1
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
The Gulf of St. Lawrence Coastline
DATE: 2010/05/10::
2
Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2014/07/23::
3
GULF OF SAINT LAWRENCE - CRAZY WORLD STORIES
GULF OF SAINT LAWRENCE - CRAZY WORLD STORIES
DATE: 2015/06/10::
4
Public Forum on The Gulf of St. Lawrence, Oil and Fracking
Public Forum on The Gulf of St. Lawrence, Oil and Fracking
DATE: 2015/02/03::
5
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
Flight over Gulf of Saint Lawrence Canada
DATE: 2010/09/07::
6
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Cheticamp and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2007/09/30::
7
"Disregard the Fish" - Gulf of St. Lawrence Oil and Gas Protest
"Disregard the Fish" - Gulf of St. Lawrence Oil and Gas Protest
DATE: 2012/10/06::
8
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Flying @ 35,00ft above the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2008/07/23::
9
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
Gulf of St Lawrence ice pack
DATE: 2012/02/11::
10
All About - Gulf of Saint Lawrence
All About - Gulf of Saint Lawrence
DATE: 2014/11/19::
11
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
Beach on Gulf of St. Lawrence at Gros Morne National Park near Rocky Harbour Newfoundland, Canada
DATE: 2010/11/16::
12
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Harp Seals in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2013/10/18::
13
Beluga Whales, Gulf of St. Lawrence
Beluga Whales, Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2015/01/14::
14
Saorsa II underway in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off the shore of the Gaspe Peninsula
Saorsa II underway in the Gulf of St. Lawrence off the shore of the Gaspe Peninsula
DATE: 2010/10/16::
15
The First Voyage -- The Gulf of St Lawrence by Stephen Leacock
The First Voyage -- The Gulf of St Lawrence by Stephen Leacock
DATE: 2012/07/16::
16
View of Darnley Basin, Cabot Beach Park, Gulf of St Lawrence from Overlook Cottage
View of Darnley Basin, Cabot Beach Park, Gulf of St Lawrence from Overlook Cottage
DATE: 2012/06/08::
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seals in the gulf of st lawrence
seals in the gulf of st lawrence
DATE: 2012/04/08::
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How to Pronounce Gulf of St Lawrence
How to Pronounce Gulf of St Lawrence
DATE: 2013/10/18::
19
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT1
Sailing the St. Lawrence - Silver Shadow PT1
DATE: 2009/04/13::
20
Peaceful seal nursery (not graphic)
Peaceful seal nursery (not graphic)
DATE: 2012/03/14::
21
A Call for a Moratorium on Deep Water Drilling in the Gulf of St.  Lawrence
A Call for a Moratorium on Deep Water Drilling in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2011/04/09::
22
Drilling for Oil in the Gulf of the St Lawrence
Drilling for Oil in the Gulf of the St Lawrence
DATE: 2012/10/09::
23
Chris Maser - SGSL AGM Keynote Speech clip 1a
Chris Maser - SGSL AGM Keynote Speech clip 1a
DATE: 2008/02/07::
24
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
Greenland shark in the St. Lawrence Estuary
DATE: 2010/08/03::
25
Where to buy  C-MAP NT+ NA-C230 - Gulf of St. Lawrence - Furuno FP-Card
Where to buy C-MAP NT+ NA-C230 - Gulf of St. Lawrence - Furuno FP-Card
DATE: 2015/05/05::
26
The Gulf of the St. Lawrence through the eyes of Leif the Lucky
The Gulf of the St. Lawrence through the eyes of Leif the Lucky
DATE: 2014/01/13::
27
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
Prince Edward Island Sounds of the Ocean North Atlantic Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2010/10/31::
28
Les aloses du Golfe du Saint-Laurent * Blueback Herrings come to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Les aloses du Golfe du Saint-Laurent * Blueback Herrings come to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2014/05/26::
29
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
DATE: 2014/07/06::
30
Battle of the Gulf of the St.Lawrence WOOT WOOT!
Battle of the Gulf of the St.Lawrence WOOT WOOT!
DATE: 2011/12/04::
31
Pirates of the Gulf
Pirates of the Gulf
DATE: 2014/07/21::
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2015-2035 Mini Ice Age | Nine Arctic Seas Gain Ice 2014 (3)
2015-2035 Mini Ice Age | Nine Arctic Seas Gain Ice 2014 (3)
DATE: 2014/10/08::
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Icebreaker John A McDonald on a rescue mission in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canad...HD Stock Footage
Icebreaker John A McDonald on a rescue mission in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canad...HD Stock Footage
DATE: 2014/06/05::
34
Tabusintac - Birdwatching - Discover Miramichi
Tabusintac - Birdwatching - Discover Miramichi
DATE: 2015/01/28::
35
Baby Seals are in Danger
Baby Seals are in Danger
DATE: 2014/03/21::
36
Magdalen Islands #1: Culture and cuisine
Magdalen Islands #1: Culture and cuisine
DATE: 2012/08/14::
37
Iceberg collapsing - Glacier s
Iceberg collapsing - Glacier s'effritant
DATE: 2011/08/28::
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Basse Cote Nord demo James Gray Numada 2.mov
Basse Cote Nord demo James Gray Numada 2.mov
DATE: 2012/06/05::
39
Hailee Hunter: Fishing Turbot in Western Newfoundland June 2013
Hailee Hunter: Fishing Turbot in Western Newfoundland June 2013
DATE: 2013/06/17::
40
The Moisie River, Quebec-September 2012
The Moisie River, Quebec-September 2012
DATE: 2012/10/18::
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Maritime Mobile Ham
Maritime Mobile Ham
DATE: 2014/12/23::
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Gulf To Gulf Odyssey
Gulf To Gulf Odyssey
DATE: 2014/01/29::
43
Drone Montréal - Les iles de la Madeleine Vues par l
Drone Montréal - Les iles de la Madeleine Vues par l'oeil d'un drone
DATE: 2013/07/18::
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Lava the Cat aboard Marine Atlantic Ship m/v Leif Ericson in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Lava the Cat aboard Marine Atlantic Ship m/v Leif Ericson in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
DATE: 2009/06/25::
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Views around the Gulf Of ST Laurence Quebec
Views around the Gulf Of ST Laurence Quebec
DATE: 2009/08/11::
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Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
Tropical storm Arthur leaves thousands of Canadians without power
DATE: 2014/07/08::
47
Biodôme de Montréal
Biodôme de Montréal
DATE: 2015/02/27::
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Magdalen Islands #2:  Close encounters with Seals
Magdalen Islands #2: Close encounters with Seals
DATE: 2012/08/14::
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04/06/15 - N Atlantic Hurricane Force Low
04/06/15 - N Atlantic Hurricane Force Low
DATE: 2015/04/06::
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Prince Edward Island 2010 Video
Prince Edward Island 2010 Video
DATE: 2010/06/03::
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Coordinates: 48°36′N 61°24′W / 48.600°N 61.400°W / 48.600; -61.400

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semienclosed sea, covering an area of about 236,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi) and containing about 35,000 cubic kilometres (8,400 cu mi) of water, which results in an average depth of 148 metres (486 ft).

Geography[edit]

The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Saint-Pierre and Newfoundland, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, and to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, and Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, Prince Edward Island, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, and Miquelon-Langlade.

Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec.

Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, Natashquan River, Romaine River, Restigouche River, Margaree River, and Humber River.

Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Fortune Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay of Islands, and Northumberland Strait.

Outlets[edit]

The gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets:

  • The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland: 275 kilometres (171 miles) wide and 60 metres (200 feet) deep at its deepest.
  • The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Saint-Pierre and Saint-Pierre and Cape Breton Island: 104 km (65 mi) wide and 480 m (1,570 ft) deep at its deepest.
  • The Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula: 1.0 km (0.6 mi) wide and 60 m (200 ft) deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.

Extent[edit]

The limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence vary between sources.

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows:[1]

On the Northeast. A line running from Cape Bauld (North point of Kirpon Island, 51°40′N 55°25′W / 51.667°N 55.417°W / 51.667; -55.417) to the East extreme of Belle Isle and on to the Northeast Ledge (52°02′N 55°15′W / 52.033°N 55.250°W / 52.033; -55.250). Thence a line joining this ledge with the East extreme of Cape St. Charles (52°13'N) in Labrador.
On the Southeast. A line from Cape Canso (45°20′N 61°0′W / 45.333°N 61.000°W / 45.333; -61.000) to Red Point (45°35′N 60°45′W / 45.583°N 60.750°W / 45.583; -60.750) in Cape Breton Island, through this Island to Cape Breton [45°57′N 59°47′W / 45.950°N 59.783°W / 45.950; -59.783] and on to Pointe Blanche (46°45′N 56°11′W / 46.750°N 56.183°W / 46.750; -56.183) in the Island of St. Pierre, and thence to the Southwest point of Morgan Island (46°51′N 55°49′W / 46.850°N 55.817°W / 46.850; -55.817).
On the West. The meridian of 64°30'W, but the whole of Anticosti Island is included in the Gulf.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada places the western limit at Pointe-des-Monts.[2]


Protected areas[edit]

Bathymetry of the gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries

St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred[by whom?] to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks[citation needed]. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard.

Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux (Bird Rock) northeast of the Magdalen Islands[3] are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service.

The Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland, and a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec.

The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence also have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.

Undersea features[edit]

The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf that was formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m (950 ft) deep and about 1,250 km (780 mi) long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C (36 and 44 °F) enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are slowly advected up the channel by estuariane circulation.[4] Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel (i.e. in the Saint Lawrence estuary) have become hypoxic.[5]

Cultural importance[edit]

The gulf has provided a historically important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation.

The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas", after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement", thus naming the world's second largest country.[6]

At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with the First Nations people of the modern Canadian Atlantic and Quebec provinces. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, furnaces, graveyards, etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  2. ^ http://www.qc.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/golfe-gulf/index-eng.html
  3. ^ "Parks Reserves and Natural Sites". Tourisme Îles de la Madeleine. 
  4. ^ Galbraith, P.S., Pettipas, R.G., Chassé, J., Gilbert, D., Larouche, P., Pettigrew, B., Gosselin, A., Devine, L. and Lafleur, C. 2009. Physical Oceanographic Conditions in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in 2008. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2009/014. iv + 69 p.
  5. ^ Gilbert, D., B. Sundby, C. Gobeil, A. Mucci and G.-H. Tremblay. 2005. A seventy-two-year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: The northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1654–1666.
  6. ^ http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2013/0812/1912-eighth-grade-exam-Could-you-make-it-to-high-school-in-1912/Discoverers-Gulf-of-Saint-Lawrence/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
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