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Haida Gwaii: Restoring the Balance
Haida Gwaii: Restoring the Balance
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: STORYHIVE
People of the Potlatch: Haida and other Canadian Pacific Coast Indians
People of the Potlatch: Haida and other Canadian Pacific Coast Indians
Published: 2013/05/01
Channel: Wood Ridge
Tlingit, Haida, & Tsimshian Drumming.
Tlingit, Haida, & Tsimshian Drumming.
Published: 2012/06/09
Channel: Lyna Cassimir
The Haida People
The Haida People
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Liam Fairbrother
The Haida Tribe
The Haida Tribe
Published: 2012/06/12
Channel: eemallory
HAIDA GWAII - Raven and the First Men
HAIDA GWAII - Raven and the First Men
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: Jeffrey Gibbs
70 Haida Tattoos For Men
70 Haida Tattoos For Men
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: Next Luxury
Haida Raven Dance
Haida Raven Dance
Published: 2013/06/10
Channel: Nic Aisa
Haida Potlach 3
Haida Potlach 3
Published: 2009/04/28
Channel: Blake Wilson
Haida - killer whale men
Haida - killer whale men
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: Ty Bergstrom
Haida.wmv
Haida.wmv
Published: 2009/12/12
Channel: Fairfield County Children's Choir
Native Americans  People of the Northwest Coast
Native Americans People of the Northwest Coast
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: ccarnelli09
Inside the Collections: Pacific Northwest Coast Peoples
Inside the Collections: Pacific Northwest Coast Peoples
Published: 2013/05/09
Channel: American Museum of Natural History
Woman Who Returns: Adopted into her Haida clan after 30 years away | Short Docs
Woman Who Returns: Adopted into her Haida clan after 30 years away | Short Docs
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: CBC
Surviving Sounds of Haida
Surviving Sounds of Haida
Published: 2008/03/03
Channel: KasaanHaida
Alaska Ep. 17 Made it to Haida Gwaii!
Alaska Ep. 17 Made it to Haida Gwaii!
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Braedin Toth
BEST KEPT SECRETS - CANADA - HAIDA GWAII Hanaas British Columbia AKA Queen Charlotte Islands
BEST KEPT SECRETS - CANADA - HAIDA GWAII Hanaas British Columbia AKA Queen Charlotte Islands
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: Ihana Suloinen
Basic Haida Greeting
Basic Haida Greeting
Published: 2011/04/14
Channel: KasaanHaida
David Suzuki participates in Totem Pole Raising Ceremony in Haida Gwaii (The Sacred Balance excerpt)
David Suzuki participates in Totem Pole Raising Ceremony in Haida Gwaii (The Sacred Balance excerpt)
Published: 2013/06/19
Channel: Kensington TV
Haida - When My People Cry
Haida - When My People Cry
Published: 2013/11/28
Channel: Devajuh
Venture to Haida Gwaii
Venture to Haida Gwaii
Published: 2011/08/08
Channel: FlemingYachts
Haida Masks Lesson
Haida Masks Lesson
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: theartsmarton
Rick and Haida Gwaii
Rick and Haida Gwaii
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: MercerReport
Haida Art-Northern Villages Part 1.m4v
Haida Art-Northern Villages Part 1.m4v
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: The Bill Reid Centre at SFU
Reconciliation Pole Raising Haida Ceremony Canada 150 UBC 2017 Indigenous Event
Reconciliation Pole Raising Haida Ceremony Canada 150 UBC 2017 Indigenous Event
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Ray Van Eng
Haida
Haida's are coming
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: willdudoward
Totem pole building revived in Canada
Totem pole building revived in Canada
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: AP Archive
Hot Docs Trailers 2015: HAIDA GWAII: ON THE EDGE OF THE WORLD
Hot Docs Trailers 2015: HAIDA GWAII: ON THE EDGE OF THE WORLD
Published: 2015/11/30
Channel: HotDocsFest
Hiding in Plain Sight: Connecting the Masterpiece to the Master - Haida Art
Hiding in Plain Sight: Connecting the Masterpiece to the Master - Haida Art
Published: 2014/01/07
Channel: UWTV
Haida Button Blanket
Haida Button Blanket
Published: 2012/03/13
Channel: SmithsonianNMAI
Haida
Haida
Published: 2008/12/21
Channel: Fairfield County Children's Choir
Haida Men
Haida Men's Competition Dance
Published: 2013/08/25
Channel: Maria Pia
2017 09 16 Haida Gwaii
2017 09 16 Haida Gwaii
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: M/V Ammonite
Haida Indians
Haida Indians
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: Jackson Harley
Haida
Haida
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: mrthayen
Haida Gwaii Museum - From the Time of Foam Woman
Haida Gwaii Museum - From the Time of Foam Woman
Published: 2013/01/31
Channel: brownsupahero
Haida Gwai 2016
Haida Gwai 2016
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: ThePianositter
Haida Gwaii June 30, 2016
Haida Gwaii June 30, 2016
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Max Erwin
Queen Charlotte Haida Indians Narrarted by Duane Foerter
Queen Charlotte Haida Indians Narrarted by Duane Foerter
Published: 2011/01/11
Channel: fishyracer
Haida performers
Haida performers
Published: 2014/10/29
Channel: Canadian High Commission
Haida Art with grade 6
Haida Art with grade 6
Published: 2013/05/14
Channel: Darren Spencer
Haida Native Dance
Haida Native Dance
Published: 2012/08/01
Channel: TravelKetchikan
Haida Gwaii - Potlatch Chief  Nang Jingwas
Haida Gwaii - Potlatch Chief Nang Jingwas
Published: 2009/11/25
Channel: ereservation
Raven and Eagle.....the Land of the Haida
Raven and Eagle.....the Land of the Haida
Published: 2010/02/26
Channel: thomeisa
First Nations Artist in Haida Gwaii, BC
First Nations Artist in Haida Gwaii, BC
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Destination British Columbia
Clam Digging on the Beach at BC
Clam Digging on the Beach at BC's Haida Gwaii
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Destination British Columbia
An introduction to the On Root Project in Haida Gwaii
An introduction to the On Root Project in Haida Gwaii
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: On Root Project
Haida Gwaii
Haida Gwaii
Published: 2012/05/10
Channel: westworldtours
Haida
Haida
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: Flint Creek Quarter horses
The Avid Experience, Haida Gwaii Fishing Lodge
The Avid Experience, Haida Gwaii Fishing Lodge
Published: 2014/12/06
Channel: AvidSportFishing
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Haida
X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat
Flag of Haida.svg
Carver and Dancer.jpg
A Haida dances in full regalia.
Total population
c. 2,500+[1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Haida.svg Haida Gwaii 1 471[1]
 Canada 2 000[1]
 United States unknown
Languages
Haida, English
Religion
Haida (possibly Christianity and others)

The Haida (English: /ˈhdə/, Haida: X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii and the Haida language. The language, which is an isolate language, has historically been spoken across Haida Gwaii and certain islands on the Alaska Panhandle, where it has been spoken for at least 14 000 years. Prior to the 19th century, Haida would speak a number of coastal First Nations languages such as Lingít, Nisg̱a'a and Sm'álgyax. After settlers' arrival and colonisation of the Haida through residential schools, few Haida speak X̱aayda/X̱aad kíl, though there are many efforts to revive the language.

The seat of their government: the Council of the Haida Nation (CHN) is the archipelago of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands) in northern British Columbia, Canada. A group known as the Kaigani Haida live across the international border of the Dixon Entrance on Prince of Wales Island (Tlingit: Taan) in Southeast Alaska, United States; Taan was traditionally and is in Lingít's territory, and the Kaigani Haida migrated there in the late 18th century. Haida have occupied Haida Gwaii since at least the 12,500 BP. Pollen fossils and oral histories both confirm that Haida ancestors were present when the first tree, a Lodegpole pine, arrived at SG̱uuluu Jaads Saahlawaay, the western-most of the Swan Islands located in Gwaii Haanas.[2]

In British Columbia, the term "Haida Nation" refers both to the people as a whole and their government, the Council of the Haida Nation. The Kaigani are part of the Central Council Tlingit Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska government.[3] The Haida language has sometimes been classified as one of the Na-Dene group, but is usually considered to be an isolate.[4]

Haida society continues to produce a robust and highly stylized art form, a leading component of Northwest Coast art. While artists frequently have expressed this in large wooden carvings (totem poles), Chilkat weaving, or ornate jewellery, in the 21st century, younger people are also making art in popular expression such as Haida manga.

In June 2017, the first Haida-language film, Edge of the Knife, was in production with an all-Haida cast. They have been learning Haida for their performances in the film. Gwaii Edenshaw is the director and co-screenwriter.[5]

Haida wait for their Heiltsuk hosts to welcome them to sing and dance at a peace potlatch in Waglisla.

Location[edit]

A Haida hereditary leader of the eagle moiety awaits guests with his nephew on the shores of his territory.

The traditional Haida territory spans the current international boundary between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, United States. Their heartland is the two large and many smaller islands known as Haida Gwaii, which means "island of the people" in Haida. This archipelago was surveyed in 1787 by Captain George Dixon of the British Navy, who named them after one of his ships, the Queen Charlotte, which was in turn named after Charlotte, queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom. The name "Queen Charlotte Islands" was subsequently "given back" to the Crown in a ceremony between the British Columbia government and the Council of the Haida Nation.

Haida also live in Southeast Alaska, particularly on the southern half of Prince of Wales Island in communities such as Hydaburg, and in large cities elsewhere in the region such as Ketchikan. Haida also live in various cities in mainland British Columbia and the western United States.

History[edit]

Houses and totem poles, Skidegate, 1878

The Haida are known for their craftsmanship, trading skills, and seamanship. They are thought to have been warlike and to practise slavery. Canadian Museum of Civilization anthropologist Diamond Jenness has compared the tribe to Vikings.[6]

Oral histories and archaeological evidence indicate that the Haida have occupied Haida Gwaii for more than 17,000 years. In that time they have established an intimate connection with the islands' lands and oceans, established highly structured societies, and constructed many villages.[7][8] The Haida have also occupied present-day southern Alaska for more than the last 200 years, the modern group having emigrated from Haida Gwaii in the 18th century.

The Haida conducted regular trade with Russian, Spanish, British, and American fur traders and whalers. According to sailing records, they diligently maintained strong trade relationships with Westerners, coastal people, and among themselves.[9]

Like other groups on the Northwest Coast, the Haida defended themselves with fortifications, including palisades, trapdoors and platforms. They took to water in large ocean-going canoes, big enough to accommodate as many as 60 paddlers, each created from a single Western red cedar tree. The aggressive tribe were particularly feared in sea battles, although they did respect rules of engagement in their conflicts.[6] The Haida developed effective weapons for boat-based battle, including a special system of stone rings weighing 18 to 23 kg (40 to 51 lb) which could destroy an enemy's dugout canoe and be reused after the attacker pulled it back with the attached cedar bark rope. The Haida took captives from defeated enemies. Between 1780 and 1830, the Haida turned their aggression towards European and American traders. Among the half-dozen ships the tribe captured were the Eleanor and the Susan Sturgis. The tribe made use of the weapons they so acquired, using cannons and canoe-mounted swivel guns.[6]

Haida drummers and singers greet guests on the shores of Ḵay Linagaay, a thousands-of-years-old village in Haida Gwaii.

In 1856, an expedition in search of a route across Vancouver Island was at the mouth of the Qualicum River when they observed a large fleet of Haida canoes approaching and hid in the forest. They observed these attackers holding human heads. When the explorers reached the mouth of the river, they came upon the charred remains of the village of the Qualicum people and the mutilated bodies of its inhabitants, with only one survivor, an elderly woman, hiding terrified inside a tree stump.[10]

Also in 1856, the USS Massachusetts was sent from Seattle to nearby Port Gamble, where indigenous raiding parties made up of Haida (from territory claimed by the British) and Tongass (from territory claimed by the Russians) had been attacking and enslaving the Coast Salish people there. When the Haida and Tongass (sea lion tribe Tlingit) warriors refused to acknowledge American jurisdiction and to hand over those among them who had attacked the Puget Sound communities, a battle ensued in which 26 natives and one government soldier were killed. In the aftermath of this, Colonel Isaac Ebey, a US military officer and the first settler on Whidbey Island, was shot and beheaded on 11 August 1857 by a small Tlingit group from Kake, Alaska, in retaliation for the killing of a respected Kake chief in the raid the year before. Ebey's scalp was purchased from the Kake by an American trader in 1860.[11][12][13][14] The introduction of smallpox among the Haida at Victoria in March 1862 significantly reduced their sovereignty over their traditional territories, and opened the doorway to colonial power.[15] As many as nine in ten Haidas died of smallpox,and many villages were completely depopulated.

Model of House of Contentment, late 19th century, Brooklyn Museum

In 1885 the Haida potlatch (Haida: waahlgahl) was outlawed under the Potlatch Ban. The elimination of the potlatch system destroyed financial relationships and seriously interrupted the cultural heritage of coastal people.

The Haida also created "notions of wealth", and Jenness credits them with the introduction of the totem pole (Haida: ǥyaagang) and the bentwood box.[6] Missionaries regarded the carved poles as graven images rather than intimate representations of the family histories that wove Haida society together. Chiefly families showed their histories by erecting totems outside their homes, or on house posts forming the building. Their social organization was matrilineal.[16] As the islands were Christianized, many cultural works such as totem posts were destroyed or taken to museums around the world. This significantly undermined Haida self-knowledge and further diminished morale.

The government began forcibly sending some Haida children to residential schools as early as 1920. Haida children were sent as far away as Alberta to live among English-speaking families where they were to be assimilated into the dominant culture.

Villages[edit]

Haida Heritage Centre at Ḵay Llnagaay
Haida carver Saaduuts, 2007

Historical Haida villages were:[17]

Calendar[edit]

Lisa Telford, Haida basket weaver

The Haidas' calendar:

  • April/May- Gansgee 7laa kongaas
  • May/Early June- Wa.aay gwaalgee
  • June/July- Kong koaas
  • July/August- Sgaana gyaas
  • August/September- K'ijaas
  • September/October- K'alayaa Kongaas
  • October/November- K'eed adii
  • November/December- Jid Kongaas
  • December/January- Kong gyaangaas
  • January/February- Hlgiduum kongaas
  • February/March- Taan kongaas
  • March- Xiid gayaas
  • April- Wiid gyaas

Notable Haida[edit]

Diane Douglas-Willard of Ketchikan, Alaska.
Young Haida woman with lip plate, portrayed in Dixon, George (1789): Voyage autour du monde

Anthropologists and scholars[edit]

L-R: Haida lawyer gi7ahl g-udsllaay (Terri-Lynn Williams-Davidson) and master carver gud san glans (Robert Davidson)

This is an incomplete list of anthropologists and scholars who have done research on the Haida.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Blackman, Margaret B. (1982; rev. ed., 1992) During My Time: Florence Edenshaw Davidson, a Haida Woman. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Boelscher, Marianne (1988) The Curtain Within: Haida Social and Mythical Discourse. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  • Bringhurst, Robert (2000) A Story as Sharp as a Knife: The Classical Haida Mythtellers and Their World. Douglas & McIntyre.
  • Donald, Leland (1997) Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America. University of California Press.
  • Andersen, Doris (1974) Slave of the Haida. Macmillan Co. of Canada.
  • Kushner, Howard (1975) Conflict on the Northwest Coast: American-Russian Rivalry in the Pacific Northwest. Greenwood Press.
  • Black, Lydia T.; Dauenhauer, Nora; Dauenhauer, Richard (2008), Anóoshi Lingít Aaní Ká/Russians in Tlingit America: The Battles of Sitka, 1802 and 1804, University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-98601-2 .
  • Fisher, Robin (1992) Contact and Conflict: Indian-European Relations in British Columbia, 1774-1890. UBC Press.
  • Geduhn, Thomas (1993) "Eigene und fremde Verhaltensmuster in der Territorialgeschichte der Haida." (Mundus Reihe Ethnologie, Band 71.) Bonn: Holos Verlag.
  • Harris, Christie (1966) Raven's Cry. New York: Atheneum.
  • Harrison, Charles (1925) Ancient Warriors of the North Pacific - The Haidas, Their Laws, Customs and Legends. H.F. & G. Witherby.
  • Huteson, Pamela (2007) "Transformation Masks" Surrey, B.C. Canada: Hancock House Publishers LTD. ISBN 978-0-88839-635-8
  • Kan, Sergei (1993) SYMBOLIC IMMORTALITY; The Tlingit Potlatch of the Nineteenth Century Smithsonian.
  • Snyder, Gary (1979) He Who Hunted Birds in His Father's Village. San Francisco: Grey Fox Press.
  • Stearns, Mary Lee (1981) Haida Culture in Custody: The Masset Band. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • The Hydah mission, Queen Charlotte's Islands : an account of the mission and people, with a descriptive letter, Rev. Charles Harrison, publ. Church Missionary Society/Seeley, Jackson & Halliday, London, England, 1884.
  • Yahgulanaas, Michael Nicoll (2008) "Flight of the Hummingbird" Vancouver; Greystone Books.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c History of the Haida Nation, Council of the Haida Nation website. Skidegate and Old Masset combined are 1,471 combined, and 2000 more Haida live in Vancouver and Prince Rupert and elsewhere.
  2. ^ Fedje, Daryl (2005). Haida Gwaii: Human History and Environment from the Time of Loon to the Time of the Iron People (1 ed.). Vancouver, Toronto: UBC Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780774809221. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  3. ^ "Central Council Tlingit Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska". CCTHITA. Retrieved 2016-06-23. 
  4. ^ Schoonmaker, Peter K.; Bettina Von Hagen; Edward C. Wolf (1997). The Rain Forests of Home: Profile Of A North American Bioregion. Island Press. p. 257. ISBN 1-55963-480-4. 
  5. ^ Catherine Porter, "A Language Nearly Lost Is Revived in a Script", New York Times, 12 June 2017, p. 1
  6. ^ a b c d "Warfare". Canadian Museum of Civilization. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  7. ^ Hume, Mark (20 July 2012). "When did the first people arrive in the Americas?". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  8. ^ "Caves reveal thousands of years of history". Queen Charlotte Islands Observer. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  9. ^ "Canoes and Trade". Canadian Museum of History. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  10. ^ Elms p 20, citing William Wyford Walkem, Stories of Early British Columbia, "Adam Horne's trip across Vancouver Island" (Vancouver, BC: Published by News Advertiser, 1914) p 41.
  11. ^ Puget Sound Herald Nov 19, 1858
  12. ^ Juneau Empire, February 29, 2008
  13. ^ Beth Gibson, Beheaded Pioneer, Laura Arksey, Columbia, Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma, Spring, 1988.
  14. ^ Bancroft says they were Stikines, a Tlingit subgroup, and makes no mention of the Haida. History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana: 1845–1889, p.137 Hubert Howe Bancroft (1890) This enormous source, photocopied, including p.137, is more easily accessible online at [1], if desired. Retrieved 2012-2-21.
  15. ^ "The Spirit of Pestilence". The University of Victoria. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Social Organization". Canadian Museum of History. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  17. ^ Canadian Museum of Civilization webpage on Haida villages
  18. ^ "FirstVoices: Hlg̱aagilda X̱aayda Kil : words". Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  19. ^ Parks Canada website

General sources[edit]

  • Macnair, Peter L.; Hoover, Alan L.; Neary, Kevin (1981) The Legacy – Continuing Traditions of Canadian Northwest Coast Indian Art

External links[edit]

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