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1
Russ Fulcher Challenges Otter for Governor of Idaho 2014
Russ Fulcher Challenges Otter for Governor of Idaho 2014
::2013/11/29::
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2
Governor Otter Presents Tracked Wheelchair to Andrew Pike
Governor Otter Presents Tracked Wheelchair to Andrew Pike
::2014/01/23::
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Idaho Governor Signs Controversial Campus Gun Bill
Idaho Governor Signs Controversial Campus Gun Bill
::2014/03/13::
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Smith&Wesson Governor in Idaho
Smith&Wesson Governor in Idaho
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Governor Otter announces re-election campain
Governor Otter announces re-election campain
::2014/04/02::
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IACI President LaBeau with Governor Butch Otter
IACI President LaBeau with Governor Butch Otter
::2013/01/07::
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7
Jan 18, 2011: Governor Otter Names Senator Bob Geddes Tax Commission Chairman
Jan 18, 2011: Governor Otter Names Senator Bob Geddes Tax Commission Chairman
::2011/01/18::
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8
Governor
Governor's Business Message (Commerce).mov
::2011/06/09::
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9
Governor Otter previews the State of the State
Governor Otter previews the State of the State
::2013/01/05::
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10
Governors Focus On Laundry List Of Issues, Including States Rights - America
Governors Focus On Laundry List Of Issues, Including States Rights - America's News HQ
::2014/03/15::
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11
Governor
Governor's message about healthcare in Idaho
::2011/07/20::
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12
UNCUT: Governor Otter Announces Tiered Holdbacks
UNCUT: Governor Otter Announces Tiered Holdbacks
::2009/09/25::
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13
Governor Otter Helps Open New Boise Vandal Store
Governor Otter Helps Open New Boise Vandal Store
::2010/08/17::
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14
9-24-2010, Governor at Realtors Breakfast
9-24-2010, Governor at Realtors Breakfast
::2010/09/24::
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15
Idaho Lands on Forbes Business List
Idaho Lands on Forbes Business List
::2011/11/24::
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16
Idaho
Idaho's militia training
::2013/07/18::
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17
NDAA RCG Idaho Senate Print Hearing 2/14/14
NDAA RCG Idaho Senate Print Hearing 2/14/14
::2014/02/14::
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18
Hideous Anti-Gay Bills Proposed In Idaho, Kansas
Hideous Anti-Gay Bills Proposed In Idaho, Kansas
::2014/02/14::
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19
Governor Otter Signs Third Education Reform Bill into Law
Governor Otter Signs Third Education Reform Bill into Law
::2011/04/11::
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20
Governor Otter Unemployment Benefits
Governor Otter Unemployment Benefits
::2011/12/19::
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21
Chris Christie Knew All The Details, Claims Everyone Except Chris Christie
Chris Christie Knew All The Details, Claims Everyone Except Chris Christie
::2014/02/02::
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22
Governor Otter on Fracking
Governor Otter on Fracking
::2011/12/21::
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23
BREAKING: Militia Arrives at Bundy Ranch
BREAKING: Militia Arrives at Bundy Ranch
::2014/04/10::
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24
Governor Otter Clip #2
Governor Otter Clip #2
::2011/12/16::
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25
Governor Otter Affordable Care Act hurting job creation.mp4
Governor Otter Affordable Care Act hurting job creation.mp4
::2011/12/19::
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26
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Obama Lies as Millions Lose Insurance. Nevada Governor 2014 David Lory VanDerBeek
::2013/11/18::
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Governor Otter Jobs and Unemployment
Governor Otter Jobs and Unemployment
::2011/12/17::
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28
(Part 2 of 3) Gov. Otter Announces Additional 3% Holdback
(Part 2 of 3) Gov. Otter Announces Additional 3% Holdback
::2008/12/05::
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To The Governor and Legislature: Functional Liberties
To The Governor and Legislature: Functional Liberties
::2012/07/09::
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30
Travis Fischer Story
Travis Fischer Story
::2011/07/31::
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31
FDNY
FDNY's Fire Prevention Oversees Building Implosion on Governor's Island
::2013/06/09::
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IGEM Bill Signing
IGEM Bill Signing
::2012/03/23::
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33
New Hampshire Governor John Lynch on Primary Day
New Hampshire Governor John Lynch on Primary Day '08
::2008/01/11::
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8-24-2011, Otter on Economy and Budget-Boise Chamber
8-24-2011, Otter on Economy and Budget-Boise Chamber
::2011/08/30::
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March 16, 2011 -  WGA Industrial Energy Efficiency Workshop
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Profit + Prison = EXACTLY THIS
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::2014/03/15::
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How To Maintain Joy In Your Life - Jim Wilson - Meridian, Idaho - Sept 18, 2011
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Hoarding Clean Up CALL (888) 647-9769 Canyon County ID,  Meth Lab|Cleanup|Blood|Tear Gas
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Silenced: Who
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(2 of 6) IdahoPTV Live Coverage: Gov. Otter
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::2009/01/14::
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Governor Otter Clip#1
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Great Idaho Getaway Trailer, Bear Whisperer
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Mike Adams finds his desk vandalized
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Medical Waste Disposal CALL (888) 647-9769 Canyon County ID, Hospital|Chemical|Management|Companies
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Marriage Equality: This is How Wrong GOP
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Governor of Idaho
Butch and Lori Otter cropped.jpg
Incumbent
C. L. "Butch" Otter

since January 1, 2007
Residence The Idaho House
Term length Four years
Inaugural holder George L. Shoup
Formation July 3, 1890
Deputy Brad Little
Salary $110,734 (2011)[1]
Website gov.idaho.gov

The Governor of Idaho is the head of the executive branch of Idaho's government[2] and commander-in-chief of the state's militia.[3] The governor has the duty to see state laws are executed, power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Idaho Legislature.[3]

Idaho Territory had 16 territorial governors appointed by the President of the United States from the territory's organization in 1863 until the formation of the state of Idaho in 1890. Four of these never took office, resigning before reaching the territory.

Thirty individuals have held the office of governor of Idaho since the state's admission to the Union in 1890, two of whom—C. A. Bottolfsen and Cecil D. Andrus—served non-consecutive terms. The state's first governor, George Laird Shoup, had the shortest term of three months, and Cecil D. Andrus served as governor the longest at 14 years. Four governors resigned, but none has died while in office. There have been 20 Republican and 12 Democratic governors. The current governor is C. L. "Butch" Otter, who took office on January 1, 2007; his current term will expire in January 2015.[4]

Governors[edit]

Governors of the Territory of Idaho[edit]

William H. Wallace, first Governor of Idaho Territory
George Laird Shoup, last Governor of Idaho Territory and first Governor of the State of Idaho

Idaho Territory was created from Dakota Territory, Nebraska Territory, and Washington Territory on March 4, 1863. Initially, the territory included all of modern-day Idaho and Montana, and most of Wyoming. On May 26, 1864, Montana Territory was split from Idaho Territory, and most of the Wyoming portion was reassigned to Dakota Territory. The portion east of the 111th meridian was split off as part of the new Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868, giving Idaho Territory its final borders.[5]

Due to the long distance between Washington, D.C. and Boise, there was often a lengthy gap between a governor being appointed and his arrival in the territory; four resigned before even arriving.

Governor Took office Left office Appointed by Notes
William H. Wallace July 1863[6][7] December 1863[6] Abraham Lincoln Resigned. [a]
Caleb Lyon August 1, 1864[6][7] April 1866[9] Abraham Lincoln
David W. Ballard June 14, 1866[10] July 1870[11] Andrew Johnson
Samuel Bard Appointed March 30, 1870[12] Ulysses S. Grant Resigned without serving. [b]
Gilman Marston Appointed June 7, 1870[12] Ulysses S. Grant Resigned without serving. [c]
Alexander H. Conner Appointed January 12, 1871[12] Ulysses S. Grant Appointed, but declined the offer.[d]
Thomas M. Bowen July 1871[13] August 15, 1871[13] Ulysses S. Grant Resigned. [e]
Thomas W. Bennett December 1871[14] December 4, 1875[15] Ulysses S. Grant Resigned. [f]
David P. Thompson April 1876[17] May 1876[17] Ulysses S. Grant Resigned. [g]
Mason Brayman July 1876[18] July 24, 1880[19] Ulysses S. Grant Suspended in June 1878 pending appointment of Hoyt; allowed to serve remainder of term after Hoyt declined the appointment. [h]
John P. Hoyt Appointed June 8, 1878[21]
Appointed August 7, 1878[22]
Rutherford B. Hayes Initial appointment overturned after Hoyt took too long to respond to the offer.
Second appointment declined by Hoyt. [i]
John Baldwin Neil August 3, 1880[23] March 2, 1883[24] Rutherford B. Hayes
John N. Irwin April 1883[25] Dec 20, 1883[25] Chester A. Arthur Effectively resigned in July, 1883. [j]
William M. Bunn June 26, 1884[27] July 3, 1885[28] Chester A. Arthur Resigned. [k]
Edward A. Stevenson September 29, 1885[29] April 1, 1889[30] Grover Cleveland [l]
George Laird Shoup April 30, 1889[31] July 3, 1890 Benjamin Harrison

Governors of the State of Idaho[edit]

Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890. Since then, the state has had 30 governors, two of whom served non-consecutive terms. The terms for governor and lieutenant governor are four years, commencing on the first Monday in the January following the election. Prior to 1946, the offices were elected to terms of two years.[32] If the office of governor is vacant or the governor is out of state or unable to discharge his duties, the lieutenant governor acts as governor until such time as the disability is removed.[33] If both the offices of governor and lieutenant governor are unable to fulfill their duties, the President pro tempore of the Idaho Senate is next in line, and then the Speaker of the Idaho House of Representatives.[34] After the change to four-year terms, self-succession (re-election) was not initially allowed; newly elected Governor Smylie, formerly the state's attorney general, successfully lobbied the 1955 legislature to propose an amendment to the state constitution to allow gubernatorial re-election, which was approved by voters in the 1956 general election.[35][36] There is no limit to the number of terms a governor may serve.[37]

      Democratic (12)       Republican (20)

D. W. Davis, 12th Governor of Idaho
Dirk Kempthorne, 30th Governor of Idaho and 49th United States Secretary of the Interior
Jim Risch, 31st Governor of Idaho and current United States Senator from Idaho
#[m] Governor Took office Left office Party Lt. Governor Terms[n]
1   George Laird Shoup October 1, 1890 December 18, 1890 Republican   N. B. Willey 12[o]
2 N. B. Willey December 18, 1890 January 2, 1893 Republican John S. Gray 12[p]
3 William J. McConnell January 2, 1893 January 4, 1897 Republican F. B. Willis 2
F. J. Mills
4 Frank Steunenberg January 4, 1897 January 7, 1901 Democratic George F. Moore[q] 2[r]
J. H. Hutchinson[s]
5 Frank W. Hunt January 7, 1901 January 5, 1903 Democratic Thomas F. Terrell 1
6 John T. Morrison January 5, 1903 January 2, 1905 Republican James M. Stevens 1
7 Frank R. Gooding January 2, 1905 January 4, 1909 Republican Burpee L. Steeves 2
Ezra A. Burrell
8 James H. Brady January 4, 1909 January 2, 1911 Republican Lewis H. Sweetser 1
9 James H. Hawley January 2, 1911 January 6, 1913 Democratic Lewis H. Sweetser 1
10 John M. Haines January 6, 1913 January 4, 1915 Republican Herman H. Taylor 1
11 Moses Alexander January 4, 1915 January 6, 1919 Democratic Herman H. Taylor[t] 2
Ernest L. Parker
12 D. W. Davis January 6, 1919 January 1, 1923 Republican Charles C. Moore 2
13 Charles C. Moore January 1, 1923 January 3, 1927 Republican H. C. Baldridge 2
14 H. C. Baldridge January 3, 1927 January 5, 1931 Republican O. E. Hailey 2
W. B. Kinne[u]
O. E. Hailey
15 C. Ben Ross January 5, 1931 January 4, 1937 Democratic G. P. Mix 3
George E. Hill
G. P. Mix
16 Barzilla W. Clark January 4, 1937 January 2, 1939 Democratic Charles C. Gossett 1
17 C. A. Bottolfsen January 2, 1939 January 6, 1941 Republican Donald S. Whitehead 1
18 Chase A. Clark January 6, 1941 January 4, 1943 Democratic Charles C. Gossett 1
19 C. A. Bottolfsen January 4, 1943 January 1, 1945 Republican Edwin Nelson 1
20 Charles C. Gossett January 1, 1945 November 17, 1945 Democratic Arnold Williams 12[v]
21 Arnold Williams November 17, 1945 January 6, 1947 Democratic A. R. McCabe 12[p]
22 C. A. Robins January 6, 1947 January 1, 1951 Republican Donald S. Whitehead 1[w]
23 Leonard B. Jordan January 1, 1951 January 3, 1955 Republican Edson H. Deal 1
24 Robert E. Smylie January 3, 1955 January 2, 1967 Republican J. Berkeley Larsen 3
W. E. Drevlow[x]
25 Don Samuelson January 2, 1967 January 4, 1971 Republican Jack M. Murphy 1
26 Cecil D. Andrus January 4, 1971 January 24, 1977 Democratic Jack M. Murphy[t] 112[y]
John V. Evans
27 John V. Evans January 24, 1977 January 5, 1987 Democratic William J. Murphy 212[z]
Phil Batt[t]
David H. Leroy[t]
28 Cecil D. Andrus January 5, 1987 January 2, 1995 Democratic C.L. "Butch" Otter[t] 2
29 Phil Batt January 2, 1995 January 4, 1999 Republican C.L. "Butch" Otter 1
30 Dirk Kempthorne January 4, 1999 May 26, 2006 Republican C.L. "Butch" Otter[aa] 112[ab]
Jack Riggs
Jim Risch
31 Jim Risch May 26, 2006 January 1, 2007 Republican Mark Ricks 12[p]
32 C.L. "Butch" Otter January 1, 2007 Incumbent Republican Jim Risch 2[ac]
Brad Little

Other high offices held[edit]

Sixteen of Idaho's governors have served higher federal offices or as governors of other states. Nine have served in the U.S. Senate, eight of those representing Idaho, and three have served in the U.S. House, one representing Idaho, one New York, and one the territories of Idaho and Washington. Idaho shares a governor with Arizona Territory, and one was appointed to Washington Territory but never took office. Two governors have been U.S. Secretaries of the Interior, and one served as ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. Six governors (marked with *) resigned to take a new office, including both territorial delegates, both Secretaries of the Interior, and two senators.

In addition, two people who were appointed governor of Idaho Territory but never took office held other high offices. Gilman Marston, appointed governor in 1870, was a representative and senator from New Hampshire,[44] and John Philo Hoyt, appointed in 1878, was Governor of Arizona Territory.[45]

All representatives and senators mentioned represented Idaho except where noted.

Name Gubernatorial
term
Other offices held Sources
William H. Wallace 1863–1864 Appointed Governor of Washington Territory,
but did not take office (1861),
Delegate from Washington Territory (1861–1863),
Delegate from Idaho Territory* (1864–1865)
[8]
Caleb Lyon 1864–1866 Representative from New York (1853–1855) [46]
Thomas M. Bowen 1871 Senator from Colorado (1883–1889) [47]
Thomas W. Bennett 1871–1875 Delegate from Idaho Territory* (1875–1876) [16]
David P. Thompson 1875–1876 Minister to the Ottoman Empire (1892–1893) [48]
John N. Irwin 1883 Governor of Arizona Territory (1890–1892) [49]
George Laird Shoup 1889–1890 Senator* (1890–1901) [39]
William J. McConnell 1893–1897 Senator (1890–1891) [50]
Frank R. Gooding 1905–1909 Senator (1921–1928) [51]
James H. Brady 1909–1911 Senator (1913–1918) [52]
Charles C. Gossett 1945 Senator* (1945–1946) [53]
Leonard B. Jordan 1951–1955 Senator (1962–1973) [54]
Cecil D. Andrus 1971–1977
1987–1995
Secretary of the Interior* (1977–1981) [41]
Dirk Kempthorne 1999–2006 Senator (1993–1999),
Secretary of the Interior* (2006–2009)
[43]
Jim Risch 2006–2007 Senator (2009–present) [55]
C.L. "Butch" Otter 2007–present Representative (2001–2007) [42]

Living former governors[edit]

As of March 2013, five former governors were alive. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Robert E. Smylie (1955–1967), who died at age 89 on July 17, 2004. The most recently serving governor to pass away was Don Samuelson (1967–1971), at age 86 on January 13, 2000.

Name Term of office Date of birth
Cecil D. Andrus 1971–1977
1987–1995
(1931-08-25) August 25, 1931 (age 82)
John V. Evans 1977–1987 (1925-01-18) January 18, 1925 (age 89)
Phil Batt 1995–1999 (1927-03-04) March 4, 1927 (age 87)
Dirk Kempthorne 1999–2006 (1951-10-29) October 29, 1951 (age 62)
Jim Risch 2006–2007 (1943-05-03) May 3, 1943 (age 70)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat as delegate from Idaho Territory.[8]
  2. ^ Appointed governor but resigned in April 1870 to become postmaster of Atlanta, Georgia, before arriving in Idaho.[11]
  3. ^ Appointed governor but resigned in December 1870 before arriving in Idaho.[11]
  4. ^ Appointed governor but declined the offer.[11]
  5. ^ Upon arriving in Idaho, Bowen did not like the looks of the landscape, so he decided to stay only a few weeks.[13]
  6. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat as delegate from Idaho Territory.[16]
  7. ^ Thompson left Idaho in May 1876 to attend the Republican National Convention in Cincinnati, Ohio. He resigned in Cincinnati after he learned federal officers couldn't hold government contracts.[17]
  8. ^ Brayman was suspended by President Hayes on June 8, 1878 and John P. Hoyt was appointed Governor of Idaho. After Hoyt refused the appointment, Brayman was allowed to serve out the remainder of his term.[20]
  9. ^ Appointed governor on June 8, 1878, but was rejected by the United States Senate for taking too long to respond to the offer. Appointed again on August 7, 1878, but declined the offer after researching the suspension of Governor Brayman. He ended up accepting a position on the Washington Territorial Supreme Court.[20]
  10. ^ Irwin left Idaho Territory in May 1883, never to return. He returned his paychecks from July 1883 through December 1883 to the U.S. Treasury.[26]
  11. ^ Bunn left Idaho on April 17, 1885 for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he subsequently resigned on July 3, 1885.[25]
  12. ^ Stevenson was a resident of Idaho when President Cleveland called him to Washington, D.C. for an interview and to personally witness his appointment.[29]
  13. ^ Based on C.L. "Butch" Otter saying he would be the 32nd governor of the state,[38] the official count includes repeat governors.
  14. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  15. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[39]
  16. ^ a b c As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  17. ^ Moore was part of a fusion ticket that was also endorsed by the Populist Party.[22]
  18. ^ Steunenberg was part of a fusion ticket that was also endorsed by the Populist Party.[22]
  19. ^ Hutchinson was part of a fusion ticket that was also endorsed by the Silver Republican Party.[22]
  20. ^ a b c d e Represented the Republican Party.
  21. ^ Died in office.[22]
  22. ^ Gossett resigned to let Lieutenant Governor Williams succeed him and then appoint him to the United States Senate.[40]
  23. ^ Robins served the first term after terms were lengthened to four years.
  24. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  25. ^ Resigned to be United States Secretary of the Interior.[41]
  26. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  27. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States House of Representatives.[42]
  28. ^ Resigned to be United States Secretary of the Interior.[43]
  29. ^ Governor Otter's second term expires on January 5, 2015.

References[edit]

General
Constitution
Specific
  1. ^ "Idaho Senate approves initial pay cuts, then raises for governor and other top officers". San Francisco Examiner. March 29, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010. [dead link]
  2. ^ ID Const. art. IV, § 5
  3. ^ a b ID Const. art. IV, § 4
  4. ^ "Election 2010: Idaho's governors race pits well-known governor against a relative unknown". Idaho Statesman (Boise). August 31, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010. [dead link]
  5. ^ Brosnan, Cornelius James (1918). History of the State of Idaho. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 117–128. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c Limbaugh p. 47
  7. ^ a b Hailey p. 166
  8. ^ a b "Wallace, William Henson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  9. ^ Limbaugh p. 65
  10. ^ "Territorial Government in Idaho, 1863–1869" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. 1963. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c d Limbaugh p. 90
  12. ^ a b c Hailey p. 165
  13. ^ a b c Limbaugh p. 92
  14. ^ Limbaugh p. 103
  15. ^ Poore, Perley (1875). Congressional Directory. Washington D.C.: Congressional Printing Office. p. 71. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b "Bennett, Thomas Warren". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c Limbaugh p. 106
  18. ^ Limbaugh p. 114
  19. ^ Limbaugh p. 130
  20. ^ a b Limbaugh pp. 127–129
  21. ^ "Territorial Governors who did not server" (PDF). Idaho State Historical Society. 1988. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  22. ^ a b c d e "Executive Branch" (PDF). Idaho Bluebook. State of Idaho. pp. 70–71. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  23. ^ Limbaugh p. 139
  24. ^ Limbaugh p. 147
  25. ^ a b c Limbaugh p. 148
  26. ^ "Notes from Washington". The New York Times. December 28, 1883. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  27. ^ Donaldson, Thomas (1941). Idaho of Yesterday. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd. p. 271. OCLC 100976. 
  28. ^ "Resignation of Gov. Bunn". The New York Times. July 14, 1885. p. 4. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  29. ^ a b Limbaugh p. 172
  30. ^ Limbaugh pp. 179–180
  31. ^ Limbaugh p. 181
  32. ^ "Idaho Constitutional Amendment History". Idaho Secretary of State. Retrieved June 30, 2010. 
  33. ^ ID Const. art. IV, § 12
  34. ^ ID Const. art. IV, § 14
  35. ^ "Idaho voters adopt three amendments". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. November 7, 1956. p. 1. 
  36. ^ Corlett, John (March 31, 1963). "It's mystery why law barring self-succession not repealed". Lewiston Morning Tribune. p. 5. 
  37. ^ "Idaho Makes Term Limits History". National Conference of State Legislatures. February 1, 2002. Retrieved June 30, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Otter uses on-duty firefighters for 9/11 campaign event: Candidate holds press conference after state ceremony.". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. September 12, 2006. Archived from the original|archiveurl= requires |url= (help) on September 12, 2006. 
  39. ^ a b "Shoup, George Laird". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Idaho Shake-Up Draws Criticism". Spokane Daily Chronicle. November 30, 1945. Retrieved August 14, 2010. 
  41. ^ a b "Idaho Governor Cecil Dale Andrus". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on September 3, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2010. 
  42. ^ a b "Otter, C. L. (Butch)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  43. ^ a b "Idaho Governor Dirk Kempthorne". National Governor's Association. Archived from the original on September 3, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Martson, Gilman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Hoyt, John Philo". The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume XI. New York City: James T. White & Company. 1901. p. 556. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Lyon, Caleb". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Bowen, Thomas Mead". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Chiefs of Mission between 1778 to 2008". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  49. ^ Goff, John S. (1978). Arizona Territorial Officials Volume II: The Governors 1863–1912. Arizona: Black Mountain Press. pp. 118–119. OCLC 5100411. 
  50. ^ "McConnell, William John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Gooding, Frank Robert". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Brady, James Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Gossett, Charles Clinton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  54. ^ "Jordan, Leonard Beck". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Risch, James". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 

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