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Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium
Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: Mr Catterson
Process of Evolution | Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium vs Catastrophism
Process of Evolution | Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium vs Catastrophism
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: 2 Minute Classroom
gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium
gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium
Published: 2013/02/19
Channel: MrKensBiology
Why Evolution is True - Part 1: Introduction, Evolution & Gradualism
Why Evolution is True - Part 1: Introduction, Evolution & Gradualism
Published: 2015/07/12
Channel: MassComprehension
Gradualism Meaning
Gradualism Meaning
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: ADictionary
Law of Gradualism
Law of Gradualism
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: A Simple House
GRADUALISM & PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
GRADUALISM & PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
Published: 2016/01/03
Channel: Walter Jahn
Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equillibrium
Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equillibrium
Published: 2013/12/27
Channel: Mometrix Academy
The Real Impact of the Paris Agreement and Carbon Gradualism: Die-In At the UN.
The Real Impact of the Paris Agreement and Carbon Gradualism: Die-In At the UN.
Published: 2016/04/25
Channel: The Climate Mobilization
Gradualism of suffering. Part 1.
Gradualism of suffering. Part 1.
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Memphis Lee
Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium | Biology |
Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium | Biology |
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Modern Helper
What Is The Theory Of Gradualism?
What Is The Theory Of Gradualism?
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Silly Question
Rant on Gradualism
Rant on Gradualism
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: Kris Nelson
Fr. Mark Goring - clearing gap & law of gradualism
Fr. Mark Goring - clearing gap & law of gradualism
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: Fr. Mark Goring
Martin Luther Kings  Gradualism
Martin Luther Kings Gradualism
Published: 2011/08/18
Channel: LeoGenesis1v1
Alex Jones Neo-Confederate, Bircher; Cloward-Piven nonsense; Fabian gradualism
Alex Jones Neo-Confederate, Bircher; Cloward-Piven nonsense; Fabian gradualism
Published: 2013/11/08
Channel: Ted Torbich
Robert Sapolsky - Gradualism
Robert Sapolsky - Gradualism
Published: 2014/07/06
Channel: Mind.Blown
What Is The Theory Of Gradualism?
What Is The Theory Of Gradualism?
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: SS VideoMark Pro
‘Gradualism’ the New Paradigm Post Rate Hike Says Chilton’s Horan
‘Gradualism’ the New Paradigm Post Rate Hike Says Chilton’s Horan
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: TheStreet
Goodbye Gradualism—It
Goodbye Gradualism—It's Time to Rapidly Mobilize Against Climate Change
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: The Climate Mobilization
What Are Some Examples Of Gradualism?
What Are Some Examples Of Gradualism?
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: SS VideoMark Pro
The gradualism of suffering, part 2.
The gradualism of suffering, part 2.
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Memphis Lee
Re: Gradualism
Re: Gradualism
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Captain Andy
You Are What You Tax: Pragmatarianism & Gradualism
You Are What You Tax: Pragmatarianism & Gradualism
Published: 2015/12/25
Channel: AntiBullshitMan
Punctuated Equilibrium vs Gradualism
Punctuated Equilibrium vs Gradualism
Published: 2011/02/07
Channel: Educator.com
What Is The Main Difference Between Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?
What Is The Main Difference Between Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: SS VideoMark Pro
Evolution by Gradualism
Evolution by Gradualism
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Maya Elliott
Gradualism Theory
Gradualism Theory
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: Marlee Hubach
Biology Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium
Biology Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium
Published: 2013/11/21
Channel: Mallory Seals
Punctuated Equilibrium vs. Phyletic Gradualism (long version)
Punctuated Equilibrium vs. Phyletic Gradualism (long version)
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: BiologyasPoetry
What is PUNCTUATED GRADUALISM? What does PUNCTUATED GRADUALISM mean?
What is PUNCTUATED GRADUALISM? What does PUNCTUATED GRADUALISM mean?
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
What is PHYLETIC GRADUALISM? What does PHYLETIC GRADUALISM mean? PHYLETIC GRADUALISM meaning
What is PHYLETIC GRADUALISM? What does PHYLETIC GRADUALISM mean? PHYLETIC GRADUALISM meaning
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: The Audiopedia
The Reality of Gradualism From An Islamic Perspective By Sheikh Imam Abul Hassan
The Reality of Gradualism From An Islamic Perspective By Sheikh Imam Abul Hassan
Published: 2013/07/24
Channel: DawahOnDemand DawaOnline
We must reject gradualism
We must reject gradualism
Published: 2006/07/13
Channel: Nancy Pelosi
Limestone - Gradualism
Limestone - Gradualism
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: IncuvansI
Doctrine of Gradualism-False sense of Security
Doctrine of Gradualism-False sense of Security
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: Today Evangelical Ministries
Stephen Jay Gould and Gradualism - Michael J. Behe, PhD
Stephen Jay Gould and Gradualism - Michael J. Behe, PhD
Published: 2010/01/31
Channel: IDquest
What Is The Definition Of Gradualism In Biology?
What Is The Definition Of Gradualism In Biology?
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: SS VideoMark Pro
The Postmil Report 41: Gradualism and the Kingdom of God.
The Postmil Report 41: Gradualism and the Kingdom of God.
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: LRNteach.com
GRADUALISM NEW AGE INDOCTRINATION, THERAPEUTIC TOUCH WICCA REIKI HINDUISM PAGAN, CARRIE G SCOGGINS
GRADUALISM NEW AGE INDOCTRINATION, THERAPEUTIC TOUCH WICCA REIKI HINDUISM PAGAN, CARRIE G SCOGGINS
Published: 2014/01/10
Channel: Carrie Geren Scoggins [Official]
What does gradualism mean?
What does gradualism mean?
Published: 2014/12/26
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Harm Reduction and Gradualism - Scott Kellogg
Harm Reduction and Gradualism - Scott Kellogg
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center
Punctuated Equilibrium vs. Phyletic Gradualism (short version)
Punctuated Equilibrium vs. Phyletic Gradualism (short version)
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: BiologyasPoetry
What Is The Definition Of Gradualism In Biology?
What Is The Definition Of Gradualism In Biology?
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Silly Question
AP Biology - Evolution - Lesson 6: Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium Macroevolution
AP Biology - Evolution - Lesson 6: Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium Macroevolution
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Robert Tait
The failure of gradualism as a method to implement Islam | Hamzah Qureshi, Khilafah Conference 2012
The failure of gradualism as a method to implement Islam | Hamzah Qureshi, Khilafah Conference 2012
Published: 2012/09/26
Channel: Hizb ut-Tahrir Channel
GRADUALISM
GRADUALISM'S - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: WordBox
How to Pronounce Gradualism
How to Pronounce Gradualism
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: Pronounce It
gradualism
gradualism
Published: 2015/01/21
Channel: SMARTSign Dictionary
Gradualism Mental Model (Episode 002)
Gradualism Mental Model (Episode 002)
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: DIY Investing
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Gradualism, from Latin gradus ("step"), is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature.[1] Uniformitarianism, incrementalism, and reformism are similar concepts.

Geology and biology[edit]

In the natural sciences, gradualism is the theory which holds that profound change is the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes, often contrasted with catastrophism. The theory was proposed in 1795 by James Hutton, a Scottish geologist, and was later incorporated into Charles Lyell's theory of uniformitarianism. Tenets from both theories were applied to biology and formed the basis of early evolutionary theory.

Charles Darwin was influenced by Lyell's Principles of Geology, which explained both uniformitarian methodology and theory. Using uniformitarianism, which states that one cannot make an appeal to any force or phenomenon which cannot presently be observed (see catastrophism), Darwin theorized that the evolutionary process must occur gradually, not in saltations, since saltations are not presently observed, and extreme deviations from the usual phenotypic variation would be more likely to be selected against.

Gradualism is often confused with the concept of phyletic gradualism. It is a term coined by Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge to contrast with their model of punctuated equilibrium, which is gradualist itself, but argues that most evolution is marked by long periods of evolutionary stability (called stasis), which is punctuated by rare instances of branching evolution.[2]

Phyletic gradualism[edit]

Phyletic gradualism is a model of evolution which theorizes that most speciation is slow, uniform and gradual.[3] When evolution occurs in this mode, it is usually by the steady transformation of a whole species into a new one (through a process called anagenesis). In this view no clear line of demarcation exists between an ancestral species and a descendant species, unless splitting occurs.

Punctuated gradualism[edit]

Punctuated gradualism is a microevolutionary hypothesis that refers to a species that has "relative stasis over a considerable part of its total duration [and] underwent periodic, relatively rapid, morphologic change that did not lead to lineage branching". It is one of the three common models of evolution. While the traditional model of palaeontology, the phylogenetic model, states that features evolved slowly without any direct association with speciation, the relatively newer and more controversial idea of punctuated equilibrium claims that major evolutionary changes don't happen over a gradual period but in localized, rare, rapid events of branching speciation. Punctuated gradualism is considered to be a variation of these models, lying somewhere in between the phyletic gradualism model and the punctuated equilibrium model. It states that speciation is not needed for a lineage to rapidly evolve from one equilibrium to another but may show rapid transitions between long-stable states.

Politics and society[edit]

In politics, gradualism is the hypothesis that social change can be achieved in small, discrete increments rather than in abrupt strokes such as revolutions or uprisings. Gradualism is one of the defining features of political liberalism and reformism.[4] In Machiavellian politics, congressmen are pushed to espouse gradualism.

In socialist politics and within the socialist movement, the concept of gradualism is frequently distinguished from reformism, with the former insisting that short-term goals need to be formulated and implemented in such a way that they inevitably lead into long-term goals. It is most commonly associated with the libertarian socialist concept of dual power and is seen as a middle way between reformism and revolutionism.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was opposed to the idea of gradualism as a method of eliminating segregation. The government wanted to try to integrate African-Americans and European-Americans slowly into the same society, but many believed it was a way for the government to put off actually doing anything about racial segregation:

This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy.
          –Martin Luther King Jr.'s I Have a Dream speech, delivered August 28, 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC[5]

Linguistics and language change[edit]

In linguistics, language change is seen as gradual, the product of chain reactions and subject to cyclic drift.[6] The view that creole languages are the product of catastrophism is heavily disputed.

Morality[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Gradualism has also been used in a religious sense, especially in the Catholic Church (specifically, in ethics and moral theology), to describe the view that certain individuals and families that make up a parish or community may be living at various points along a line extending from being in a state of mortal sin, to being at least minimally in the "state of grace" and able to receive the Eucharist, and to a level of greater holiness. This view teaches that the lives and relationships of people with morally unacceptable lifestyles may have some elements of good, even of great good, such as sacrificial love and consistent respect. It holds that virtues are not all-or-nothing propositions, and that elements of good may be found even in the context of morally unacceptable situations. Catholic clergy who espouse this view include the Bishop of San Diego, California, Robert W. McElroy, who in 2016 wrote:

The principle of gradualness reaches far beyond the question of marriage to embrace all elements of the Christian moral life, for it really is an embodiment of the pastoral method of the Lord himself. Pope Francis repeatedly cites the example of Jesus’ conversation with the Samaritan woman at the well as a prism through which to construct the Church’s outreach to young couples, a prism which embraces them in their humanity and their love, rather than categorizing them as living in sin.[7]

Buddhism and other Oriental philosophies[edit]

Gradualism is the approach of certain schools of Buddhism and other Eastern philosophies (e.g. Theravada or Yoga), that enlightenment can be achieved step by step, through an arduous practice. The opposite approach, that insight is attained all at once, is called subitism. The debate on the issue was very important to the history of the development of Zen, which rejected gradualism,[8] and to the establishment of the opposite approach within the Tibetan Buddhism, after the Debate of Samye. It was continued in other schools of Indian and Chinese philosophy.[9]

Other types of gradualism[edit]

Contradictorial gradualism is the paraconsistent treatment of fuzziness developed by Lorenzo Peña which regards true contradictions as situations wherein a state of affairs enjoys only partial existence.

Gradualism in social change implemented through reformist means is a moral principle to which the Fabian Society is committed. In a more general way, reformism is the assumption that gradual changes through and within existing institutions can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic system and political structures; and that an accumulation of reforms can lead to the emergence of an entirely different economic system and form of society than present-day capitalism. This hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that revolution is necessary for fundamental structural changes to occur.

In the terminology of NWO-related speculations, gradualism refers to the gradual implementation of a totalitarian world government.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brian McGowran. (2008). Biostratigraphy: Microfossils and Geological Time. Cambridge University Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0521048170
  2. ^ Eldredge, Niles, and S. J. Gould (1972). "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism." In T.J.M. Schopf, ed., Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper and Company, pp. 82-115.
  3. ^ Eldredge, N. and S. J. Gould (1972). "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" In T.J.M. Schopf, ed., Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman Cooper. p. 84.
  4. ^ Paul Blackledge (2013). "Left reformism, the state and the problem of socialist politics today". International Socialist Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  5. ^ King, Martin Luther (August 28, 1963). "I have a dream speech". Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Henri Wittmann (1983). "Les réactions en chaîne en morphologie diachronique." Actes du Colloque de la Société internationale de linguistique fonctionnelle 10.285-92.[1]
  7. ^ Michael O'Loughlin (May 11, 2016). "San Diego bishop backs pope on divorced and remarried". Crux. 
  8. ^ Bernard Faure, Chan/Zen Studies in English: The State Of The Field
  9. ^ Gregory, Peter N. (editor) (1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 

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