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Greater Boston: Jan. 20, 2016
Greater Boston: Jan. 20, 2016
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: WGBH News
Former Whitey Bulger Henchman Kevin Weeks on Greater Boston
Former Whitey Bulger Henchman Kevin Weeks on Greater Boston
Published: 2013/07/08
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston: March 10, 2016
Greater Boston: March 10, 2016
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: What It Takes To Nail The Boston Accent
Greater Boston Video: What It Takes To Nail The Boston Accent
Published: 2014/05/29
Channel: WGBH News
Jake Shimabukuro Performs
Jake Shimabukuro Performs 'Bohemian Rhapsody' On The Greater Boston Set
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Creating A Thriving Downtown In Small-Town Massachusetts
Greater Boston Video: Creating A Thriving Downtown In Small-Town Massachusetts
Published: 2014/08/04
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: MIT Biophysicist Claims Origins Of Life All About Energy
Greater Boston Video: MIT Biophysicist Claims Origins Of Life All About Energy
Published: 2014/12/22
Channel: WGBH News
Gov. John Kasich On Greater Boston
Gov. John Kasich On Greater Boston
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: WGBH News
BSO Conductor Andris Nelsons Shares His Talents on Greater Boston
BSO Conductor Andris Nelsons Shares His Talents on Greater Boston
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Boston Student Wins Intel International Science Award
Greater Boston Video: Boston Student Wins Intel International Science Award
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: In Bitter Cold, Concerns For Boston
Greater Boston Video: In Bitter Cold, Concerns For Boston's Homeless
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: In Boston, The Dilemmas Of Dorm Living
Greater Boston Video: In Boston, The Dilemmas Of Dorm Living
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Boston
Greater Boston Video: Boston's Freemasons
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: WGBH News
Monster mansions of Greater Boston
Monster mansions of Greater Boston
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: The Boston Globe
Greater Boston Big Dig Special (WGBH-TV - 2000)
Greater Boston Big Dig Special (WGBH-TV - 2000)
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: The Spirit of Copenhagen is BCOP-TV
Greater Boston Video: Pros And Cons Of Gentrification In Boston
Greater Boston Video: Pros And Cons Of Gentrification In Boston
Published: 2014/03/17
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video:
Greater Boston Video: 'Turner & The Sea' On Display At Peabody Essex Museum
Published: 2014/06/03
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: The True Story Behind
Greater Boston Video: The True Story Behind 'The Green Prince'
Published: 2014/09/17
Channel: WGBH News
Breakthrough Greater Boston Celebrates 25 Years in 2017!
Breakthrough Greater Boston Celebrates 25 Years in 2017!
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: BreakthroughGBos
Ellis Paul Performs on Greater Boston
Ellis Paul Performs on Greater Boston
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston School of Dance - Body Language
Greater Boston School of Dance - Body Language
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: CarmoDance
Greater Boston Video: The Struggle To Find A Starter Home In A Luxury-Housing Market
Greater Boston Video: The Struggle To Find A Starter Home In A Luxury-Housing Market
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Soccer In America
Greater Boston Video: Soccer In America
Published: 2014/06/17
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Remembers the Blizzard of 1978
Greater Boston Remembers the Blizzard of 1978
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston: Homeless Encampments in Worcester
Greater Boston: Homeless Encampments in Worcester
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: WGBH News
Habitat for Humanity Greater Boston - Celebrating 25 Years
Habitat for Humanity Greater Boston - Celebrating 25 Years
Published: 2012/07/06
Channel: Habitat Boston
Greater Boston Video: Atlantic Cod Crisis
Greater Boston Video: Atlantic Cod Crisis
Published: 2014/08/07
Channel: WGBH News
Randy Price on WGBH
Randy Price on WGBH's Greater Boston
Published: 2009/02/18
Channel: bostontvnews
Shot in the Hood pt. 1 on Greater Boston
Shot in the Hood pt. 1 on Greater Boston
Published: 2007/10/23
Channel: beatthepress
Greater Boston Video: Confronting The State
Greater Boston Video: Confronting The State's Growing Homeless Population
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Cultural Barriers And Mental Illness
Greater Boston Video: Cultural Barriers And Mental Illness
Published: 2014/05/05
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Elaine Stritch
Greater Boston Video: Elaine Stritch
Published: 2014/07/17
Channel: WGBH News
Customer Story: YMCA of Greater Boston
Customer Story: YMCA of Greater Boston
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Kronos Incorporated
Fun Restaurants in Greater Boston (Phantom Gourmet)
Fun Restaurants in Greater Boston (Phantom Gourmet)
Published: 2013/10/21
Channel: phantomgourmet
Greater Boston Video: Is Boston World-Class?
Greater Boston Video: Is Boston World-Class?
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: FCC Raids Touch 106.1 FM
Greater Boston Video: FCC Raids Touch 106.1 FM
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: WGBH News
WWE teams with The Greater Boston Food Bank
WWE teams with The Greater Boston Food Bank
Published: 2013/11/26
Channel: WWE
Alliance of Greater Boston DCI Prelims 1982
Alliance of Greater Boston DCI Prelims 1982
Published: 2015/07/18
Channel: Spanky McGuinness
Solar Eclipse Draws Crowds Around Greater Boston
Solar Eclipse Draws Crowds Around Greater Boston
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: CBS Boston
Boston, Massachusetts Travel Guide - Must-See Attractions
Boston, Massachusetts Travel Guide - Must-See Attractions
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: BookingHunterTV
Greater Boston Review: The Christmas Revels
Greater Boston Review: The Christmas Revels
Published: 2013/12/17
Channel: WGBH News
India Association of Greater Boston-Who are we??
India Association of Greater Boston-Who are we??
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Syed Rizvi
Peter Benchley talks
Peter Benchley talks 'Jaws' on Greater Boston in 2004
Published: 2014/05/02
Channel: WGBH News
The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2016
The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2016
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: The Boston Foundation
Greater Boston: Jim Braude
Greater Boston: Jim Braude's Tribute To Emily Rooney
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Gay Ugandan Activist Seeks Asylum In Boston
Greater Boston Video: Gay Ugandan Activist Seeks Asylum In Boston
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: WGBH News
Habitat Greater Boston ReStore - A Great Location
Habitat Greater Boston ReStore - A Great Location
Published: 2012/07/06
Channel: Habitat Boston
Greater Boston Soaring Club 2013
Greater Boston Soaring Club 2013
Published: 2014/08/11
Channel: Sterling-Lancaster Community Television
Greater Boston Video: New England Heroin Crisis
Greater Boston Video: New England Heroin Crisis
Published: 2014/02/18
Channel: WGBH News
Greater Boston Video: Wifredo Lam Retrospective At Boston College
Greater Boston Video: Wifredo Lam Retrospective At Boston College
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: WGBH News
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Boston Combined Statistical Area
Boston–Worcester–Providence
Metropolitan region
Boston
Location of Boston Combined Statistical Area
Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35817°N 71.06369°W / 42.35817; -71.06369Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35817°N 71.06369°W / 42.35817; -71.06369
Country  United States
State(s)
Principal cities
Population (2014)
 • Total 4,732,161 (MSA) or 8,099,575 (CSA)
 • Rank
Time zone EST
Area code(s) 617, 781, 857, 339, 978, 508, 351, 774, 603, 401

Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the US state of Massachusetts, and the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a broader combined statistical area (CSA). The MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod; while the CSA additionally includes the municipalities of Manchester (the largest city in the US state of New Hampshire), Providence (the capital and largest city of the US state of Rhode Island), Worcester, Massachusetts (the second largest city in New England), as well as the South Coast region and Cape Cod in Massachusetts.

Some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American history and industry. The region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[1]

Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region. Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,732,161 people as of the 2014 US Census estimate, and sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,099,575.[2] The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history, particularly American literature,[3] politics, and the American Revolution.

Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[4] In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"[5] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.

The Greater Boston region has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist, temperance,[6] and transcendentalist[7] movements.[8] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first US state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston.[9] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families.

Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,[10] with the largest financial endowment of any university,[11] and whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices.[12] Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010.[13][14] Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.[15]

Definitions[edit]

Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area[specify][citation needed] and Red represents the City of Boston.

Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC)[edit]

The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC).[16] The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions. These include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, which was 48% of the total population of Massachusetts,[17] in an area of 1,422 square miles (3,680 km2),[16] of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space.[18]

The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core (Boston), Minuteman (Route 2 corridor), MetroWest (Framingham), North Shore (Lynn), North Suburban (Woburn), South Shore (Route 3 corridor), SouthWest (Franklin), and Three Rivers (Norwood).

Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, and all of Bristol County; these areas have their own regional planning bodies. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.

New England City and Town Area (NECTA)[edit]

Cambridge and Boston; MIT and Kendall Square in the foreground, and Boston's Financial District in the background

The urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area (NECTA). The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA.[19] The Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below. The Boston, Framingham, and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941 (as of 2000).

  • Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division (92 towns)
  • Framingham, MA NECTA Division (12 towns)
  • Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division (4 towns)
  • Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division (Old Colony region) (8 towns)
  • Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division (Merrimack Valley region) (21 towns)
  • Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack Valley region) (4 towns)
  • Lowell–Billerica–Chelmsford, MA–NH NECTA Division (Northern Middlesex region) (15 towns)
  • Nashua, NH–MA NECTA Division (21 towns)
  • Taunton–Middleborough–Norton, MA NECTA Division (part of Southeastern region) (9 towns)
  • Lynn–Saugus–Marblehead, MA NECTA Division (5 towns)

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 650,357
1860 830,998 27.8%
1870 978,346 17.7%
1880 1,205,439 23.2%
1890 1,515,684 25.7%
1900 1,890,122 24.7%
1910 2,260,762 19.6%
1920 2,563,123 13.4%
1930 2,866,567 11.8%
1940 2,926,650 2.1%
1950 3,186,970 8.9%
1960 3,516,435 10.3%
1970 3,918,092 11.4%
1980 3,938,585 0.5%
1990 4,133,895 5.0%
2000 4,391,344 6.2%
2010 4,552,402 3.7%
Est. 2014 4,732,161 3.9%
US Decennial Census

An alternative definition defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, using counties as building blocks instead of towns, is the Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions. The metropolitan statistical area had a total population of approximately 4,732,161 as of 2014 and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the metropolitan area with their estimated 2012 populations are listed below.

  • Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area (4,640,802)

Combined Statistical Area (CSA)[edit]

Providence, Rhode Island

A wider functional metropolitan area based on commuting patterns is also defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Boston–Worcester–Providence combined statistical area. This area consists of the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Worcester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod, in addition to greater Boston. The total population as of 2014 for the extended region was estimated at 8,099,575. The following areas, along with the above MSA, are included in the combined statistical area, with their estimated 2012 populations:

Principal cities and towns[edit]

Winthrop, MA
Cities and towns

Boston metropolitan area[edit]

The Census Bureau defines the following as principal cities in the Boston NECTA[19] using criteria developed for what the Office of Management and Budget calls a Core Based Statistical Area:[20]

Largest cities and towns[edit]

Cities and towns in the Boston CSA with at least 50,000 residents:

Rank City 2000
population
2010
population
2014
population[21]
% change
(2010 to 2014)
1 Boston 589,141 617,594 655,884 +6.20%
2 Worcester 172,648 181,045 183,016 +1.09%
3 Providence 173,618 178,042 179,154 +0.62%
4 Manchester 107,006 109,565 110,448 +0.81%
5 Lowell 105,167 106,519 109,945 +3.22%
6 Cambridge 101,355 105,162 109,694 +4.31%
7 New Bedford 93,768 95,072 94,845 −0.24%
8 Brockton 94,304 93,810 94,779 +1.03%
9 Quincy 88,025 92,271 93,397 +1.22%
10 Lynn 89,050 90,329 92,137 +2.00%
11 Fall River 91,938 88,857 88,712 −0.16%
12 Newton 83,829 85,146 88,287 +3.69%
13 Nashua 86,605 86,494 87,259 +0.88%
14 Warwick 85,808 82,672 81,963 −0.86%
15 Cranston 79,269 80,387 81,037 +0.81%
16 Somerville 77,478 75,754 78,901 +4.15%
17 Lawrence 72,043 76,377 78,197 +2.38%
18 Pawtucket 72,958 71,148 71,499 +0.49%
19 Framingham 66,910 68,318 70,068 +2.56%
20 Waltham 59,226 60,632 63,014 +3.93%
21 Haverhill 58,969 60,879 62,488 +2.64%
22 Malden 56,340 59,450 60,859 +2.37%
23 Brookline 57,107 58,732 59,115 +0.65%
24 Plymouth 51,701 56,468 57,463 +1.76%
25 Medford 55,765 56,173 57,437 +2.25%
26 Taunton 55,976 55,874 56,544 +1.20%
27 Weymouth 53,988 53,743 55,643 +3.54%
28 Revere 47,283 51,755 54,157 +4.64%
29 Peabody 48,129 51,251 52,376 +2.20%
30 Methuen 43,789 47,255 52,044 +10.13%

Demographics[edit]

St. Patrick's Day Parade in Scituate, Massachusetts, in Plymouth County, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010.[22] Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Greater Boston.
Boston's Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.
Boston gay pride march, held annually in June

Population density[edit]

The most densely populated census tracts in the Boston CSA (2010):[23]

Rank City or neighborhood Census tract Population Population density
/sq mi /km2
1 Fenway–Kenmore 10404 5,817 110,108 285,180
2 Fenway–Kenmore 10403 3,003 87,828 227,470
3 Fenway–Kenmore 10408 1,426 85,137 220,500
4 Beacon Hill 202 3,649 80,851 209,400
5 North End 301 1,954 66,288 171,690
6 North End 302 1,665 64,642 167,420
7 North End 304 2,451 58,435 151,350
8 Cambridge 3539 7,090 56,819 147,160
9 Back Bay 10801 2,783 56,534 146,420
10 East Boston 502 5,231 55,692 144,240

Race and ethnicity[edit]

The 40 most diverse Census tracts in the Boston CSA:[23]

The 40 census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Hispanic or Latino:[23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Black American:[23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Asian American:[23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Irish American:[24]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Italian American:[25]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Portuguese American:[26]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with French or French Canadian listed as first ancestry:[27]

Other[edit]

Greater Boston has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at between 210,000 people,[28][29] and 261,000[30] or 5–6% of the Greater Boston metro population, compared with about 2% for the nation as a whole. Contrary to national trends, the number of Jews in Greater Boston has been growing, fueled by the fact that 60% of children in Jewish mixed-faith families are raised Jewish, compared with roughly one in three nationally.[28]

The City of Boston also has one of the largest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks fifth of all major cities in the country (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind Seattle, Atlanta, and Minneapolis respectively), with 12.3% of the city identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[31]

Higher education[edit]

Harvard University and MIT are both widely regarded as in the top handful of universities worldwide for academic research in various disciplines.[15]

A long established center of higher education, the area includes many community colleges, two-year schools, and internationally prominent undergraduate and graduate institutions. The graduate schools include highly regarded schools of law, medicine, business, technology, international relations, public health, education, and religion. Greater Boston contains seven R1 Research Institutions as per the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. This is, by far, the highest number of such institutions in a single Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States.

Selected statistics[edit]

Changes in house prices for the Greater Boston area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.

Major companies[edit]

References:[32][33][34][35]

Sports[edit]

Club Sport League Stadium Established League titles
Boston Breakers Soccer National Women's Soccer League Soldiers Field Soccer Stadium (Boston) 2008
Boston Bruins Ice hockey National Hockey League TD Garden (Boston) 1924 6 Stanley Cups
7 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston Cannons Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse Harvard Stadium (Boston) 2001 1 MLL Championship
Boston Celtics Basketball National Basketball Association TD Garden (Boston) 1946 17 NBA Championships
21 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston Lobsters Team tennis World TeamTennis Manchester Athletic Club (Manchester-by-the-Sea) 2005 (1974)
Boston Pride Ice hockey National Women's Hockey League Bright Hockey Center (Boston) 2015 1 Isobel Cup
Boston Red Sox Baseball Major League Baseball (American League) Fenway Park (Boston) 1901 8-time MLB World Series Champions
13 American League Pennants
New England Patriots Football National Football League (American Football Conference) Gillette Stadium (Foxboro) 1960
(as Boston Patriots)
5-time Super Bowl Champions
9-time AFC Champions
New England Revolution Soccer Major League Soccer Gillette Stadium (Foxboro) 1995 1 US Open Cup
1 SuperLiga

Annual sporting events include:

Transportation[edit]

Interstates[edit]

U.S. Routes[edit]

State Highways[edit]


Bridges and tunnels[edit]

Airports[edit]

Rail and bus[edit]

The MBTA district, with Commuter Rail lines in purple

The first railway line in the United States was in Quincy. See Neponset River.

The following Regional Transit Authorities have bus service that connects with MBTA commuter rail stations:

Ocean transportation[edit]

The Salem Ferry, 92 ft. Catamaran is photographed approaching its dock off Blaney Street at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site in Salem, Massachusetts, United States.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Boston (Logan Airport), 1981−2010 normals,[c] extremes 1872−present[d]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
73
(23)
89
(32)
94
(34)
97
(36)
100
(38)
104
(40)
102
(39)
102
(39)
90
(32)
83
(28)
76
(24)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.4
(13.6)
57.7
(14.3)
67.6
(19.8)
80.7
(27.1)
87.3
(30.7)
92.1
(33.4)
94.9
(34.9)
93.3
(34.1)
87.9
(31.1)
79.1
(26.2)
70.5
(21.4)
61.3
(16.3)
96.2
(35.7)
Average high °F (°C) 35.8
(2.1)
38.7
(3.7)
45.4
(7.4)
55.6
(13.1)
66.0
(18.9)
75.9
(24.4)
81.4
(27.4)
79.6
(26.4)
72.4
(22.4)
61.4
(16.3)
51.5
(10.8)
41.2
(5.1)
58.8
(14.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 29.0
(−1.7)
31.7
(−0.2)
38.3
(3.5)
48.1
(8.9)
57.9
(14.4)
67.7
(19.8)
73.4
(23)
72.1
(22.3)
64.9
(18.3)
54.0
(12.2)
44.7
(7.1)
34.7
(1.5)
51.5
(10.8)
Average low °F (°C) 22.2
(−5.4)
24.7
(−4.1)
31.1
(−0.5)
40.6
(4.8)
49.9
(9.9)
59.5
(15.3)
65.4
(18.6)
64.6
(18.1)
57.4
(14.1)
46.5
(8.1)
38.0
(3.3)
28.2
(−2.1)
44.1
(6.7)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 4.1
(−15.5)
8.5
(−13.1)
14.7
(−9.6)
30.7
(−0.7)
40.8
(4.9)
49.6
(9.8)
57.3
(14.1)
55.4
(13)
45.8
(7.7)
34.9
(1.6)
24.2
(−4.3)
11.1
(−11.6)
2.3
(−16.5)
Record low °F (°C) −13
(−25)
−18
(−28)
−8
(−22)
11
(−12)
31
(−1)
41
(5)
50
(10)
46
(8)
34
(1)
25
(−4)
−2
(−19)
−17
(−27)
−18
(−28)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.36
(85.3)
3.25
(82.6)
4.32
(109.7)
3.74
(95)
3.49
(88.6)
3.68
(93.5)
3.43
(87.1)
3.35
(85.1)
3.44
(87.4)
3.94
(100.1)
3.99
(101.3)
3.78
(96)
43.77
(1,111.8)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.9
(32.8)
10.9
(27.7)
7.8
(19.8)
1.9
(4.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace 1.3
(3.3)
9.0
(22.9)
43.8
(111.3)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.3 9.8 11.6 11.2 12.0 10.9 9.6 9.4 8.6 9.4 10.6 11.6 126.0
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 6.7 5.3 4.2 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8 4.6 22.4
Average relative humidity (%) 62.3 62.0 63.1 63.0 66.7 68.5 68.4 70.8 71.8 68.5 67.5 65.4 66.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4 168.4 213.7 227.2 267.3 286.5 300.9 277.3 237.1 206.3 143.2 142.3 2,633.6
Percent possible sunshine 56 57 58 57 59 63 65 64 63 60 49 50 59
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[42][43][44]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Concord were kept at downtown from September 1868 to April 1941 and at Concord Municipal Airport since May 1941; snow records date from December 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  4. ^ Official records for Boston were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1935, and at Logan Airport (KBOS) since January 1936.[41]
  5. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  6. ^ Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport since June 1932.[45]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 18, 2016. 
  3. ^ Will Joyner (9 April 1999). "Where Literary Legends Took Shape Around Boston". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  4. ^ "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". SalemWitchTrialsMuseum.com. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Faneuil Hall". Celebrateboston.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  6. ^ "The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts". Teachushistory.org. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  7. ^ Packer, Barbara. The Transcendentalists. University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0820329581. 
  8. ^ "Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts". Masshist.org. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Massachusetts court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". Reuters. November 18, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  10. ^ "History of Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  11. ^ Tamar Lewin (January 28, 2015). "Harvard’s Endowment Remains Biggest of All". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  12. ^ Richard Wolf (March 16, 2016). "Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved May 9, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Kendall Square Initiative". MIT. Retrieved December 1, 2016. 
  14. ^ Lelund Cheung. "When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?". Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC. Retrieved December 1, 2016. 
  15. ^ a b [1] Accessed May 9, 2016.
  16. ^ a b "About MAPC". Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  17. ^ "Metropolitan Area Planning Council Strategic Plan 2015–2020" (PDF). Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Retrieved 2017-04-22. 
  18. ^ "Transportation Plan – Overview". Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2009. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  19. ^ a b "Principal cities of New England city and town areas (NECTAs)" (XLS spreadsheet). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 26, 2015. 
  20. ^ "Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. December 27, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2009. 
  21. ^ "City and Town Population for 2013". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ Jane Walsh (November 25, 2015). "The most Irish town in America is named using US census data". Irish Central. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  24. ^ "Irish as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  25. ^ "Italian as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ "French as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  28. ^ a b Michael Paulson (2006-11-10). "Jewish population in region rises". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  29. ^ "Cities with the Largest Jewish Population in the Diaspora". adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  30. ^ "Metro Area Membership Report". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  31. ^ "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company. 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 
  32. ^ "2009 Globe 100 – Top Massachusetts-based employers". The Boston Globe. 2010-01-19. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. 
  33. ^ [3] Archived March 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ "Top Companies in Massachusetts on the Inc. 5000 - Inc.com". Inc.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  35. ^ [4] Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ "Top shoe brands, like Reebok and Converse, move headquarters to Boston". Omaha.com. Retrieved 2017-01-19. 
  37. ^ "Who We Are & About Us - Vistaprint". News.vistaprint.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  38. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-09-08. 
  39. ^ "Station Name: NH CONCORD MUNI AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-09-11. 
  40. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CONCORD MUNICIPAL AP, NH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  41. ^ ThreadEx
  42. ^ "Station Name: MA BOSTON LOGAN INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  43. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-02-25. 
  44. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for BOSTON/LOGAN INT'L AIRPORT, MA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  45. ^ ThreadEx
  46. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-17. 
  47. ^ "Station Name: RI PROVIDENCE T F GREEN AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13. 
  48. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for PROVIDENCE/GREEN STATE, RI 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  49. ^ "Monthly average temperatures and precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Wilson, Susan (2005). The Literary Trail of Greater Boston: A Tour of Sites in Boston, Cambridge, and Concord, Revised Edition. Commonwealth Editions. ISBN 1-889833-67-3.  An informative guidebook, with facts and data about literary figures, publishers, bookstores, libraries, and other historic sites on the newly designated Literary Trail of Greater Boston.
  • Warner, Sam, Jr. (2001). Greater Boston: Adapting Regional Traditions to the Present. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1769-1. 

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