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Toe - Goodbye / グッドバイ (CUT_DVD with Toki Asako)
Toe - Goodbye / グッドバイ (CUT_DVD with Toki Asako)
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: specialother
toe - グッドバイ PV / "Goodbye" Music Video
toe - グッドバイ PV / "Goodbye" Music Video
Published: 2011/01/19
Channel: At0m5k
TOE LIVE AT EBS SPACE 공감
TOE LIVE AT EBS SPACE 공감
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Seoul GigCam
toe - Song Silly [Official Music Video]
toe - Song Silly [Official Music Video]
Published: 2015/07/18
Channel: whitenoisehk
Toe - Two Moons
Toe - Two Moons
Published: 2009/12/16
Channel: Davide Zonca
toe - Path (Live)
toe - Path (Live)
Published: 2012/07/29
Channel: hara harath
Ten Toes (Prod. BubbaGotBeatz) - Instrumental
Ten Toes (Prod. BubbaGotBeatz) - Instrumental
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: BubbaGotBeatz
Toe - Live DVD 2010 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [Full set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Toe - Live DVD 2010 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [Full set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Published: 2013/03/17
Channel: Post Rock
4. Toe - I Dance alone
4. Toe - I Dance alone
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes - Exercise Song For Kids
Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes - Exercise Song For Kids
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: ChuChu TV Nursery Rhymes & Kids Songs
Toe 2 Toe: Martin J Ward joins us to talk Eubank Jr, Saunders and more.
Toe 2 Toe: Martin J Ward joins us to talk Eubank Jr, Saunders and more.
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Sky Sports
Geometry Dash 5 AWESOME Levels [TIC TAC TOE, ROYAL FLUSH, FRUITLAND, GENERATOR, MANIFOLD]
Geometry Dash 5 AWESOME Levels [TIC TAC TOE, ROYAL FLUSH, FRUITLAND, GENERATOR, MANIFOLD]
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: EricVanWilderman
Toe - RGBDVD (dvdrip)(2006)
Toe - RGBDVD (dvdrip)(2006)
Published: 2011/01/09
Channel: Redwood.FM
When Floyd Mayweather Fights Toe to Toe
When Floyd Mayweather Fights Toe to Toe
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: OfficeHanchoBoxing
DAX × lute:toe「エソテリック / Esoteric」
DAX × lute:toe「エソテリック / Esoteric」
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: lute / ルーテ
Al Majeed Produziert : BIG TOE - DYNASTIE "SNIPPET"
Al Majeed Produziert : BIG TOE - DYNASTIE "SNIPPET"
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Hutmacher Entertainment
Dj Khaled IS A Blood Now? DRESSED HEAD TO TOE IN ALL RED LOUIS VUITTON!
Dj Khaled IS A Blood Now? DRESSED HEAD TO TOE IN ALL RED LOUIS VUITTON!
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: PabloRedTV
Gonzo operates on my toe! Good Grief! Paronychia - Rats!
Gonzo operates on my toe! Good Grief! Paronychia - Rats!
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: John Gilmore, MD
Belangstelling voor nieuwe techniekopleidingen neemt toe
Belangstelling voor nieuwe techniekopleidingen neemt toe
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: RTV Drenthe
Toe - Ordinary Days [Live] - The Future Is Now EP - 1080p
Toe - Ordinary Days [Live] - The Future Is Now EP - 1080p
Published: 2012/10/19
Channel: NEKAOmusic
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Published: 2009/07/10
Channel: Zac Brown Band
Voetganger se noue ontkoming toe motor verby haar jaag
Voetganger se noue ontkoming toe motor verby haar jaag
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: HuisgenootTV
TOE SUCKING FISHES! Squishy Tickle Feet w/ PIRATES! (FUNnel Vision Cancun Mexico Travel Vlog Part 4)
TOE SUCKING FISHES! Squishy Tickle Feet w/ PIRATES! (FUNnel Vision Cancun Mexico Travel Vlog Part 4)
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: FUNnel Vision
Tom Campbell - My Big Toe - Part 1
Tom Campbell - My Big Toe - Part 1
Published: 2012/03/03
Channel: whatifitreallyworks
toe - goodbye (feat. Toki Asako)
toe - goodbye (feat. Toki Asako)
Published: 2009/12/14
Channel: Rafael Dias
Toe - My Little Wish
Toe - My Little Wish
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: Beefslap
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Published: 2009/10/01
Channel: Atlantic Records
TOE LIVE AT THE REGENT: Goodbye
TOE LIVE AT THE REGENT: Goodbye
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: Restless Cities
TIC TAC TOE - Warum? (Für Melanie)
TIC TAC TOE - Warum? (Für Melanie)
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: tictactoemusik
DW Toe - Beyond Me (Dir. TownENT)
DW Toe - Beyond Me (Dir. TownENT)
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Town ENT
13. Toe - Path
13. Toe - Path
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Duran - Doet er niet toe ft. Défano Holwijn
Duran - Doet er niet toe ft. Défano Holwijn
Published: 2015/10/30
Channel: Avalon Music
Ten Toes Challenge - B Ray
Ten Toes Challenge - B Ray
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: EvB Records
Tweejarige se reaksie is te kostelik toe hy die 1ste keer suurlemoen proe
Tweejarige se reaksie is te kostelik toe hy die 1ste keer suurlemoen proe
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: HuisgenootTV
Francois van Coke & Karen Zoid - Toe vind ek jou
Francois van Coke & Karen Zoid - Toe vind ek jou
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Francois Van Coke
Varsity Sing: Toe vind ek jou
Varsity Sing: Toe vind ek jou
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: kyknettv
#7 Saya San Toe Sermon new at Revival Conference Brisbane 8 7 2017
#7 Saya San Toe Sermon new at Revival Conference Brisbane 8 7 2017
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: Myanmar Christian Sermons
SML Short: Bowser Junior Stubs His Toe!
SML Short: Bowser Junior Stubs His Toe!
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: SuperMarioLogan
Kat kom sy moses teë toe hy rondsnuffel na iets om aan te kibbel
Kat kom sy moses teë toe hy rondsnuffel na iets om aan te kibbel
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: HuisgenootTV
Aidonia - Tip Pon Yuh Toe (Official Music Video)
Aidonia - Tip Pon Yuh Toe (Official Music Video)
Published: 2013/02/07
Channel: DancehalDopeboi
9. Toe - After image
9. Toe - After image
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Toe of Satan Challenge! (Featuring its inventor)
Toe of Satan Challenge! (Featuring its inventor)
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: Vat19
Tic Tac Toe "Warum?" (Official Music Video) HD
Tic Tac Toe "Warum?" (Official Music Video) HD
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: TH. Aries
Juanita du Plessis - Toe staan die wêreld stil (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Juanita du Plessis - Toe staan die wêreld stil (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Published: 2017/02/02
Channel: Juanita Du Plessis
How to Do a Toe Touch | Ab Workout
How to Do a Toe Touch | Ab Workout
Published: 2012/06/14
Channel: Howcast
Camel Toe Song!
Camel Toe Song!
Published: 2008/03/13
Channel: KittyCue
Operativo de las TOE en Roldán - Santa Fe
Operativo de las TOE en Roldán - Santa Fe
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: El Litoral
Tic Tac Toe - Isch liebe disch
Tic Tac Toe - Isch liebe disch
Published: 2009/01/12
Channel: David Strempel
Tic Tac Toe - Ist Der Ruf Erst Ruiniert
Tic Tac Toe - Ist Der Ruf Erst Ruiniert
Published: 2008/04/17
Channel: rexlevitak1
AI IN GD??!!  Tic Tac Toe (3 Coins) - Motleyorc | Geometry Dash [2.1]
AI IN GD??!! Tic Tac Toe (3 Coins) - Motleyorc | Geometry Dash [2.1]
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: Skitten
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Hallux)
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Toes
Toes.jpg
Toes on the human foot. The innermost toe (bottom-left in image), which is normally called the big toe, is the hallux.
Ospied-de.svg
Bones of the foot (the toe bones are the ones in green, blue and orange)
Details
Identifiers
Latin Digiti pedis
TA A01.1.00.046
FMA 25046
Anatomical terminology

Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade. Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of their toes.

Structure[edit]

Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.

There are five toes present on each human foot. Each toe consists of three phalanx bones, the proximal, middle and distal, with the exception of the big toe (Latin: Hallux). The hallux only contains two phalanx bones, the proximal and distal. The phalanx bones of the toe join to the metatarsal bones of the foot at the interphalangeal joints.[1]:557 Outside the hallux bones is skin, and present on all five toes is a toenail.

The toes are, from medial to lateral:

  • The first toe, also known as the hallux ("big toe" or "great toe"), the innermost toe, the "thumb toe."
  • The second toe, "long toe" or "pointer toe", "index toe"
  • The third toe, or "middle toe"
  • The fourth toe, or "ring toe"
  • The fifth toe, "baby toe", "little toe", "pinky toe", "small toe" or "tiny toe", the outermost toe

Muscles[edit]

Toe movement is generally flexion and extension via muscular tendons that attach to the toes on the anterior and superior surfaces of the phalanx bones.[1]:573

With the exception of the hallux, toe movement is generally governed by action of the flexor digitorum brevis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles. These attach to the sides of the bones,[1]:572–75 making it impossible to move individual toes independently. Muscles between the toes on their top and bottom also help to abduct and adduct the toes.[1]:579 The hallux and little toe have unique muscles:

Blood supply[edit]

The toes receive blood from the digital branches of the plantar metatarsal arteries and drain blood into the dorsal venous arch of the foot.[1]:580–81

Nerve supply[edit]

Sensation to the skin of the toes is provided by five nerves. The superficial fibular nerve supplies sensation to the top of the toes, except between the hallux and second toe, which is supplied by the deep fibular nerve, and the outer surface of the fifth toe, supplied by the sural nerve. Sensation to the bottom of the toes is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the great toe and inner three-and-a-half toes, and the lateral plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the little toe and half of the sensation of the fourth toe.

An individual's toes that follow the common trend of the hallux outsizing the second toe.

In humans, the hallux is usually longer than the second toe, but in some individuals, it may not be the longest toe. There is an inherited trait in humans, where the dominant gene causes a longer second toe ("Morton's toe" or "Greek foot") while the homozygous recessive genotype presents with the more common trait: a longer hallux.[2] People with the rare genetic disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva characteristically have a short hallux which appears to turn inward, or medially, in relation to the foot.

Variation[edit]

Humans usually have five toes on each foot. When more than five toes are present, this is known as polydactyly. Other variants may include syndactyly or arachnodactyly. Forefoot shape, including toe shape, exhibits significant variation among people; these differences can be measured and have been statistically correlated with ethnicity.[3] Such deviations may affect comfort and fit for various shoe types. Research conducted for the U.S. Army indicated that larger feet may still have smaller arches, toe length, and toe-breadth.[4]

Function[edit]

The human foot consists of multiple bones and soft tissues which support the weight of the upright human. Specifically, the toes assist the human while walking,[5] providing balance, weight-bearing, and thrust during gait.

Clinical relevance[edit]

A sprain or strain to the small interphalangeal joints of the toe is commonly called a stubbed toe. A sprain or strain where the toe joins to the foot is called turf toe.

Long-term use of improperly sized shoes can cause misalignment of toes, as well as other orthopedic problems.

Morton's neuroma commonly results in pain and numbness between the third and fourth toes of the sufferer, due to it affecting the nerve between the third and fourth metatarsal bones.[6]

The big toe is also the most common locus of ingrown nails and gout attacks.

Deformity[edit]

Deformities of the foot include hammer toe, trigger toe, and claw toe. Hammer toe can be described as an abnormal contraction or “buckling” of a toe. This is done by a partial or complete dislocation of one of the joints, which form the toes. Since the toes are deformed further, these may press against a shoe and cause pain. Deformities of the foot can also be caused by rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus. Deformities may predispose to ulcers and pain, especially when shoe-wearing.

A common problem involving the big toe is the formation of bunions. These are structural deformities of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe, and may be painful.[7] Similar deformity involving the fifth toe is described as tailor's bunion or bunionette.

In reconstruction[edit]

A favourable option for the reconstruction of missing adjacent fingers[8]/multiple digit amputations, i.e. such as a metacarpal hand reconstruction, is to have a combined second and third toe transplantation.[9] Third and fourth toe transplantation are also good.[10]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ta[edit]

The Old English term for toe is ta (plural tan). This is a contraction of tahe, and derives from Proto-Germanic taihwo (cognates: Old Norse ta, Old Frisian tane, Middle Dutch te, Dutch teen (perhaps originally a plural), Old High German zecha, German Zehe). Perhaps originally meaning "fingers" as well (many Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) languages still use one word to mean both fingers and toes), and thus from PIE root deik — "to show".[11]

Hallux[edit]

View of the feet in Michellangelo's David

In classical Latin hallex,[12][13] allex,[12][14] hallus[12] and allus,[12] with genitive (h)allicis and (h)alli, are used to refer to the big toe. The form hallux (genitive, hallucis) currently in use is however a blend word of the aforementioned forms.[12][15] Compare pollex, the equivalent term for the thumb.

In other animals[edit]

In birds with anisodactyl or heterodactyl feet, the hallux is opposed or directed backwards and allows for grasping and perching.

While the thumb is often mentioned as one of the signature characteristics in humans, this manual digit remains partially primitive and is actually present in all primates. In humans, the most derived digital feature is the hallux.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. 
  2. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Toes – relative lengths of first and second -189200
  3. ^ Hawes, MR; Sovak, D; Miyashita, M; Kang, SJ; Yoshihuku, Y; Tanaka, S (Jan 1994). "Ethnic differences in forefoot shape and the determination of shoe comfort.". Ergonomics. 37 (1): 187–96. PMID 8112275. doi:10.1080/00140139408963637. 
  4. ^ Freedman, A., Huntington, E.C., Davis, G.C., Magee, R.B., Milstead, V.M. and Kirkpatrick, C.M.. 1946. Foot Dimensions of Soldiers (Third Partial Report), Armored Medical Research Laboratory, Fort Knox, Kentucky.
  5. ^ Janey Hughes, Peter Clark, & Leslie Klenerman. The Importance of the Toes in Walking. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 72-B, No. 2. March, 1990. [1]
  6. ^ "Morton's Neuroma". Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  7. ^ American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. "Bunions". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  8. ^ Wei, Fu-Chan; Colony, Lee H.; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chuang, Chwei-Chin; Noordhoff, Samuel M. (1989). "Combined Second and Third Toe Transfer". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 84 (4): 651–61. PMID 2780906. doi:10.1097/00006534-198984040-00016. 
  9. ^ Cheng, Ming-Huei; Wei, Fu-Chan; Santamaria, Eric; Cheng, Shao-Lung; Lin, Chih-Hung; Chen, Samuel H. T. (1998). "Single versus Double Arterial Anastomoses in Combined Second- and Third-Toe Transplantation". Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 102 (7): 2408. doi:10.1097/00006534-199812000-00021. 
  10. ^ Lutz, Barbara S.; Wei, Fu-Chan (2002). "Basic Principles on Toe-to-Hand Transplantation" (PDF). Gung Medical Journal. 25 (9): 568–76. PMID 12479617. 
  11. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Toe. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Hyrtl, J. (1880). Onomatologia Anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller. K.K. Hof- und Universitätsbuchhändler.
  13. ^ Triepel, H. (1908). Memorial on the anatomical nomenclature of the anatomical society. In A. Rose (Ed.), Medical Greek. Collection of papers on medical onomatology and a grammatical guide to learn modern Greek (pp. 176–93). New York: Peri Hellados publication office.
  14. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  15. ^ Triepel, H. (1910). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Mit einem Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Dritte Auflage). Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  16. ^ Lovejoy, C. Owen; Suwa, Gen; Simpson, Scott W.; Matternes, Jay H.; White, Tim D. (October 2009). "The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes". Science. 326 (5949): 102. PMID 19810199. doi:10.1126/science.1175833. 

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