|Possible time of origin
||66,000 YBP 
|Possible place of origin
||R0, R1, R2'JT, R3, R5, R6'7, R8, R9, R11'B, R12'21, R14, R22, R23, R30, R31, P, U
In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup R is a very extended mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and is the most common macro-haplogroup in West Eurasia.
Haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N. Among its descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and the ancestral haplogroup of J and T.
As of June 2009, the most recent study dates the origin of haplogroup R to 66.6kya with a 95% confidence interval of 52.6-81kya.
South Asia lies on the way of earliest dispersals from Africa and is therefore a valuable well of knowledge on early human migration. The analysis of the indigenous haplogroup R lineages in India points to a common first spread of the root haplotypes of M, N, and R along the southern route some 60–70 kya.
Haplogroup R has wide diversity and antiquity among varied ethnic status and different language families in South Asia. In Indian western region among the castes and southern region among the tribes show higher haplogroup diversity than the other regions, possibly suggesting their autochthonous status.
R and its descendants are spread all over Eurasia, Oceania and the Americas. These descendants are specially prevailing in Western Eurasia. About 89% of Europeans are of mtDNA macro-haplogroup R.
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation and subsequent published research.
- R0 (formerly pre-HV)
- R11'B (16189)
- ^ a b Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock Supplementary material. pp. page89. 2009.
- ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- ^ Soares, P; Ermini, L; Thomson, N; Mormina, M; Rito, T; Röhl, A; Salas, A; Oppenheimer, S et al. (2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 740–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773.
- ^ a b Karmin, Monika 2005, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R in India Thesis, University of Tartu
- ^ a b c d Palanichamy, M. et al. 2004. Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India, Based on Complete Sequencing: Implications for the Peopling of South Asia.
- ^ a b Maji, S. et al. 2008, Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India with Special Reference to Haplogroup R and its Sub-Haplogroup U. Int J Hum Genet, 8(1-2): 85-96 (2008)
- ^ Eupedia.com. Distribution of European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups by region in percentage
- ^ a b c Abu-Amero, Khaled K, Larruga, José M, Cabrera, Vicente M, Gonz�lez, Ana M (2008). "Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula". BMC Evolutionary Biology 8 (45): 52. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-45. PMC 2268671. PMID 18269758.
- ^ a b c d e Quintana-Murci, Lluís et al. (2004). "Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor". Am J. Hum. Genet 74: 2004.
- ^ Haplogroups V & pre*V.
- ^ a b Helgason, Agnar; Hickey, E; Goodacre, S; Bosnes, V; Stefánsson, K; Ward, R; Sykes, B (2001). "mtDNA and the Islands of the North Atlantic: Estimating the Proportions of Norse and Gaelic Ancestry". Am J. Hum. Genet 68 (3): 723–737. doi:10.1086/318785. PMC 1274484. PMID 11179019.
- ^ a b Malyarchuk, B. et al. 2008a Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs.
- ^ Serk, Piia. 2004. Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup J in Europe and Near East. Thesis University of Tartu, Estonia
- ^ oxfordancestors.com Maternal Ancestry
- ^ Mannis van Oven's PhyloTree.org – mtDNA subtree R
- ^ a b c Metspalu, M. et al. 2005, Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. BMC Genetics 2004, 5:26
- ^ a b c d e f g Chaubey G. et al. 2008a Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula
- ^ Thangaraj, K. et al. 2009, Deep Rooting In-Situ Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup R8 in South Asia.
- ^ Ian Logan 2009, Haplogrupo R9b, Mitochondrial DNA Site
- ^ a b Hill, Catherine et al. 2006, Phylogeography and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Southeast Asians Mol. Biol. Evol. 23(12):2480–2491. 2006
- ^ Clarissa Scholes et al. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Population Admixture in Batak Negritos from Palawan, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. 000:000–000 (2011)
- ^ a b c Hill, C. et al. 2007, A Mitochondrial Stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 January; 80(1): 29–43.
- ^ Derenko, Miroslava 2007 Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations The American Journal of Human Genetics 81, 5, Nov 07, 1025–1041
- ^ Tanaka, Masashi et al. 2004, Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan. Genome Res. 2004. 14: 1832–1850
- ^ a b Tabbada, Kristina. et al. 2009, Philippine mitochondrial DNA diversity: a populated viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia? Molecular Biology and Evolution, doi:10.1093/molbev/msp215
- ^ Pierson, Melanie et al. 2006, Deciphering Past Human Population Movements in Oceania: Provably Optimal Trees of 127 mtDNA Genomes. MBE Advance Access published July 19, 2006
- ^ Haplogroup R14, Ian Logan's Mitochondrial DNA Site
- ^ Mona, Stefano et al 2009, Genetic admixture history of eastern Indonesia as revealed by Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analysis Mol Biol Evol (2009) doi:10.1093/molbev/msp097
- ^ a b Fornarino, Simona et al. 2009, Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:154 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154
- ^ a b c Friedlaender, Jonathan et al 2005, Expanding Southwest Pacific mitochondrial haplogroups P and Q. MBE Advance Access published April 6, 2005
- ^ Kayser, Manfred tl 2006, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific
- ^ Harding, Rosalind 2006, Gene tree analyses of Aboriginal Australians. University of Oxford
- ^ Hudjashov, Georgi et al. 2007. Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis. PNAS May 22, 2007 vol. 104 no. 21 8726-8730
- ^ mtDNA Haplogroup U1a page at cagetti.com
- ^ The Genographic Project at National Geographic
- ^ N. Maca-Mayer, Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography. BMC Genetics, 2003
External links