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The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
Published: 2010/05/10
Channel: Destination Mike
The Story of the St. Lawrence Seaway
The Story of the St. Lawrence Seaway
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: 16mm Educational Films
Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: Global News
Watching The Gulf Of St. Lawrence In Route To Cape Breton
Watching The Gulf Of St. Lawrence In Route To Cape Breton
Published: 2015/09/05
Channel: Robert Owen Cobb
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT1
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT1
Published: 2009/04/13
Channel: Angerjas74
crab fishing in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence,Canada
crab fishing in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence,Canada
Published: 2007/12/16
Channel: Peter M Noel
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: WikiWikiup
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
Published: 2010/09/07
Channel: THE EUROPEAN
GULF OF SAINT LAWRENCE - CRAZY WORLD STORIES (Documentary, Discovery, History)
GULF OF SAINT LAWRENCE - CRAZY WORLD STORIES (Documentary, Discovery, History)
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Stop Over - Documentary, Discovery, History
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
Published: 2010/08/03
Channel: usnews82
Saint Lawrence Marine Exhibit at Biodôme Montreal, QC
Saint Lawrence Marine Exhibit at Biodôme Montreal, QC
Published: 2013/07/18
Channel: Kristi Farinelli
Pirates of the Gulf
Pirates of the Gulf
Published: 2014/07/21
Channel: Collin Rayner
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2007/10/01
Channel: dave abra
The Battle of the St. Lawrence at the doorstep of Forillon
The Battle of the St. Lawrence at the doorstep of Forillon
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Parks Canada
Gulf of St. Lawrence Sunrise
Gulf of St. Lawrence Sunrise
Published: 2017/06/12
Channel: david hochstetler
Down East Circle Part 2 - Sailing from Gaspe, Quebec to Les Îles de la Madeleine
Down East Circle Part 2 - Sailing from Gaspe, Quebec to Les Îles de la Madeleine
Published: 2015/04/26
Channel: GoneSailingCA
6 endangered whales found dead in Atlantic Canada
6 endangered whales found dead in Atlantic Canada
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: CBC News
Beluga Whales, Gulf of St. Lawrence
Beluga Whales, Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2015/01/15
Channel: Kelly Learned
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
Published: 2012/02/11
Channel: NickBeef1963
Whale watching in Tadoussac, Quebec at St. Lawrence river
Whale watching in Tadoussac, Quebec at St. Lawrence river
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: Rodan Sotto
6 Right Whales Found Dead In Gulf Of St  Lawrence
6 Right Whales Found Dead In Gulf Of St Lawrence
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Mary Greeley
Sailing on the Saint-Lawrence
Sailing on the Saint-Lawrence
Published: 2010/01/23
Channel: james gray
rough day at sea
rough day at sea
Published: 2008/11/05
Channel: warlock1046
Battle of the Gulf of the St.Lawrence WOOT WOOT!
Battle of the Gulf of the St.Lawrence WOOT WOOT!
Published: 2011/12/04
Channel: Michele Regehr
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2010/10/31
Channel: michaelpoczynek
The First Voyage -- The Gulf of St Lawrence by Stephen Leacock
The First Voyage -- The Gulf of St Lawrence by Stephen Leacock
Published: 2012/07/16
Channel: FULL audio books for everyone
Sailing Along the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Sailing Along the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Eric Moore
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
Published: 2012/04/08
Channel: Andrew Young
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2013/10/18
Channel: WANT Expeditions - Wildlife and Nature Travel
whale watching in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (no audio, best in 1080p)
whale watching in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (no audio, best in 1080p)
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Dennis Kramb
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
Published: 2010/11/17
Channel: pinnowb
Gulf of St. Lawrence Expedition
Gulf of St. Lawrence Expedition
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: Oceana Canada
Beluga Whales In The St. Lawrence
Beluga Whales In The St. Lawrence
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: Jane Henderson
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2008/07/23
Channel: luckyoldsun
The St. Lawrence Estuary - Beyond the surface
The St. Lawrence Estuary - Beyond the surface
Published: 2013/09/03
Channel: Parc Marin
Sunset on Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
Sunset on Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
Published: 2011/10/30
Channel: jim bowie
Ethan Hawke helps Mi
Ethan Hawke helps Mi'kmaq oppose Gulf of St. Lawrence oil exploration
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: CBC News
Gulf of St. Lawrence Snow Crab Quotas Announced
Gulf of St. Lawrence Snow Crab Quotas Announced
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: seafoodnews
Public Forum on The Gulf of St. Lawrence, Oil and Fracking
Public Forum on The Gulf of St. Lawrence, Oil and Fracking
Published: 2015/02/03
Channel: 4OclockWhistleTV
View of Darnley Basin, Cabot Beach Park, Gulf of St Lawrence from Overlook Cottage
View of Darnley Basin, Cabot Beach Park, Gulf of St Lawrence from Overlook Cottage
Published: 2012/06/08
Channel: tori7335
"Disregard the Fish" - Gulf of St. Lawrence Oil and Gas Protest
"Disregard the Fish" - Gulf of St. Lawrence Oil and Gas Protest
Published: 2012/10/06
Channel: Peter Shanks
Ethan Hawke helping Mi
Ethan Hawke helping Mi'kmaq oppose Gulf of St. Lawrence oil exploration.
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: listuguj
布雷顿角圣劳伦斯湾 Gulf of St. Lawrence, Cape Breton 720p
布雷顿角圣劳伦斯湾 Gulf of St. Lawrence, Cape Breton 720p
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Loongese
How to Pronounce Gulf of St Lawrence
How to Pronounce Gulf of St Lawrence
Published: 2013/10/18
Channel: How to Pronounce
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT2
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT2
Published: 2009/04/15
Channel: Angerjas74
6 Right Whales Found Dead In Gulf Of St  Lawrence
6 Right Whales Found Dead In Gulf Of St Lawrence
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Flat Earth Researcher
Ferry rocking in Gulf of St. Lawrence
Ferry rocking in Gulf of St. Lawrence
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: D Bryan
St Lawrence River
St Lawrence River
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Song of the Lakes - Topic
03   The First Voyage   The Gulf of St Lawrence   A Chronicle of the Voyages of Jacques Cartier   St
03 The First Voyage The Gulf of St Lawrence A Chronicle of the Voyages of Jacques Cartier St
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: hats0fyou
CANADIAN SHIP ST LAWRENCE
CANADIAN SHIP ST LAWRENCE
Published: 2012/07/30
Channel: MarineDelivers
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Coordinates: 48°36′N 61°24′W / 48.600°N 61.400°W / 48.600; -61.400

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence on a Canada map.

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semienclosed sea, covering an area of about 236,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi) and containing about 35,000 cubic kilometres (8,400 cu mi) of water, which results in an average depth of 148 metres (486 ft).

Geography[edit]

Gulf shore at Pleasant Bay, NS

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Saint-Pierre and Newfoundland, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, and to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, and Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, PEI, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, and Miquelon-Langlade.

Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec.

Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, Natashquan River, Romaine River, Restigouche River, Margaree River, and Humber River.

Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Fortune Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay St. George, Bay of Islands, and Northumberland Strait.

Outlets[edit]

The gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets:

  • The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland: between 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) and 60 kilometres (37 miles) wide and 60 metres (200 feet) deep at its deepest.
  • The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Saint-Pierre and Cape Breton Island: 104 km (65 mi) wide and 480 m (1,570 ft) deep at its deepest.
  • The Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula: 1.0 km (0.6 mi) wide and 60 m (200 ft) deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent[edit]

The limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence vary between sources.

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows:[1]

On the Northeast.
A line running from Cape Bauld (North point of Kirpon Island, 51°40′N 55°25′W / 51.667°N 55.417°W / 51.667; -55.417) to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge (52°02′N 55°15′W / 52.033°N 55.250°W / 52.033; -55.250). Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles (52°13'N) in Labrador.

On the Southeast.
A line from Cape Canso (45°20′N 61°0′W / 45.333°N 61.000°W / 45.333; -61.000) to Red Point (45°35′N 60°45′W / 45.583°N 60.750°W / 45.583; -60.750) in Cape Breton Island, through this Island to Cape Breton [45°57′N 59°47′W / 45.950°N 59.783°W / 45.950; -59.783] and on to Pointe Blanche (46°45′N 56°11′W / 46.750°N 56.183°W / 46.750; -56.183) in the Island of St. Pierre, and thence to the Southwest point of Morgan Island (46°51′N 55°49′W / 46.850°N 55.817°W / 46.850; -55.817).

On the West.
The meridian of 64°30'W, but the whole of Anticosti Island is included in the Gulf.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada places the western limit at Pointe-des-Monts.[2]

Protected areas[edit]

Bathymetry of the gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries

St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred[by whom?] to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks[citation needed]. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard.

Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux (Bird Rock) northeast of the Magdalen Islands[3] are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.

The Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland, and a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec.

The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence also have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.

Undersea features[edit]

The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf that was formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m (950 ft) deep and about 1,250 km (780 mi) long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C (36 and 44 °F) enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are slowly advected up the channel by estuariane circulation.[4] Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel (i.e. in the Saint Lawrence estuary) have become hypoxic.[5]

Cultural importance[edit]

The gulf has provided a historically important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation.

The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas", after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement", thus naming the world's second largest country.[6]

At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with the First Nations people of the modern Canadian Atlantic and Quebec provinces. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, furnaces, graveyards, etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  2. ^ http://www.qc.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/golfe-gulf/index-eng.html
  3. ^ "Parks Reserves and Natural Sites". Tourisme Îles de la Madeleine. 
  4. ^ Galbraith, P.S., Pettipas, R.G., Chassé, J., Gilbert, D., Larouche, P., Pettigrew, B., Gosselin, A., Devine, L. and Lafleur, C. 2009. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/014. iv + 69 p.
  5. ^ Gilbert, D., B. Sundby, C. Gobeil, A. Mucci and G.-H. Tremblay. 2005. A seventy-two-year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: The northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1654–1666.
  6. ^ Document "Discovers Gulf of Saint Lawrence" http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2013/0812/1912-eighth-grade-exam-Could-you-make-it-to-high-school-in-1912/Discoverers-Gulf-of-Saint-Lawrence/ Document "Discovers Gulf of Saint Lawrence" Check |url= value (help).  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]

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