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Toe - Goodbye / グッドバイ (CUT_DVD with Toki Asako)
Toe - Goodbye / グッドバイ (CUT_DVD with Toki Asako)
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: specialother
Toe - Live DVD 2010 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [Full set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Toe - Live DVD 2010 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [Full set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Published: 2013/03/17
Channel: Post Rock
TOE LIVE AT EBS SPACE 공감
TOE LIVE AT EBS SPACE 공감
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Seoul GigCam
Toe - Two Moons
Toe - Two Moons
Published: 2009/12/16
Channel: Davide Zonca
Toe - Hear You (2015)
Toe - Hear You (2015)
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: Mr. Gaff
toe - グッドバイ PV / "Goodbye" Music Video
toe - グッドバイ PV / "Goodbye" Music Video
Published: 2011/01/19
Channel: At0m5k
toe - Song Silly [Official Music Video]
toe - Song Silly [Official Music Video]
Published: 2015/07/18
Channel: whitenoisehk
toe - the book about my idle plot on a vague anxiety (full album)
toe - the book about my idle plot on a vague anxiety (full album)
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Lucas Salas
toe - Path (Live)
toe - Path (Live)
Published: 2012/07/29
Channel: hara harath
Toe - My Little Wish
Toe - My Little Wish
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: Beefslap
4. Toe - I Dance alone
4. Toe - I Dance alone
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Toe - Live DVD 2006 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [full Set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Toe - Live DVD 2006 [Math Rock] [Post Rock] [full Set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Post Rock
Tyler1 Tries The Toe Of Satan Challenge
Tyler1 Tries The Toe Of Satan Challenge
Published: 2017/09/23
Channel: Tyler1 Highlights
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [Official Audio]
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [Official Audio]
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Mastodon
Toe - Live 2014 [Math rock] [Full Set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Toe - Live 2014 [Math rock] [Full Set] [Live Performance] [Concert]
Published: 2016/05/08
Channel: Post Rock
11. Toe - Good Bye // New Sentimentality
11. Toe - Good Bye // New Sentimentality
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
TOE LIVE AT THE REGENT: Goodbye
TOE LIVE AT THE REGENT: Goodbye
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: Restless Cities
[HQ] toe - 孤独の発明 ( Kodoku No Hatsumei)
[HQ] toe - 孤独の発明 ( Kodoku No Hatsumei)
Published: 2009/04/01
Channel: Hui Hon Man
toe - goodbye (feat. Toki Asako)
toe - goodbye (feat. Toki Asako)
Published: 2009/12/14
Channel: Rafael Dias
Honda Civic Si Heel and toe driving tip.
Honda Civic Si Heel and toe driving tip.
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: Motormouth Canada
Another Ram
Another Ram's Horn Nail on Big Toe
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Dr Nail Nipper
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [In-Studio Performance]
Mastodon - Toe to Toes [In-Studio Performance]
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Mastodon
Ten Toes (Prod. BubbaGotBeatz) - Instrumental
Ten Toes (Prod. BubbaGotBeatz) - Instrumental
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: BubbaGotBeatz
Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes - Exercise Song For Kids
Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes - Exercise Song For Kids
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: ChuChu TV Nursery Rhymes & Kids Songs
Touch Your Toes (Flexibility Hack)
Touch Your Toes (Flexibility Hack)
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: FitnessFAQs
☘ Head To Toe Spa Package ☘ [ASMR]
☘ Head To Toe Spa Package ☘ [ASMR]
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: [Esc] reality
toe - I dance alone
toe - I dance alone
Published: 2008/06/29
Channel: Hui Hon Man
DAX × lute:toe「エソテリック / Esoteric」
DAX × lute:toe「エソテリック / Esoteric」
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: lute / ルーテ
1. Toe - Run For Words // Tremolo + Delay
1. Toe - Run For Words // Tremolo + Delay
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: skeudotheque
Gross Toenail Transformed Into Pretty Nails - Best Toe Nail Art Tutorial Foot Pedicure Fugly To Fab!
Gross Toenail Transformed Into Pretty Nails - Best Toe Nail Art Tutorial Foot Pedicure Fugly To Fab!
Published: 2017/08/24
Channel: Neo Trix
toe - Song Silly @ TAICOCLUB
toe - Song Silly @ TAICOCLUB'16
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: DAX -Space Shower Digital Archives X-
toe - 1/21 @ Twilight Shower
toe - 1/21 @ Twilight Shower
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: DAX -Space Shower Digital Archives X-
Fugly Toenail Transformed Into Hollywood Nails - Best Foot Pedicure Treatment Toe Nail Art Tutorial
Fugly Toenail Transformed Into Hollywood Nails - Best Foot Pedicure Treatment Toe Nail Art Tutorial
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Neo Trix
The TOE POKE Football Boots!!
The TOE POKE Football Boots!!
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: Kieran Brown
[HQ] toe - C
[HQ] toe - C
Published: 2009/01/08
Channel: Hui Hon Man
Operativo de las TOE en Roldán - Santa Fe
Operativo de las TOE en Roldán - Santa Fe
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: El Litoral
UFC JAPAN POSTMORTEM!!!
UFC JAPAN POSTMORTEM!!!
Published: 2017/09/23
Channel: Tommy Toe Hold
afl. 4: fietje licht metamorfose keuzes toe | vtwonen | weer verliefd op je huis
afl. 4: fietje licht metamorfose keuzes toe | vtwonen | weer verliefd op je huis
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: vtwonen
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Published: 2009/07/10
Channel: Zac Brown Band
SML Short: Bowser Junior Stubs His Toe!
SML Short: Bowser Junior Stubs His Toe!
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: SuperMarioLogan
[HQ] toe - past and language
[HQ] toe - past and language
Published: 2009/04/01
Channel: Hui Hon Man
Great Toe Mobilizations (Distraction, AP, and PA)
Great Toe Mobilizations (Distraction, AP, and PA)
Published: 2013/05/24
Channel: Physical Therapy Nation
When Floyd Mayweather Fights Toe to Toe
When Floyd Mayweather Fights Toe to Toe
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: OfficeHanchoBoxing
The Big Toe
The Big Toe
Published: 2012/10/31
Channel: Spooky Tales
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Zac Brown Band - Toes (Video)
Published: 2009/10/01
Channel: Atlantic Records
How to Cure Numbness in Your Feet and Toes | numbness in toes
How to Cure Numbness in Your Feet and Toes | numbness in toes
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: Health&Fitness
Toe of Satan Challenge! (Featuring its inventor)
Toe of Satan Challenge! (Featuring its inventor)
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: Vat19
Gel Polish Pedicure with Big Toe Nail Extensions
Gel Polish Pedicure with Big Toe Nail Extensions
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Melis Ates
NFL Greatest Toe Taps of All Time (Sideline Catches)
NFL Greatest Toe Taps of All Time (Sideline Catches)
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Savage Brick Sports
Toe / Collections Of Colonies Of Bees - Split (2009) [FULL SPLIT]
Toe / Collections Of Colonies Of Bees - Split (2009) [FULL SPLIT]
Published: 2015/08/29
Channel: emotional letters
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Hallux)
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Toes
Toes.jpg
Toes on the human foot. The innermost toe (bottom-left in image), which is normally called the big toe, is the hallux.
Ospied-de.svg
Bones of the foot (the toe bones are the ones in green, blue and orange)
Details
Identifiers
Latin Digiti pedis
TA A01.1.00.046
FMA 25046
Anatomical terminology

Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade. Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of their toes.

Structure[edit]

Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.

There are five toes present on each human foot. Each toe consists of three phalanx bones, the proximal, middle and distal, with the exception of the big toe (Latin: Hallux). The hallux only contains two phalanx bones, the proximal and distal. The phalanx bones of the toe join to the metatarsal bones of the foot at the interphalangeal joints.[1]:557 Outside the hallux bones is skin, and present on all five toes is a toenail.

The toes are, from medial to lateral:

  • The first toe, also known as the hallux ("big toe" or "great toe"), the innermost toe, the "thumb toe."
  • The second toe, "long toe" or "pointer toe", "index toe"
  • The third toe, or "middle toe"
  • The fourth toe, or "ring toe"
  • The fifth toe, "baby toe", "little toe", "pinky toe", "small toe" or "tiny toe", the outermost toe

Muscles[edit]

Toe movement is generally flexion and extension via muscular tendons that attach to the toes on the anterior and superior surfaces of the phalanx bones.[1]:573

With the exception of the hallux, toe movement is generally governed by action of the flexor digitorum brevis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles. These attach to the sides of the bones,[1]:572–75 making it impossible to move individual toes independently. Muscles between the toes on their top and bottom also help to abduct and adduct the toes.[1]:579 The hallux and little toe have unique muscles:

Blood supply[edit]

The toes receive blood from the digital branches of the plantar metatarsal arteries and drain blood into the dorsal venous arch of the foot.[1]:580–81

Nerve supply[edit]

Sensation to the skin of the toes is provided by five nerves. The superficial fibular nerve supplies sensation to the top of the toes, except between the hallux and second toe, which is supplied by the deep fibular nerve, and the outer surface of the fifth toe, supplied by the sural nerve. Sensation to the bottom of the toes is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the great toe and inner three-and-a-half toes, and the lateral plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the little toe and half of the sensation of the fourth toe.

In humans, the hallux is usually longer than the second toe, but in some individuals, it may not be the longest toe. There is an inherited trait in humans, where the dominant gene causes a longer second toe ("Morton's toe" or "Greek foot") while the homozygous recessive genotype presents with the more common trait: a longer hallux.[2] People with the rare genetic disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva characteristically have a short hallux which appears to turn inward, or medially, in relation to the foot.

Variation[edit]

Humans usually have five toes on each foot. When more than five toes are present, this is known as polydactyly. Other variants may include syndactyly or arachnodactyly. Forefoot shape, including toe shape, exhibits significant variation among people; these differences can be measured and have been statistically correlated with ethnicity.[3] Such deviations may affect comfort and fit for various shoe types. Research conducted for the U.S. Army indicated that larger feet may still have smaller arches, toe length, and toe-breadth.[4]

Function[edit]

The human foot consists of multiple bones and soft tissues which support the weight of the upright human. Specifically, the toes assist the human while walking,[5] providing balance, weight-bearing, and thrust during gait.

Clinical relevance[edit]

A sprain or strain to the small interphalangeal joints of the toe is commonly called a stubbed toe. A sprain or strain where the toe joins to the foot is called turf toe.

Long-term use of improperly sized shoes can cause misalignment of toes, as well as other orthopedic problems.

Morton's neuroma commonly results in pain and numbness between the third and fourth toes of the sufferer, due to it affecting the nerve between the third and fourth metatarsal bones.[6]

The big toe is also the most common locus of ingrown nails and gout attacks.

Deformity[edit]

Deformities of the foot include hammer toe, trigger toe, and claw toe. Hammer toe can be described as an abnormal contraction or “buckling” of a toe. This is done by a partial or complete dislocation of one of the joints, which form the toes. Since the toes are deformed further, these may press against a shoe and cause pain. Deformities of the foot can also be caused by rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus. Deformities may predispose to ulcers and pain, especially when shoe-wearing.

A common problem involving the big toe is the formation of bunions. These are structural deformities of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe, and may be painful.[7] Similar deformity involving the fifth toe is described as tailor's bunion or bunionette.

In reconstruction[edit]

A favourable option for the reconstruction of missing adjacent fingers[8]/multiple digit amputations, i.e. such as a metacarpal hand reconstruction, is to have a combined second and third toe transplantation.[9] Third and fourth toe transplantation are also good.[10]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ta[edit]

The Old English term for toe is ta (plural tan). This is a contraction of tahe, and derives from Proto-Germanic taihwo (cognates: Old Norse ta, Old Frisian tane, Middle Dutch te, Dutch teen (perhaps originally a plural), Old High German zecha, German Zehe). Perhaps originally meaning "fingers" as well (many Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) languages still use one word to mean both fingers and toes), and thus from PIE root deik — "to show".[11]

Hallux[edit]

View of the feet in Michellangelo's David

In classical Latin hallex,[12][13] allex,[12][14] hallus[12] and allus,[12] with genitive (h)allicis and (h)alli, are used to refer to the big toe. The form hallux (genitive, hallucis) currently in use is however a blend word of the aforementioned forms.[12][15] Compare pollex, the equivalent term for the thumb.

In other animals[edit]

In birds with anisodactyl or heterodactyl feet, the hallux is opposed or directed backwards and allows for grasping and perching.

While the thumb is often mentioned as one of the signature characteristics in humans, this manual digit remains partially primitive and is actually present in all primates. In humans, the most derived digital feature is the hallux.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. 
  2. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Toes – relative lengths of first and second -189200
  3. ^ Hawes, MR; Sovak, D; Miyashita, M; Kang, SJ; Yoshihuku, Y; Tanaka, S (Jan 1994). "Ethnic differences in forefoot shape and the determination of shoe comfort.". Ergonomics. 37 (1): 187–96. PMID 8112275. doi:10.1080/00140139408963637. 
  4. ^ Freedman, A., Huntington, E.C., Davis, G.C., Magee, R.B., Milstead, V.M. and Kirkpatrick, C.M.. 1946. Foot Dimensions of Soldiers (Third Partial Report), Armored Medical Research Laboratory, Fort Knox, Kentucky.
  5. ^ Janey Hughes, Peter Clark, & Leslie Klenerman. The Importance of the Toes in Walking. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 72-B, No. 2. March, 1990. [1]
  6. ^ "Morton's Neuroma". Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  7. ^ American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. "Bunions". Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  8. ^ Wei, Fu-Chan; Colony, Lee H.; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chuang, Chwei-Chin; Noordhoff, Samuel M. (1989). "Combined Second and Third Toe Transfer". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 84 (4): 651–61. PMID 2780906. doi:10.1097/00006534-198984040-00016. 
  9. ^ Cheng, Ming-Huei; Wei, Fu-Chan; Santamaria, Eric; Cheng, Shao-Lung; Lin, Chih-Hung; Chen, Samuel H. T. (1998). "Single versus Double Arterial Anastomoses in Combined Second- and Third-Toe Transplantation". Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 102 (7): 2408. doi:10.1097/00006534-199812000-00021. 
  10. ^ Lutz, Barbara S.; Wei, Fu-Chan (2002). "Basic Principles on Toe-to-Hand Transplantation" (PDF). Gung Medical Journal. 25 (9): 568–76. PMID 12479617. 
  11. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Toe. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Hyrtl, J. (1880). Onomatologia Anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller. K.K. Hof- und Universitätsbuchhändler.
  13. ^ Triepel, H. (1908). Memorial on the anatomical nomenclature of the anatomical society. In A. Rose (Ed.), Medical Greek. Collection of papers on medical onomatology and a grammatical guide to learn modern Greek (pp. 176–93). New York: Peri Hellados publication office.
  14. ^ Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  15. ^ Triepel, H. (1910). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Mit einem Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Dritte Auflage). Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  16. ^ Lovejoy, C. Owen; Suwa, Gen; Simpson, Scott W.; Matternes, Jay H.; White, Tim D. (October 2009). "The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes". Science. 326 (5949): 102. PMID 19810199. doi:10.1126/science.1175833. 

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