This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, which are located on different chromosomes and consist of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene, HOXC4, is one of several homeobox HOXC genes located in a cluster on chromosome 12. Three genes, HOXC5, HOXC4 and HOXC6, share a 5' non-coding exon. Transcripts may include the shared exon spliced to the gene-specific exons, or they may include only the gene-specific exons. Two alternatively spliced variants that encode the same protein have been described for HOXC4. Transcript variant one includes the shared exon, and transcript variant two includes only gene-specific exons.
^Schild-Poulter, C; Pope L; Giffin W; Kochan J C; Ngsee J K; Traykova-Andonova M; Haché R J (May 2001). "The binding of Ku antigen to homeodomain proteins promotes their phosphorylation by DNA-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (20): 16848–56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100768200. ISSN0021-9258. PMID11279128.
Meazza R, Faiella A, Corsetti MT et al. (1995). "Expression of HOXC4 homeoprotein in the nucleus of activated human lymphocytes". Blood85 (8): 2084–90. PMID7718879.
Rieger E, Bijl JJ, van Oostveen JW et al. (1994). "Expression of the homeobox gene HOXC4 in keratinocytes of normal skin and epithelial skin tumors is correlated with differentiation". J. Invest. Dermatol.103 (3): 341–6. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12394888. PMID7915745.
Apiou F, Flagiello D, Cillo C et al. (1996). "Fine mapping of human HOX gene clusters". Cytogenet. Cell Genet.73 (1–2): 114–5. doi:10.1159/000134320. PMID8646877.
Schild-Poulter C, Pope L, Giffin W et al. (2001). "The binding of Ku antigen to homeodomain proteins promotes their phosphorylation by DNA-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem.276 (20): 16848–56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100768200. PMID11279128.
Kosaki K, Kosaki R, Suzuki T et al. (2002). "Complete mutation analysis panel of the 39 human HOX genes". Teratology65 (2): 50–62. doi:10.1002/tera.10009. PMID11857506.
Schaffer A, Kim EC, Wu X et al. (2003). "Selective inhibition of class switching to IgG and IgE by recruitment of the HoxC4 and Oct-1 homeodomain proteins and Ku70/Ku86 to newly identified ATTT cis-elements". J. Biol. Chem.278 (25): 23141–50. doi:10.1074/jbc.M212952200. PMID12672812.
Kim EC, Edmonston CR, Wu X et al. (2004). "The HoxC4 homeodomain protein mediates activation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain 3' hs1,2 enhancer in human B cells. Relevance to class switch DNA recombination". J. Biol. Chem.279 (40): 42258–69. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407496200. PMID15252056.
Speleman F, Cauwelier B, Dastugue N et al. (2005). "A new recurrent inversion, inv(7)(p15q34), leads to transcriptional activation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias". Leukemia19 (3): 358–66. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2403657. PMID15674412.