The Haast
The Haast's Eagle
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: Epic History
Published: 2009/07/29
Channel: Luke Kendall
The Haast Eagle Short Documentary
The Haast Eagle Short Documentary
Published: 2014/01/30
Channel: dirtypms
Extinction of Haast
Extinction of Haast's Eagle || Facts & Photos you want to see and know
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Extinction Blog
Tales of Forgotten || Haast
Tales of Forgotten || Haast's Eagle
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: Extinction Blog
BBC Monsters We Met - 3 of 3 - The End of Eden
BBC Monsters We Met - 3 of 3 - The End of Eden
Published: 2014/05/23
Channel: Documentários
Haast's Eagle 2
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: ummsooyeah
Haast Eagle Sightings in Christchurch
Haast Eagle Sightings in Christchurch
Published: 2015/07/10
Channel: Australian Mega fauna Project
Haast's Eagle (Harpagornis moorei) [Extinct]
Published: 2010/06/12
Channel: a to z Animals
Best Eagle Attacks! World
Best Eagle Attacks! World's Largest & Deadliest - Golden, Bald and Haast's Eagles
Published: 2015/01/09
Channel: World's Greatest Animals
Monsters We Met - Haast
Monsters We Met - Haast's Eagle
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: dirtypms
Haast's eagle-New Zealand giant eagle
Published: 2008/03/07
Channel: marcelnad
CGI 3D Behind The Scenes : "The Moa and the Harpagornis" - by Fido
CGI 3D Behind The Scenes : "The Moa and the Harpagornis" - by Fido
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: The CGBros
Haast's eagle
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: WikiWikiup
Best Eagle Attacks! World
Best Eagle Attacks! World's Largest & Deadliest - Golden, Bald and Haast's Eagles
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: pati fowe
Haast Eagle By Jessica Kim
Haast Eagle By Jessica Kim
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Yesclass Austin
Monster and Mysteries: Thunderbirds - Documentary
Monster and Mysteries: Thunderbirds - Documentary
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: Documentary
Best Eagle Attacks! World
Best Eagle Attacks! World's Largest & Deadliest - Golden, Bald and Haast's Eagles
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Viral Videos
The Moa, The Haast
The Moa, The Haast's Eagle and The Solver Fern
Published: 2014/07/02
Channel: Tina Cantin-Buckley
Haast's Eagle
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Akki Cari
Top 10 Most Dangerous Prehistoric Birds
Top 10 Most Dangerous Prehistoric Birds
Published: 2012/04/02
Channel: BrawlX
NOW U SEEN IT ALL IN THE SKY: Terror Bird, Vampire, Ghost & 12 More GMO Mutants, Monsters & Hybrids
NOW U SEEN IT ALL IN THE SKY: Terror Bird, Vampire, Ghost & 12 More GMO Mutants, Monsters & Hybrids
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Igor Kryan
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: Palaeo cast
Haast's Eagle Tour Preview
Published: 2007/04/01
Channel: thereductionagents
Bond Street Bridge - Haast
Bond Street Bridge - Haast's Eagle
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: finetunesTV
Haast's eagle Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
03 The End of Eden
03 The End of Eden
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: hemphog81
Dinosaur Park 2 Haast
Dinosaur Park 2 Haast's Eagle
Published: 2015/05/10
Channel: Horse Radish
REAL LIFE GIGANTIC EAGLES AND BIRDS *ROC*Ancient Birds With 21 Foot + Wing Span
REAL LIFE GIGANTIC EAGLES AND BIRDS *ROC*Ancient Birds With 21 Foot + Wing Span
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Lord Ravi Kalki
Why Is The Haast Eagle Extinct?
Why Is The Haast Eagle Extinct?
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Question Box
WOW Elang Raksasa Haast
WOW Elang Raksasa Haast's Eagle
Published: 2015/07/26
Channel: Dunia Hewan Lucu dan Aneh
Girl killed by Giant Haast Eagle of New Zealand in 1000 AD
Girl killed by Giant Haast Eagle of New Zealand in 1000 AD
Published: 2012/06/29
Channel: easyunderstanding
How Big Was The Haast Eagle?
How Big Was The Haast Eagle?
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Question Box
haast's eagle tribute
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: matthew cumoric
Bond Street Bridge - Haast
Bond Street Bridge - Haast's Eagle
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: finetunes Folk
Haast's eagle sounds
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: Cj Magruder
Haast's Eagle - Alex Beacom and Joe Reyes
Published: 2015/03/03
Channel: Joe Reyes
New Zealand
New Zealand's Giant Bird Monsters | Wild New Zealand
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Nat Geo WILD
Where Did The Haast Eagle Live?
Where Did The Haast Eagle Live?
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: A Answers
Haast's Eagle flight cycle
Published: 2014/02/28
Channel: Joey Ku
How Big Was The Haast Eagle?
How Big Was The Haast Eagle?
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: A Answers
448, Legend of the Haast Eagle
448, Legend of the Haast Eagle
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: Kahawai Productions
Minor Project: Haast
Minor Project: Haast's Eagle wing test 2
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: Joey Ku
Haast's Eagled - II For Mankind (Full Album)
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: holyroarrecords
Land of lost monsters Haast
Land of lost monsters Haast's eagle
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: Tyson Hiemstra
Haast's Eagled - White Dwarf
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: 666MrDoom
Haast's Eagle rollercoaster - NL2
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: MrYoung86
Dictation Series - Episode 31: Haast eagle and moa
Dictation Series - Episode 31: Haast eagle and moa
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Arawhiti Studios
Minor Project: Haast
Minor Project: Haast's Eagle wing test
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: Joey Ku
Haast Eagle.wmv
Haast Eagle.wmv
Published: 2011/12/06
Channel: Alemap1970
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Haast's eagle
Temporal range: Late Pleistocene–Holocene
Harpagornis moorei skull.jpg
Photo and restoration of skull
Extinct  (ca. 1400)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Genus: Harpagornis
Haast, 1872
Species: H. moorei
Binomial name
Harpagornis moorei
Haast, 1872

The Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei) is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the Pouakai of Maori legend.[1] The species was the largest eagle known to have existed. Its massive size is explained as an evolutionary response to the size of its prey, the flightless moa, the largest of which could weigh 230 kg (510 lb).[2] Haast's eagle became extinct around 1400, after the moa were hunted to extinction by the first Māori.[3]


Haast's eagle was first described by Julius von Haast in 1871 from remains discovered by F. Fuller in a former marsh.[4] Haast named the eagle Harpagornis moorei after George Henry Moore, the owner of the Glenmark Estate, where the bones of the bird had been found.[5] The genus name is from the Greek "harpax", meaning "grappling hook", and "ornis", meaning "bird".


DNA analysis has shown that this bird is related most closely to the much smaller little eagle as well as the booted eagle and not, as previously thought, to the large wedge-tailed eagle.[6] Thus, Harpagornis moorei may eventually be reclassified as Hieraaetus moorei. H. moorei is estimated to have diverged from these smaller eagles as recently as 1.8 million to 700,000 years ago. If this estimate is correct, its increase in weight by ten to fifteen times is an exceptionally rapid weight increase. This was made possible in part by the presence of large prey and the absence of competition from other large predators.[7]


An artist's rendition of a Haast's eagle attacking moa.

Haast's eagles were one of the largest known true raptors. In length and weight, Haast's eagle was even larger than the largest living vultures. Another giant eagle from the fossil record, Amplibuteo woodwardi, is more recently and scantly-described but rivaled the Haast's in at least the aspect of total length.[8] Female eagles were significantly larger than males. Most estimates place the female Haast eagles in the range of 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and males around 9–12 kg (20–26 lb).[9]

A comparison to living eagles of the Australasian region resulted in estimated masses in Haast's eagles of 11.5 kg (25 lb) for males and 14 kg (31 lb) for females.[9] One source estimates that the largest females could have scaled more than 16.5 kg (36 lb) in mass.[10] The largest extant eagles, none of which are verified to exceed 9 kg (20 lb) in a wild state, are about forty percent smaller in body size than Haast's eagles.[11]

A comparative morphology of Haast's eagle with its closest living relative, the little eagle.

They had a relatively short wingspan for their size. It is estimated that the grown female typically spanned up to 2.6 m (8.5 ft), possibly up to 3 m (9.8 ft) in a few cases.[12][13] This wingspan is broadly similar to the larger range of female size in some extant eagles: the wedge-tailed eagle (Aquila audax), golden eagle (A. chrysaetos), martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) and Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) are all known to exceed 2.5 m in wingspan. Several of the largest extant Old World vultures, if not in mean mass or other linear measurements, probably exceed Haast's eagle in average wingspan as well.[11][14]

Short wings may have aided Haast's eagles when hunting in the dense scrubland and forests of New Zealand. Haast's eagle has sometimes been portrayed incorrectly as having evolved toward flightlessness, but this is not so. Rather it represents a departure from the mode of its ancestors' soaring flight, toward higher wing loading and the species probably had very broad wings.[15]

While most bones studied have been internal ones, some remains of Haast's eagles allow people to make comparisons to living eagles. The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) and the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), which are the largest and most powerful living eagles alongside the Steller's sea eagle, also have similarly reduced relative wing-length in adaptation to forest-dwelling.[11] A lower mandible from the Haast's eagle measured 11.4 cm (4.5 in) and the tarsus in several Haast's eagle fossils has been measured from 22.7 to 24.9 cm (8.9 to 9.8 in).[16] In comparison, the largest beaks of eagles today (from the Philippine and the Steller's sea eagle) reach a little more than 7 cm (2.8 in); and the longest tarsal measurements (from the Philippine and the Papuan eagle) top out around 14 cm (5.5 in).[14][17][18]

The talons of the Haast's eagle were similar in length to those of the harpy eagle, with a front-left talon length of 4.9 to 6.15 cm (1.93 to 2.42 in) and a hallux-claw of possibly up to 11 cm (4.3 in).[10] The Philippine eagle might be a particularly appropriate living species to compare with the Haast's eagle, because it too evolved in an insular environment from smaller ancestors (apparently basal snake eagles) to island gigantism in the absence of large carnivorous mammals and other competing predators.[19]

The strong legs and massive flight muscles of these eagles would have enabled the birds to take off with a jumping start from the ground, despite their great weight. The tail was almost certainly long, in excess of 50 cm (20 in) in female specimens, and very broad. This characteristic would compensate for the reduction in wing area by providing additional lift.[9] Total length is estimated to have been up to 1.4 m (4 ft 7 in) in females, with a standing height of approximately 90 cm (2 ft 11 in) tall or perhaps slightly greater.[10]


A model on display at Te Papa of a Haast's eagle attacking a moa with its large talons.

Haast's eagles preyed on large, flightless bird species, including the moa, which was up to fifteen times the weight of the eagle.[9] It is estimated to have attacked at speeds up to 80 km/h (50 mph),.[20]

Its size and weight indicate a bodily striking force equivalent to a concrete block falling from the top of an eight-story building.[21] Its large beak also could be used to rip into the internal organs of its prey and death then would have been caused by blood loss.[citation needed] In the absence of other large predators or scavengers, a Haast's eagle easily could have monopolised a single large kill over a number of days.[1]


Until recent human colonisation that introduced rodents and cats, the only land mammals found on the islands of New Zealand were three species of bat. Free from terrestrial mammalian competition and predatory threat, birds occupied or dominated all major niches in the New Zealand animal ecology because there were no threats posed to their eggs and chicks by small terrestrial animals. Moa were grazers, functionally similar to deer or cattle in other habitats, and Haast's eagles were the hunters who filled the same niche as top-niche mammalian predators, such as tigers or lions.

Early human settlers in New Zealand (the Māori arrived around the year 1280) preyed heavily on large flightless birds, including all moa species, eventually hunting them to extinction by around 1400.[3] The loss of its primary prey caused the Haast's eagle to become extinct at about the same time.[22]

A noted explorer, Charles Edward Douglas, claims in his journals that he had an encounter with two raptors of immense size in Landsborough River valley (probably during the 1870s), and that he shot and ate them;[23] but they may have been Eyles' harriers.

Relationship with humans[edit]

An eagle statue on Macraes Flat.

It is believed that these birds are described in many legends of the Māori, under the names Pouakai, Hokioi, or Hakawai.[20] However, it has been ascertained that the "Hakawai" and "Hokioi" legends refer to the Coenocorypha snipe—in particular the extinct South Island subspecies.[24] According to an account given to Sir George Grey, an early governor of New Zealand, Hokioi were huge black-and-white predators with a red crest and yellow-green tinged wingtips. In some Māori legends, Pouakai kill humans, which scientists believe could have been possible if the name relates to the eagle, given the massive size and strength of the bird.[20] Even smaller golden eagles are capable of killing prey as big as sika deer or a bear cub.[25]

Artwork depicting Haast's eagle now may be viewed at OceanaGold's Heritage and Art Park at Macraes, Otago, New Zealand. The sculpture, weighing approximately 750 kg (1,650 lb; 118 st), standing 7.5 metres (25 ft) tall, and depicted with a wingspan of 11.5 metres (38 ft) is constructed from stainless steel tube and sheet and was designed and constructed by Mark Hill, a sculptor from Arrowtown, New Zealand.[26]

In popular culture[edit]

The Haast's eagle has appeared in several documentaries pertaining to New Zealand, but was most heavily featured in Monsters We Met, where it was live-acted by a harpy eagle and interpreted as hunting humans in addition to moas due to the humans vaguely resembling its natural prey.[27][28][29]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Giant eagle (Aquila moorei), Haast's eagle, or Pouakai. Museum of New Zealand: Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  2. ^ Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003)
  3. ^ a b Perry, George L.W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M. (2014-12-01). "A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)". Quaternary Science Reviews. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.025. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  4. ^ Tudge, Colin (6 August 2009). The Secret Life of Birds: Who they are and what they do. Penguin Books Limited. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-14-196210-8. 
  5. ^ Haast, Julius (1872). "Notes on Harpagornis Moorei, an Extinct Gigantic Bird of Prey, containing Discussion of Femur, Ungual Phalanges and Rib". Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 4. New Zealand Institute. pp. 193–196. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  6. ^ Bunce, M.; Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R. L.; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N. (2005). "Ancient DNA Provides New Insights into the Evolutionary History of New Zealand's Extinct Giant Eagle". PLoS Biology. 3 (1): e9. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030009. PMC 539324Freely accessible. PMID 15660162. 
  7. ^ "Ancient DNA Tells Story of Giant Eagle Evolution". PLoS Biology. 3 (1). 4 January 2005. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030020. Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
  8. ^ Suarez, W. (2004). The identity of the fossil raptor of the genus Amplibuteo (Aves: Accipitridae) from the Quaternary of Cuba. Caribbean Journal of Science, 40(1), 120-125.
  9. ^ a b c d Brathwaite, D. H. (December 1992). "Notes on the weight, flying ability, habitat, and prey of Haast's Eagle (Harpagornis moorei)" (PDF). Notornis. Ornithological Society of New Zealand. 39 (4): 239–247. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c Worthy, T. & Holdaway, R., The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press (2003), ISBN 978-0253340344
  11. ^ a b c Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9. 
  12. ^ Maas, P. "Recently Extinct Animals - Species Info - Haast's Eagle". The Sixth Extinction. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  13. ^ "Haast's Eagle". Paleobiology and Biodiversity Research Group. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-8026-1. 
  15. ^ "Haast's eagle, New Zealand giant eagle". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  16. ^ Hamilton, A. 1888. On Avian Remains in Southland. Transactions, The New Zealand Institute.
  17. ^ Ladyguin, Alexander (2000). The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia pp. 1–10; Ueta, M. & McGrady, M.J. (eds.) Wild Bird Society of Japan
  18. ^ Blas R. Tabaranza Jr. "Haribon – Ha ring mga Ibon, King of Birds". Haring Ibon's Flight…. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  19. ^ Lerner, H. R., & Mindell, D. P. (2005). Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 37(2), 327-346.
  20. ^ a b c Rodgers, Paul (14 September 2009). "Maori legend of man-eating bird is true". The Independent. Retrieved 14 September 2009. 
  21. ^ Kennedy Warne. Hotspot: New Zealand, National Geographic Magazine, October 2002. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  22. ^ Tennyson, A.; Martinson, P. (2006). Extinct Birds of New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Te Papa Press. ISBN 978-0-909010-21-8. 
  23. ^ Worthy, T. H.; Holdaway, R. N. (2002). The lost world of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34034-9. 
  24. ^ Miskelly, C. M. (1987). "The identity of the hakawai" (PDF). Notornis. 34 (2): 95–116. 
  25. ^ "Golden eagle attacks deer in rare camera trap footage". ZSL Conservation. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  26. ^ "Giant art sculptures pop up in Otago". New Zealand: 3 News. 20 December 2008. Lifestyle - Video On Demand  text version
  27. ^ Monsters We Met: The End of Eden
  28. ^'s_Eagle#p00cl8kf
  29. ^ For many thousands of years, its regular prey has been the giant flightless birds. But now, the eagle's eye has been caught by something different. It is big enough, it is walking upright on two legs, it is food. Land of Lost Monsters

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