Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
toe - the book about my idle plot on a vague anxiety (full album)
toe - the book about my idle plot on a vague anxiety (full album)
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Lucas Salas
Toe - Goodbye / グッドバイ (CUT_DVD with Toki Asako)
Toe - Goodbye / グッドバイ (CUT_DVD with Toki Asako)
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: specialother
Toe - Hear You (2015)
Toe - Hear You (2015)
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: Mr. Gaff
Toe - Live DVD 2010 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [Full set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Toe - Live DVD 2010 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [Full set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Published: 2013/03/17
Channel: Post Rock
toe - グッドバイ PV / "Goodbye" Music Video
toe - グッドバイ PV / "Goodbye" Music Video
Published: 2011/01/19
Channel: At0m5k
Can Tyson Fury beat Anthony Joshua? | Toe 2 Toe
Can Tyson Fury beat Anthony Joshua? | Toe 2 Toe
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Sky Sports
Laying On A Bed Of Toe Nails | We Don
Laying On A Bed Of Toe Nails | We Don't Have The Balls
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: Good Mythical Morning
Toe - Two Moons
Toe - Two Moons
Published: 2009/12/16
Channel: Davide Zonca
BESTE WIN TOT NU TOE! (Fortnite Battle Royale)
BESTE WIN TOT NU TOE! (Fortnite Battle Royale)
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: JustChrisNL
toe - Song Silly [Official Music Video]
toe - Song Silly [Official Music Video]
Published: 2015/07/18
Channel: whitenoisehk
SLIPPERY FLOOR PRANK ON MY BROTHER **BROKEN TOE!?**
SLIPPERY FLOOR PRANK ON MY BROTHER **BROKEN TOE!?**
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: MRandersonwebb
TOE LIVE AT EBS SPACE 공감
TOE LIVE AT EBS SPACE 공감
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Seoul GigCam
Dance Terkeren RANZ & NIANA Feat MATT STEFFANINA - Tip Toe Jason Derulo Dance Cover
Dance Terkeren RANZ & NIANA Feat MATT STEFFANINA - Tip Toe Jason Derulo Dance Cover
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: NianaGuerreroFans
ATTACK ON TITAN: The One With Hanji
ATTACK ON TITAN: The One With Hanji's Toe-Reffic Day
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Mishkali
toe - Because I Hear You @ 頂 -ITADAKI- 2017
toe - Because I Hear You @ 頂 -ITADAKI- 2017
Published: 2017/10/23
Channel: DAX -Space Shower Digital Archives X-
Jason Derulo - Tip Toe feat. French Montana (Official Lyric Video)
Jason Derulo - Tip Toe feat. French Montana (Official Lyric Video)
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Jason Derulo
MY REALISTIC SHOWER ROUTINE -  HAIR TO TOE HYGIENE CARE | OMABELLETV
MY REALISTIC SHOWER ROUTINE - HAIR TO TOE HYGIENE CARE | OMABELLETV
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: OmabelleTV
toe - Path (Live)
toe - Path (Live)
Published: 2012/07/29
Channel: hara harath
Infected Ingrown Toenail Removed Permanently
Infected Ingrown Toenail Removed Permanently
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: The Toe Bro
toe - goodbye (feat. Toki Asako)
toe - goodbye (feat. Toki Asako)
Published: 2009/12/14
Channel: Rafael Dias
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [In-Studio Performance]
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [In-Studio Performance]
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Mastodon
Zumba " Tip Toe By Jason Derulo Ft French Montana / Bintang Fitness Crew ,Sangatta ,KalTim
Zumba " Tip Toe By Jason Derulo Ft French Montana / Bintang Fitness Crew ,Sangatta ,KalTim
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: Chenci Arif
Toe - Live DVD 2006 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [full Set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Toe - Live DVD 2006 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [full Set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Post Rock
Ten Toes (Prod. BubbaGotBeatz) - Instrumental
Ten Toes (Prod. BubbaGotBeatz) - Instrumental
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: BubbaGotBeatz
Jason Derulo - Tip Toe (Bass Boosted) feat. French Montana HQ 🔊
Jason Derulo - Tip Toe (Bass Boosted) feat. French Montana HQ 🔊
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Bass Boost Machine
TIP TOE - Jason Derulo Dance ft Ranz & Niana | Matt Steffanina Choreography
TIP TOE - Jason Derulo Dance ft Ranz & Niana | Matt Steffanina Choreography
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Matt Steffanina
4. Toe - I Dance alone
4. Toe - I Dance alone
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Tip Toe // Jason Derulo Ft. French Montana // Zumba Dance Fitness
Tip Toe // Jason Derulo Ft. French Montana // Zumba Dance Fitness
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Turn Up with Tanci
Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes - Exercise Song For Kids
Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes - Exercise Song For Kids
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: ChuChu TV Nursery Rhymes & Kids Songs
Tip Toe -@JasonDerulo | @DanaAlexaNY Choreography
Tip Toe -@JasonDerulo | @DanaAlexaNY Choreography
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: DanaAlexaDance
Los más ágiles y concentrados ganaron en el Tic Tac Toe
Los más ágiles y concentrados ganaron en el Tic Tac Toe
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: EEG Panamá
HOW I BROKE MY TOE!
HOW I BROKE MY TOE!
Published: 2014/10/07
Channel: PsychoSoprano
MIJN BESTE SPELER & BESTE TEAM TOT NU TOE! | MISSIE MARK #27
MIJN BESTE SPELER & BESTE TEAM TOT NU TOE! | MISSIE MARK #27
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: HartDynasty
TIPTOE LYRICS / JASON DERULO FT. FRENCH MONTANA
TIPTOE LYRICS / JASON DERULO FT. FRENCH MONTANA
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: xxRamona Flowers
When You Stub Your Toe | CalebDigital
When You Stub Your Toe | CalebDigital
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: CalebDigital
World Championship Blacksmiths Craig Trnka, CJF - French Toe Weight
World Championship Blacksmiths Craig Trnka, CJF - French Toe Weight
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Chad Chance
Tip Toe (feat. French Montana)
Tip Toe (feat. French Montana)
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: Jason Derulo - Topic
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Published: 2009/07/10
Channel: Zac Brown Band
Top Toe-Drag Swag Catches from Week 9 😎 🏈  | Good Morning Football | NFL Highlights
Top Toe-Drag Swag Catches from Week 9 😎 🏈 | Good Morning Football | NFL Highlights
Published: 2017/11/07
Channel: NFL Rush
How To Avoid A Camel Toe!
How To Avoid A Camel Toe!
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: Glamrs.com
JEI | CHOREOGRAPHY CLASS | JASON DERULO(feat. French Montana) - TIP TOE | 이댄스학원 | 안무
JEI | CHOREOGRAPHY CLASS | JASON DERULO(feat. French Montana) - TIP TOE | 이댄스학원 | 안무
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: E DANCE STUDIO
Toe - My Little Wish
Toe - My Little Wish
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: Beefslap
Jason Derulo ft. French Montana - Tip Toe | Mike Perez Choreography
Jason Derulo ft. French Montana - Tip Toe | Mike Perez Choreography
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: Mike Perez
[HQ] toe - C
[HQ] toe - C
Published: 2009/01/08
Channel: Hui Hon Man
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [Official Audio]
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [Official Audio]
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Mastodon
Juan Boucher - Trek toe
Juan Boucher - Trek toe
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: REAL MUSIC
Top Toe-Drag Catches of Week 10 🙌 | Good Morning Football | NFL Highlights
Top Toe-Drag Catches of Week 10 🙌 | Good Morning Football | NFL Highlights
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: NFL Rush
11. Toe - Good Bye // New Sentimentality
11. Toe - Good Bye // New Sentimentality
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Toes - Zac Brown Band Lyrics
Toes - Zac Brown Band Lyrics
Published: 2009/12/13
Channel: koolbluelive
Good Morning Football | Toe Drag Swag
Good Morning Football | Toe Drag Swag
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: CStandBy Below
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Hallux)
Jump to: navigation, search
Toes
Toes.jpg
Toes on the human foot. The innermost toe (bottom-left in image), which is normally called the big toe, is the hallux.
Ospied-de.svg
Bones of the foot (the toe bones are the ones in green, blue and orange)
Details
Identifiers
Latin Digiti pedis
TA A01.1.00.046
FMA 25046
Anatomical terminology

Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade. Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of their toes.

Structure[edit]

Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.

There are five toes present on each human foot. Each toe consists of three phalanx bones, the proximal, middle and distal, with the exception of the big toe (Latin: Hallux). The hallux only contains two phalanx bones, the proximal and distal. The phalanx bones of the toe join to the metatarsal bones of the foot at the interphalangeal joints.[1]:557 The toes continue to grow through the entirety of a person's life. Outside the hallux bones is skin, and present on all five toes is a toenail.

The toes are, from medial to lateral:

  • The first toe, also known as the hallux ("big toe" or "great toe"), the innermost toe, the "thumb toe."
  • The second toe, "long toe" or "pointer toe", "index toe"
  • The third toe, or "middle toe" or "long toe"
  • The fourth toe, or "ring toe"
  • The fifth toe, "baby toe", "little toe", "pinky toe", "small toe", "wee toe" or "tiny toe", the outermost toe

Muscles[edit]

Toe movement is generally flexion and extension via muscular tendons that attach to the toes on the anterior and superior surfaces of the phalanx bones.[1]:573

With the exception of the hallux, toe movement is generally governed by action of the flexor digitorum brevis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles. These attach to the sides of the bones,[1]:572–75 making it impossible to move individual toes independently. Muscles between the toes on their top and bottom also help to abduct and adduct the toes.[1]:579 The hallux and little toe have unique muscles:

Blood supply[edit]

The toes receive blood from the digital branches of the plantar metatarsal arteries and drain blood into the dorsal venous arch of the foot.[1]:580–81

Nerve supply[edit]

Sensation to the skin of the toes is provided by five nerves. The superficial fibular nerve supplies sensation to the top of the toes, except between the hallux and second toe, which is supplied by the deep fibular nerve, and the outer surface of the fifth toe, supplied by the sural nerve. Sensation to the bottom of the toes is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the great toe and inner three-and-a-half toes, and the lateral plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the little toe and half of the sensation of the fourth toe.

In humans, the hallux is usually longer than the second toe, but in some individuals, it may not be the longest toe. There is an inherited trait in humans, where the dominant gene causes a longer second toe ("Morton's toe" or "Greek foot") while the homozygous recessive genotype presents with the more common trait: a longer hallux.[2] People with the rare genetic disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva characteristically have a short hallux which appears to turn inward, or medially, in relation to the foot.

Variation[edit]

Humans usually have five toes on each foot. When more than five toes are present, this is known as polydactyly. Other variants may include syndactyly or arachnodactyly. Forefoot shape, including toe shape, exhibits significant variation among people; these differences can be measured and have been statistically correlated with ethnicity.[3] Such deviations may affect comfort and fit for various shoe types. Research conducted for the U.S. Army indicated that larger feet may still have smaller arches, toe length, and toe-breadth.[4]

Function[edit]

The human foot consists of multiple bones and soft tissues which support the weight of the upright human. Specifically, the toes assist the human while walking,[5] providing balance, weight-bearing, and thrust during gait.

Clinical relevance[edit]

A sprain or strain to the small interphalangeal joints of the toe is commonly called a stubbed toe. A sprain or strain where the toe joins to the foot is called turf toe.

Long-term use of improperly sized shoes can cause misalignment of toes, as well as other orthopedic problems.

Morton's neuroma commonly results in pain and numbness between the third and fourth toes of the sufferer, due to it affecting the nerve between the third and fourth metatarsal bones.[6]

The big toe is also the most common locus of ingrown nails and gout attacks.

Deformity[edit]

Deformities of the foot include hammer toe, trigger toe, and claw toe. Hammer toe can be described as an abnormal contraction or “buckling” of a toe. This is done by a partial or complete dislocation of one of the joints, which form the toes. Since the toes are deformed further, these may press against a shoe and cause pain. Deformities of the foot can also be caused by rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus. Deformities may predispose to ulcers and pain, especially when shoe-wearing.

A common problem involving the big toe is the formation of bunions. These are structural deformities of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe, and may be painful.[7] Similar deformity involving the fifth toe is described as tailor's bunion or bunionette.

In reconstruction[edit]

A favourable option for the reconstruction of missing adjacent fingers[8]/multiple digit amputations, i.e. such as a metacarpal hand reconstruction, is to have a combined second and third toe transplantation.[9] Third and fourth toe transplantation are also good.[10]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ta[edit]

The Old English term for toe is ta (plural tan). This is a contraction of tahe, and derives from Proto-Germanic taihwo (cognates: Old Norse ta, Old Frisian tane, Middle Dutch te, Dutch teen (perhaps originally a plural), Old High German zecha, German Zehe). Perhaps originally meaning "fingers" as well (many Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) languages still use one word to mean both fingers and toes), and thus from PIE root deik — "to show".[11]

Hallux[edit]

View of the feet in Michellangelo's David

In classical Latin hallex,[12][13] allex,[12][14] hallus[12] and allus,[12] with genitive (h)allicis and (h)alli, are used to refer to the big toe. The form hallux (genitive, hallucis) currently in use is however a blend word of the aforementioned forms.[12][15] Compare pollex, the equivalent term for the thumb.

In other animals[edit]

In birds with anisodactyl or heterodactyl feet, the hallux is opposed or directed backwards and allows for grasping and perching.

While the thumb is often mentioned as one of the signature characteristics in humans, this manual digit remains partially primitive and is actually present in all primates. In humans, the most derived digital feature is the hallux.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. 
  2. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Toes – relative lengths of first and second -189200
  3. ^ Hawes, MR; Sovak, D; Miyashita, M; Kang, SJ; Yoshihuku, Y; Tanaka, S (Jan 1994). "Ethnic differences in forefoot shape and the determination of shoe comfort". Ergonomics. 37 (1): 187–96. doi:10.1080/00140139408963637. PMID 8112275. 
  4. ^ Freedman, A., Huntington, E.C., Davis, G.C., Magee, R.B., Milstead, V.M. and Kirkpatrick, C.M.. 1946. Foot Dimensions of Soldiers (Third Partial Report), Armored Medical Research Laboratory, Fort Knox, Kentucky.
  5. ^ Janey Hughes, Peter Clark, & Leslie Klenerman. The Importance of the Toes in Walking. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 72-B, No. 2. March, 1990. [1]
  6. ^ "Morton's Neuroma". Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  7. ^ American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. "Bunions". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  8. ^ Wei, Fu-Chan; Colony, Lee H.; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chuang, Chwei-Chin; Noordhoff, Samuel M. (1989). "Combined Second and Third Toe Transfer". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 84 (4): 651–61. doi:10.1097/00006534-198984040-00016. PMID 2780906. 
  9. ^ Cheng, Ming-Huei; Wei, Fu-Chan; Santamaria, Eric; Cheng, Shao-Lung; Lin, Chih-Hung; Chen, Samuel H. T. (1998). "Single versus Double Arterial Anastomoses in Combined Second- and Third-Toe Transplantation". Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 102 (7): 2408. doi:10.1097/00006534-199812000-00021. 
  10. ^ Lutz, Barbara S.; Wei, Fu-Chan (2002). "Basic Principles on Toe-to-Hand Transplantation" (PDF). Gung Medical Journal. 25 (9): 568–76. PMID 12479617. 
  11. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Toe. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Hyrtl, J. (1880). Onomatologia Anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller. K.K. Hof- und Universitätsbuchhändler.
  13. ^ Triepel, H. (1908). Memorial on the anatomical nomenclature of the anatomical society. In A. Rose (Ed.), Medical Greek. Collection of papers on medical onomatology and a grammatical guide to learn modern Greek (pp. 176–93). New York: Peri Hellados publication office.
  14. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  15. ^ Triepel, H. (1910). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Mit einem Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Dritte Auflage). Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  16. ^ Lovejoy, C. Owen; Suwa, Gen; Simpson, Scott W.; Matternes, Jay H.; White, Tim D. (October 2009). "The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes". Science. 326 (5949): 102. doi:10.1126/science.1175833. PMID 19810199. 

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license