional, Barnas) 760,712 0.73 0 0.00 n/a
Indonesian Workers and Employers Party (Partai Pengusaha dan Pekerja Indonesia, PPPI) 745,965 0.72 0 0.00 n/a
Democratic Nationhood Party (Partai Demokrasi Kebangsaan, PDK) 671,356 0.64 0 0.00 –4
Archipelago Republic Party (Partai Republik Nusantara, PRN) 631,814 0.61 0 0.00 n/a
Regional Unity Party (Partai Persatuan Daerah, PPD) 553,299 0.53 0 0.00 ±0
Patriot Party (Partai Patriot) 547,798 0.53 0 0.00 ±0
Indonesian National Populist Fortress Party (Partai Nasional Benteng Kerakyatan Indonesia, PNBKI) 468,856 0.45 0 0.00 ±0
Sovereignty Party (Partai Kedaulatan) 438,030 0.42 0 0.00 n/a
Indonesian Youth Party (Partai Pemuda Indonesia, PPI) 415,563 0.40 0 0.00 n/a
National Sun Party (Partai Matahari Bangsa, PMB) 415,294 0.40 0 0.00 n/a
Functional Party of Struggle (Partai Karya Perjuangan, PKP) 351,571 0.34 0 0.00 n/a
Pioneers' Party (Partai Pelopor) 345,092 0.33 0 0.00 –3
Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion (Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia, PKDI) 325,771 0.31 0 0.00 n/a
Prosperous Indonesia Party (Partai Indonesia Sejahtera, PIS) 321,019 0.31 0 0.00 n/a
Indonesian National Party Marhaenism (Partai Nasional Indonesia Marhaenisme, PNI Marhaenisme) 317,443 0.30 0 0.00 –1
Labor Party (Partai Buruh) 265,369 0.25 0 0.00 ±0
New Indonesia Party of Struggle (Partai Perjuangan Indonesia Baru, PPIB) 198,803 0.19 0 0.00 ±0
Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party (Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia, PPNUI) 146,831 0.14 0 0.00 ±0
Indonesian Unity Party (Partai Sarikat Indonesia, PSI) 141,558 0.14 0 0.00 ±0
Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia, PPDI) 139,988 0.13 0 0.00 –1
Freedom Party (Partai Merdeka) 111,609 0.11 0 0.00 ±0
Total 104,048,118 100.00 560 100.00 +10
Source: General Election Commission[11] and People's Representative Council website[12]
Note: Seat change totals are displayed only for parties which stood in the previous election, including those which changed party names
Parties contesting in Aceh only
Aceh Party (Partai Aceh) 1,007,713 46.91 N/A N/A N/A
Aceh Sovereignty Party (Partai Daulat Atjeh, PDA) 39,706 1.85 N/A N/A N/A
Independent Voice of the Acehnese Party (Partai Suara Independen Rakyat Aceh, SIRA) 38,157 1.78 N/A N/A N/A
Aceh People's Party (Partai Rakyat Aceh, PRA) 36,574 1.70 N/A N/A N/A
Aceh Unity Party (Partai Bersatu Aceh, PBA) 16,602 0.77 N/A N/A N/A
Prosperous and Safe Aceh Party (Partai Aceh Aman Sejahtera, PAAS) 11,117 0.52 N/A N/A N/A
Source: Edwin Yustian Driyartana (2010) p81 [13] and Sigit Pamungkas (2011) p22, [14]
Note: Aceh local parties only contested for the regional legislative assemblies, not the DPR. Results are included here for completeness. The remainder of the votes were won by national parties.

Judicial branch[edit]

The Indonesian Supreme Court (Indonesian: Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch. Its judges are appointed by the president. The Constitutional Court rules on constitutional and political matters (Indonesian: Mahkamah Konstitusi), while a Judicial Commission (Indonesian: Komisi Yudisial) oversees the judges.[15]

Foreign relations[edit]

During the regime of president Suharto, Indonesia built strong relations with the United States and had difficult relations with the People's Republic of China owing to Indonesia's anti-communist policies and domestic tensions with the Chinese community. It received international denunciation for its annexation of East Timor in 1978. Indonesia is a founding member of the Association of South East Asian Nations, and thereby a member of both ASEAN+3 and the East Asia Summit. Since the 1980s, Indonesia has worked to develop close political and economic ties between South East Asian nations, and is also influential in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Indonesia was heavily criticized between 1975 and 1999 for allegedly suppressing human rights in East Timor, and for supporting violence against the East Timorese following the latter's secession and independence in 1999. Since 2001, the government of Indonesia has co-operated with the U.S. in cracking down on Islamic fundamentalism and terrorist groups.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ King, Blair. A Inside Indonesia:Constitutional tinkering: The search for consensus is taking time access date 2009-05-23
  2. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), pp. 360-361
  3. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), pp. 361-362
  4. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), pp. 293-296
  5. ^ "Indonesia's military: Business as usual". August 16, 2002. 
  6. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), pp. 265, 361, 441
  7. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), pp. 361, 443, 440
  8. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), pp. 264-265, 367
  9. ^ (Indonesian) Pramono (2009-05-16). "Sebanyak 23 Partai Dukung Pendaftaran SBY-Boediono". Tempo. Retrieved 2009-05-16. 
  10. ^ Pasandaran, Camelia (2009-07-23). "Final Election Results Confirm Victory For SBY-Boediono, But Protests Linger". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  11. ^ (Indonesian) "Pemilu 2009 Dalam Angka (". Komisi Pemilihan Umum. January 2010. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  12. ^ (Indonesian) "Fraksi: Tata Tertib DPR RI Mengenai Fraksi". People's Representative Council website. Retrieved 2009-11-24. 
  13. ^ (Indonesian) "Kedudukan Partai Politik Lokal Di Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Ditinjau Dari Asas Demokrasi (The Position of local Politial Parties in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam COnsidered from the Fundamentals of Democracy) Undergraduate thesis". Law Faculty, 11 March University, Surakarta. October 2010. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  14. ^ (Indonesian) Partai Politik Teori dan Praktik di Indonesia (Political Parties: Theory and Practice in Indonesia), Institute for Democracy and Welfarism, Jakarta, ISBN 979-602-96382-29
  15. ^ Denny Indrayana (2008), p266 - 267

Further reading[edit]

  • Denny Indrayana (2008) Indonesian Constitutional Reform 1999-2002: An Evaluation of Constitution-Making in Transition, Kompas Book Publishing, Jakarta ISBN 978-979-709-394-5
  • O'Rourke, Kevin. 2002. Reformasi: the struggle for power in post-Soeharto Indonesia. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-754-8
  • Schwarz, Adam. 2000. A nation in waiting: Indonesia's search for stability. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3650-3

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014