Play Video
1
Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2014/07/23::
Play Video
2
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
::2010/05/10::
Play Video
3
All About - Gulf of Saint Lawrence
All About - Gulf of Saint Lawrence
::2014/11/19::
Play Video
4
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
::2010/09/07::
Play Video
5
"Disregard the Fish" - Gulf of St. Lawrence Oil and Gas Protest
"Disregard the Fish" - Gulf of St. Lawrence Oil and Gas Protest
::2012/10/06::
Play Video
6
The First Voyage -- The Gulf of St Lawrence by Stephen Leacock
The First Voyage -- The Gulf of St Lawrence by Stephen Leacock
::2012/07/16::
Play Video
7
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2013/10/18::
Play Video
8
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
::2012/02/11::
Play Video
9
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
::2010/11/16::
Play Video
10
How to Pronounce Gulf of St Lawrence
How to Pronounce Gulf of St Lawrence
::2013/10/18::
Play Video
11
Saorsa II underway in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off the shore of the Gaspe Peninsula
Saorsa II underway in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off the shore of the Gaspe Peninsula
::2010/10/16::
Play Video
12
Sunset on Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
Sunset on Gulf of St. Lawrence from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
::2011/10/30::
Play Video
13
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2008/07/23::
Play Video
14
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2007/09/30::
Play Video
15
View of Darnley Basin, Cabot Beach Park, Gulf of St Lawrence from Overlook Cottage
View of Darnley Basin, Cabot Beach Park, Gulf of St Lawrence from Overlook Cottage
::2012/06/08::
Play Video
16
hiver 200908.avi/gulf of st-lawrence
hiver 200908.avi/gulf of st-lawrence
::2009/12/12::
Play Video
17
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
::2012/04/08::
Play Video
18
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
::2010/08/03::
Play Video
19
A Call for a Moratorium on Deep Water Drilling in the Gulf of St.  Lawrence
A Call for a Moratorium on Deep Water Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2011/04/09::
Play Video
20
Chris Maser - SGSL AGM Keynote Speech clip 1a
Chris Maser - SGSL AGM Keynote Speech clip 1a
::2008/02/07::
Play Video
21
The Gulf of St. Lawence as seen by Leif the Lucky
The Gulf of St. Lawence as seen by Leif the Lucky
::2013/12/14::
Play Video
22
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2010/10/31::
Play Video
23
2015-2035 Mini Ice Age | Nine Arctic Seas Gain Ice 2014 (3)
2015-2035 Mini Ice Age | Nine Arctic Seas Gain Ice 2014 (3)
::2014/10/08::
Play Video
24
Saint Lawrence Marine Exhibit at Biodôme Montreal, QC
Saint Lawrence Marine Exhibit at Biodôme Montreal, QC
::2013/07/18::
Play Video
25
Les aloses du Golfe du Saint-Laurent * Blueback Herrings come to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Les aloses du Golfe du Saint-Laurent * Blueback Herrings come to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2014/05/26::
Play Video
26
Drilling for Oil in the Gulf of the St Lawrence
Drilling for Oil in the Gulf of the St Lawrence
::2012/10/09::
Play Video
27
Battle of the Gulf of the St.Lawrence WOOT WOOT!
Battle of the Gulf of the St.Lawrence WOOT WOOT!
::2011/12/04::
Play Video
28
49 ST LAWRENCE AVE, Cavendish, PE C0A 1N0
49 ST LAWRENCE AVE, Cavendish, PE C0A 1N0
::2014/11/21::
Play Video
29
Pirates of the Gulf
Pirates of the Gulf
::2014/07/21::
Play Video
30
Peaceful seal nursery (not graphic)
Peaceful seal nursery (not graphic)
::2012/03/14::
Play Video
31
Cape Breton
Cape Breton's Margaree River.
::2013/01/28::
Play Video
32
Gulf To Gulf Odyssey
Gulf To Gulf Odyssey
::2014/01/29::
Play Video
33
Baby Seals are in Danger
Baby Seals are in Danger
::2014/03/21::
Play Video
34
Icebreaker John A McDonald on a rescue mission in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canad...HD Stock Footage
Icebreaker John A McDonald on a rescue mission in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canad...HD Stock Footage
::2014/06/05::
Play Video
35
Extraordinary Cape Breton
Extraordinary Cape Breton
::2012/04/20::
Play Video
36
Iceberg collapsing - Glacier s
Iceberg collapsing - Glacier s'effritant
::2011/08/28::
Play Video
37
Lava the Cat aboard Marine Atlantic Ship m/v Leif Ericson in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Lava the Cat aboard Marine Atlantic Ship m/v Leif Ericson in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
::2009/06/25::
Play Video
38
Views around the Gulf Of ST Laurence Quebec
Views around the Gulf Of ST Laurence Quebec
::2009/08/11::
Play Video
39
Hailee Hunter: Fishing Turbot in Western Newfoundland June 2013
Hailee Hunter: Fishing Turbot in Western Newfoundland June 2013
::2013/06/17::
Play Video
40
Basse Cote Nord demo James Gray Numada 2.mov
Basse Cote Nord demo James Gray Numada 2.mov
::2012/06/05::
Play Video
41
Les iles de la Madeleine Vues par l
Les iles de la Madeleine Vues par l'oeil d'un drone
::2013/07/17::
Play Video
42
[HD] Relaxing Blues, Underwater Observatory, Montreal
[HD] Relaxing Blues, Underwater Observatory, Montreal
::2011/04/26::
Play Video
43
Magdalen Islands #2:  Close encounters with Seals
Magdalen Islands #2: Close encounters with Seals
::2012/08/14::
Play Video
44
1930
1930's Gaspe Quebec Home Movie
::2013/02/12::
Play Video
45
The Moisie River, Quebec-September 2012
The Moisie River, Quebec-September 2012
::2012/10/18::
Play Video
46
Prince Edward Island 2010 Video
Prince Edward Island 2010 Video
::2010/06/03::
Play Video
47
Poor Ice Conditions Spell Trouble for Harp Seals
Poor Ice Conditions Spell Trouble for Harp Seals
::2010/03/26::
Play Video
48
IFAW Seal Hunt 2008 "Thanks to Vancouver Quadra!"
IFAW Seal Hunt 2008 "Thanks to Vancouver Quadra!"
::2008/03/28::
Play Video
49
Magdalen Islands #1: Culture and cuisine
Magdalen Islands #1: Culture and cuisine
::2012/08/14::
Play Video
50
Determined to Stop the Slaughter
Determined to Stop the Slaughter
::2012/04/12::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 48°36′N 61°24′W / 48.600°N 61.400°W / 48.600; -61.400

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent), the world's largest estuary,[1] [2] is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semienclosed sea, covering an area of about 236,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi) and containing about 35,000 cubic kilometres (8,400 cu mi) of water, which results in an average depth of 148 metres (486 ft).

Geography[edit]

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Newfoundland Island, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, and to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, and Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, Prince Edward Island, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, and Miquelon-Langlade.

Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: Atlantic Canada, the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, in addition to Quebec.

Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, the Natashquan River, the Restigouche River, the Margaree River, and the Humber River.

Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay of Islands, and Northumberland Strait.

Outlets[edit]

The gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets:

  • The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland: 17 kilometres (11 miles) wide and 60 metres (200 feet) deep at its deepest.
  • The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island: 104 km (65 mi) wide and 480 m (1,570 ft) deep at its deepest.
  • The Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula: 1.0 km (0.6 mi) wide and 60 m (200 ft) deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent[edit]

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows:[3]

On the Northeast. A line running from Cape Bauld (North point of Kirpon Island, 51°40′N 55°25′W / 51.667°N 55.417°W / 51.667; -55.417) to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge (52°02′N 55°15′W / 52.033°N 55.250°W / 52.033; -55.250). Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles (52°13'N) in Labrador.
On the Southeast. A line from Cape Canso (45°20′N 61°0′W / 45.333°N 61.000°W / 45.333; -61.000) to Red Point (45°35′N 60°45′W / 45.583°N 60.750°W / 45.583; -60.750) in Cape Breton Island, through this Island to Cape Breton [45°57′N 59°47′W / 45.950°N 59.783°W / 45.950; -59.783] and on to Pointe Blanche (46°45′N 56°11′W / 46.750°N 56.183°W / 46.750; -56.183) in the Island of St. Pierre, and thence to the Southwest point of Morgan Island (46°51′N 55°49′W / 46.850°N 55.817°W / 46.850; -55.817).
On the West. The meridian of 64°30'W, but the whole of Anticosti Island is included in the Gulf.

Protected areas[edit]

Bathymetry of the gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries

St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred[by whom?] to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks[citation needed]. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard.

Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux (Bird Rock) northeast of the Magdalen Islands[4] are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.

The Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland Island, and a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec.

The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence also have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.

Undersea features[edit]

The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf that was formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m (950 ft) deep and about 1,250 km (780 mi) long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C (36 and 44 °F) enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are slowly advected up the channel by estuariane circulation.[5] Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel (i.e. in the Saint Lawrence estuary) have become hypoxic.[6]

Cultural importance[edit]

The gulf has provided a historically important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation.

The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas", after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement", thus naming the world's second largest country.[7]

At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with native Americans. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, furnaces, graveyards, etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ . National Geographic Education http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/estuary/?ar_a=1. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ . MarineBio Conservation Society http://marinebio.org/oceans/estuaries-salt-marshes-mangroves.asp. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition". International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  4. ^ "Parks Reserves and Natural Sites". Tourisme Îles de la Madeleine. 
  5. ^ Galbraith, P.S., Pettipas, R.G., Chassé, J., Gilbert, D., Larouche, P., Pettigrew, B., Gosselin, A., Devine, L. and Lafleur, C. 2009. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/014. iv + 69 p.
  6. ^ Gilbert, D., B. Sundby, C. Gobeil, A. Mucci and G.-H. Tremblay. 2005. A seventy-two-year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: The northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1654–1666.
  7. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2013/0812/1912-eighth-grade-exam-Could-you-make-it-to-high-school-in-1912/Discoverers-Gulf-of-Saint-Lawrence/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014