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1
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
::2010/05/10::
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2
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
::2012/02/11::
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3
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
::2010/09/07::
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4
Saorsa II underway in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off the shore of the Gaspe Peninsula
Saorsa II underway in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off the shore of the Gaspe Peninsula
::2010/10/17::
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5
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT1
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT1
::2009/04/13::
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6
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2008/07/23::
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7
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
::2010/11/17::
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8
More Nova Scotia Giant Bluefin Tuna Fishing
More Nova Scotia Giant Bluefin Tuna Fishing
::2013/01/31::
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9
U-517 in action in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1942
U-517 in action in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1942
::2013/01/10::
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10
Les aloses du Golfe du Saint-Laurent * Blueback Herrings come to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Les aloses du Golfe du Saint-Laurent * Blueback Herrings come to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2014/05/26::
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11
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2007/10/01::
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hiver 200908.avi/gulf of st-lawrence
hiver 200908.avi/gulf of st-lawrence
::2009/12/13::
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13
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT2
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT2
::2009/04/15::
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14
Saint Lawrence Marine Exhibit at Biodôme Montreal, QC
Saint Lawrence Marine Exhibit at Biodôme Montreal, QC
::2013/07/18::
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15
Atlantic White-Sided Dolphins - Bay Saint Lawrence Cape Breton Nova Scotia
Atlantic White-Sided Dolphins - Bay Saint Lawrence Cape Breton Nova Scotia
::2011/07/31::
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Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2013/10/18::
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17
Icebreaker John A McDonald on a rescue mission in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canad...HD Stock Footage
Icebreaker John A McDonald on a rescue mission in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canad...HD Stock Footage
::2014/06/05::
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18
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
::2012/04/08::
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19
All About - Jacques Cartier
All About - Jacques Cartier
::2014/06/26::
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Chris Maser - SGSL AGM Keynote Speech clip 1a
Chris Maser - SGSL AGM Keynote Speech clip 1a
::2008/02/07::
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21
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
::2014/07/06::
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22
Day 2: Skyline Trail - Cape Breton Highland National Park
Day 2: Skyline Trail - Cape Breton Highland National Park
::2014/05/13::
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23
Basse Cote Nord demo James Gray Numada 2.mov
Basse Cote Nord demo James Gray Numada 2.mov
::2012/06/05::
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24
Cape Breton
Cape Breton's Margaree River.
::2013/01/29::
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25
Biodome Montreal
Biodome Montreal
::2010/09/17::
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26
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
::2014/07/08::
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27
The Magdalene Islands - Îles de la Madeleine
The Magdalene Islands - Îles de la Madeleine
::2010/05/10::
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Kayak et sentier maritime des Îles de la Madeleine
Kayak et sentier maritime des Îles de la Madeleine
::2009/03/30::
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29
White Rock Gulch while Whale Watching in Cape Breton, Nova Sotia
White Rock Gulch while Whale Watching in Cape Breton, Nova Sotia
::2011/08/12::
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30
Blue whale tagging 2013
Blue whale tagging 2013
::2014/01/31::
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Perce Rock
Perce Rock
::2012/03/13::
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Storm leaves parts of Quebec powerless
Storm leaves parts of Quebec powerless
::2012/02/15::
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33
Big Game Giant Bluefin Tuna Fishing
Big Game Giant Bluefin Tuna Fishing
::2012/12/04::
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34
Storm Arthur batters Canada
Storm Arthur batters Canada's Maritime provinces.
::2014/07/06::
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35
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2010/10/31::
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36
Quebec City, Canada
Quebec City, Canada
::2014/03/04::
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37
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT3
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT3
::2009/05/23::
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38
Views around the Gulf Of ST Laurence Quebec
Views around the Gulf Of ST Laurence Quebec
::2009/08/11::
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39
Quebec, Canada Tourism Video 2010
Quebec, Canada Tourism Video 2010
::2014/06/08::
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40
Coalition for a Moratorium on Oil and Gas Exploration in the Gulf of St Lawerence
Coalition for a Moratorium on Oil and Gas Exploration in the Gulf of St Lawerence
::2010/07/25::
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Feeding Giant Blue Fin Tuna
Feeding Giant Blue Fin Tuna
::2011/10/01::
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Bear Shore
Bear Shore
::2010/07/19::
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Quebec City, Canada
Quebec City, Canada
::2014/04/08::
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Gulf To Gulf Odyssey
Gulf To Gulf Odyssey
::2014/01/30::
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45
Conférence de Lyne Morissette (1 de 4)
Conférence de Lyne Morissette (1 de 4)
::2011/08/18::
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46
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
::2010/08/03::
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47
All About - Hurricane Juan
All About - Hurricane Juan
::2014/07/17::
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Whale Watching in Forillon - Movie 2
Whale Watching in Forillon - Movie 2
::2009/07/23::
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All About - Tropical Storm Carrie (1972)
All About - Tropical Storm Carrie (1972)
::2014/07/18::
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Gaspe & the Mingan Archipelago
Gaspe & the Mingan Archipelago
::2009/07/28::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Coordinates: 48°0′N 61°30′W / 48.000°N 61.500°W / 48.000; -61.500

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent), the world's largest estuary,[1] [2] is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semienclosed sea, covering an area of about 236,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi) and containing about 35,000 cubic kilometres (8,400 cu mi) of water, which results in an average depth of 148 metres (486 ft).

Geography[edit]

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Newfoundland Island, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, and to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, and Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, Prince Edward Island, Îles-de-la-Madeleine and Cape Breton Island.

Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: Atlantic Canada, the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, in addition to Quebec.

Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, the Natashquan River, the Restigouche River, the Margaree River, and the Humber River.

Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay of Islands, and Northumberland Strait.

Outlets[edit]

The gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets:

  • The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland — 17 kilometres (11 miles) wide and 60 metres (200 feet) deep at its deepest.
  • The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island — 104 km (65 mi) wide and 480 m (1,570 ft) deep at its deepest.
  • The Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula — 1.0 km (0.6 mi) wide and 60 m (200 ft) deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent[edit]

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows:[3]

On the Northeast. A line running from Cape Bauld (North point of Kirpon Island, 51°40′N 55°25′W / 51.667°N 55.417°W / 51.667; -55.417) to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge (52°02′N 55°15′W / 52.033°N 55.250°W / 52.033; -55.250). Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles (52°13'N) in Labrador.
On the Southeast. A line from Cape Canso (45°20′N 61°0′W / 45.333°N 61.000°W / 45.333; -61.000) to Red Point (45°35′N 60°45′W / 45.583°N 60.750°W / 45.583; -60.750) in Cape Breton Island, through this Island to Cape Breton [45°57′N 59°47′W / 45.950°N 59.783°W / 45.950; -59.783] and on to Pointe Blanche (46°45′N 56°11′W / 46.750°N 56.183°W / 46.750; -56.183) in the Island of St. Pierre, and thence to the Southwest point of Morgan Island (46°51′N 55°49′W / 46.850°N 55.817°W / 46.850; -55.817).
On the West. The meridian of 64°30'W, but the whole of Anticosti Island is included in the Gulf.

Protected areas[edit]

St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard.

Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux (Bird Rock) northeast of the Magdalen Islands[4] are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.

Bathymetry of the gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries

The Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland Island, and a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec.

The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence also have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.

Undersea features[edit]

The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf that was formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m (950 ft) deep and about 1,250 km (780 mi) long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C (36 and 44 °F) enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are slowly advected up the channel by estuariane circulation.[5] Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel (i.e. in the Saint Lawrence estuary) have become hypoxic.[6]

Cultural importance[edit]

The gulf has provided a historically important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation.

The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas," after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement," thus naming the world's second largest country.[7]

At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with native Americans. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, furnaces, graveyards, etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ . National Geographic Education http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/estuary/?ar_a=1. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ . MarineBio Conservation Society http://marinebio.org/oceans/estuaries-salt-marshes-mangroves.asp. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition". International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  4. ^ "Parks Reserves and Natural Sites". Tourisme Îles de la Madeleine. 
  5. ^ Galbraith, P.S., Pettipas, R.G., Chassé, J., Gilbert, D., Larouche, P., Pettigrew, B., Gosselin, A., Devine, L. and Lafleur, C. 2009. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/014. iv + 69 p.
  6. ^ Gilbert, D., B. Sundby, C. Gobeil, A. Mucci and G.-H. Tremblay. 2005. A seventy-two-year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: The northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1654-1666.
  7. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2013/0812/1912-eighth-grade-exam-Could-you-make-it-to-high-school-in-1912/Discoverers-Gulf-of-Saint-Lawrence/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
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