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Hawaii's Big Island Vacation Travel Guide | Expedia
Published: 2013/10/29
Channel: Expedia
Exploring the Big Island of Hawaii
Exploring the Big Island of Hawaii
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: CNN
Maui, Hawaii Travel Guide - Must-See Attractions
Maui, Hawaii Travel Guide - Must-See Attractions
Published: 2013/09/18
Channel: BookingHunterTV
Big Island of Hawaii Travel Guide 2017 (7 AMAZING Things to Do !)
Big Island of Hawaii Travel Guide 2017 (7 AMAZING Things to Do !)
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: Here Be Barr
Pros & Cons of Living in Hawaii (Big Island)
Pros & Cons of Living in Hawaii (Big Island)
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: MJ Gordon
The Big Island Of Hawaii
The Big Island Of Hawaii
Published: 2014/02/20
Channel: Chris andBayley
Hawaii The Big Island - GoPro HERO3: Black Edition
Hawaii The Big Island - GoPro HERO3: Black Edition
Published: 2013/08/03
Channel: probsty999
WAIKIKI | HONOLULU - OAHU / HAWAII , UNITED STATES - A TRAVEL TOUR - HD 1080P
WAIKIKI | HONOLULU - OAHU / HAWAII , UNITED STATES - A TRAVEL TOUR - HD 1080P
Published: 2014/03/05
Channel: GlobeTrotterAlpha
Maui: The most beautiful island in the World
Maui: The most beautiful island in the World
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: ALOHASTOKED
Things to know about visiting Hawaii - what island is best for a vacation
Things to know about visiting Hawaii - what island is best for a vacation
Published: 2016/08/16
Channel: JibaJabaJ
Hawaii Vacation | GoPro | Oahu | Big Island | Travel Video
Hawaii Vacation | GoPro | Oahu | Big Island | Travel Video
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: Kevin Pojezny
Paradise Found: The Hawaiian Islands
Paradise Found: The Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: GOGOvacations
What Hawaiian Island is Best for You With Reviews of Kauai, Maui, Big Island and Oahu
What Hawaiian Island is Best for You With Reviews of Kauai, Maui, Big Island and Oahu
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: JibaJabaJ
Hawaii Vacation (Big Island) Vlog
Hawaii Vacation (Big Island) Vlog
Published: 2014/09/14
Channel: Em Lu
Good Documentary Films: Hawaii Like You
Good Documentary Films: Hawaii Like You've Never Seen it Before
Published: 2014/08/19
Channel: Documentary Films
hawaiian islands
hawaiian islands
Published: 2013/12/10
Channel: ucanhali123
Big Island of Hawaii Top Things To Do | Viator Travel Guide
Big Island of Hawaii Top Things To Do | Viator Travel Guide
Published: 2015/05/20
Channel: Viator.com
Big Island - Living in Hawaii
Big Island - Living in Hawaii
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: Calvin Kemppel
Kilauea volcano on Hawaii
Kilauea volcano on Hawaii's Big Island smiles as it erupts
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: euronews (in English)
BIG ISLAND HAWAII 🌴 A Week of Adventure
BIG ISLAND HAWAII 🌴 A Week of Adventure
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Ben and Schanen
Travel Time - HAWAII BIG ISLAND (Full Episode)
Travel Time - HAWAII BIG ISLAND (Full Episode)
Published: 2012/11/22
Channel: NextStop.TV
How I live on The Big Island Hawaii
How I live on The Big Island Hawaii
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: Jon Bodhi Films
THE BIG ISLAND OF HAWAII
THE BIG ISLAND OF HAWAII
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: LifeOfMikey
Things to know about Big Island Hawaii
Things to know about Big Island Hawaii
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: JibaJabaJ
EPIC WATER SLIDE ON BIG ISLAND HAWAII | VLOG 65
EPIC WATER SLIDE ON BIG ISLAND HAWAII | VLOG 65
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Martin Solhaugen
Aloha Aina: Love of the Land (Hawaii Documentary - Big Island, Kauai)
Aloha Aina: Love of the Land (Hawaii Documentary - Big Island, Kauai)
Published: 2013/08/17
Channel: SilverSliverTV
SIX GREAT SPOTS ON HAWAII
SIX GREAT SPOTS ON HAWAII'S BIG ISLAND
Published: 2009/08/14
Channel: Los Angeles Times
Island of Kauai, Hawaii
Island of Kauai, Hawaii
Published: 2011/02/07
Channel: Lex Fletcher
#LetHawaiiHappen: Lost on Hawaii Island
#LetHawaiiHappen: Lost on Hawaii Island
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: Hawaii
Beautiful drive on the  Big Island - Day 1 in Hawaii
Beautiful drive on the Big Island - Day 1 in Hawaii
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: Roam The World
Big Island Hawaii For Kids
Big Island Hawaii For Kids
Published: 2013/10/18
Channel: Travel With Kids TV
Road Trip Across The Big Island Hawaii - Travel Couple Vlog!
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Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: WanderWorx
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Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Jas Davies
A New Hawaiian Island | National Geographic
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Published: 2009/08/06
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City Confidential Hilo Betrayal on the Big Island
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Channel: Anthony Dukes
Big island Hawaii is The Most Beautiful Island on Earth
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Hawaii, The Big Island (GoPro, Nikon, & Drone)
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Hilo, Hawaii: The Big Island
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Published: 2015/02/18
Channel: Ivan the Intrepid
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Living on the Hawaiian Island of Maui
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Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Sotheby's International Realty
Fun Things to Do in Hawaii...Kohala Ditch Adventure on the Big Island
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Published: 2012/08/26
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The Unusual Formation of the Hawaiian Islands
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GoPro Drone Big Island Hawaii Vacation 2016 - 4K
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Published: 2016/08/23
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Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: JibaJabaJ
2 Step Beach Snorkeling, Big Island, Hawaii
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Published: 2016/07/23
Channel: Creative Outlet Images
Amazing Lava Flow on Big Island Hawaii February 2017
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Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: Big Island Flow
Hawaii - Which Island is Right for You? Tourism, Activities, Attractions, Accommodations Overview
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Published: 2013/09/22
Channel: Vacation Side Travel
Hawaii helicopter tour | Big Island | Helicopter Eurocopter EC130
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Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Pavel Korsun
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Hawaiʻi
The Big Island
Island of Hawai'i - Landsat mosaic.jpg
Landsat mosaic, 1999–2001
Map of Hawaii highlighting Hawaii (island).svg
Location in the state of Hawaii
Geography
Location 19°34′N 155°30′W / 19.567°N 155.500°W / 19.567; -155.500
Archipelago Hawaiian Islands
Area 4,028 sq mi (10,430 km2)
Area rank 75th, largest island in the United States - 1st
Highest elevation 13,803 ft (4,207.2 m)[1]
Highest point Mauna Kea
Administration
United States
State

Hawaii

Symbols
Flower Red Pua Lehua ('Ohi'a blossom)[2]
Color ʻUlaʻula (red)
Demographics
Population 185,079 (2010)
Pop. density 46 /sq mi (17.8 /km2)

Hawaiʻi (English: /həˈw.i, -ji, -ʔi/ (About this sound listen) hə-WY-(y)ee; Hawaiian: [həˈvɐjʔi]) is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeastern-most of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2), it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, and is the largest island in the United States. However, it only has 13% of Hawaiʻi’s people. The island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand.[3]

The island is often referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi,[4] the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island is encompassed by Hawaiʻi County.

As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079.[5] The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County (see List of counties in Hawaii).[6]

History[edit]

James Kealoha Beach, "Carlsmith Beach Park", in Hilo

Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which some Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they go in the afterlife, or the realm of the gods and goddesses. Captain James Cook, the English explorer and navigator who was the captain of the first European expedition that discovered the Hawaiian Islands, called them the "Sandwich Islands" after his patron, the Earl of Sandwich.[7] Cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ship's boat.[8]

Hawaiʻi was the home island of Paiʻea Kamehameha, later known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after several years of war, and gave the kingdom and the island chain the name of his native island.[9]

Geology and geography[edit]

Aerial view, 3D computer-generated image

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,086 square miles (13,170 km2), of which 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2) is land and 1,058 square miles (2,740 km2) (20.8%) is water.[10] The county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States.[11]

At its greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles (150 km) across. It has a land area of 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2)[12] comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands' land area. Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the world's tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest is, since the base of Mount Everest is above sea level.[13]

A view of the Kohala Coast and adjacent volcanoes, taken from the slopes of Kohala Mountains about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of Kawaihae. From left to right: Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai.

Volcanism[edit]

The five shield volcanoes
Steam plume as Kīlauea red lava enters the ocean at three Waikupanaha and one Ki lava ocean entries. Some surface lava is seen too. The image was taken on 16 April 2008.

The island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are (from oldest to youngest):[14]

Geological evidence from exposures of old surfaces on the south and west flanks of Mauna Loa led to the proposal that two ancient volcanic shields (named Ninole and Kulani) were all but buried by the younger Mauna Loa.[15] Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa. Another volcano which has already disappeared below the surface of the ocean is Māhukona.[16]

Because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres (220 ha) to the island. Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, and Kalapana and Kaimū in 1990. In 1987 lava filled in "Queen's Bath", a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area.[citation needed]

Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the 50 States of the United States, is on Hawaii. The nearest landfall to the south is in the Line Islands. To the northwest of the island of Hawaii is the island of Maui, whose Haleakalā volcano is visible from Hawaii across the Alenuihaha Channel.[citation needed]

Approximately 22 miles (35 km) southeast of Hawaii lies the undersea volcano known as Lōʻihi. It is an erupting seamount that now reaches approximately 3,200 feet (980 m) below the surface of the ocean. Continued activity at current rates from Lōʻihi will likely cause it to break the surface of the ocean sometime between 10,000 and 100,000 years from now.[citation needed]

Great Crack[edit]

See also Koa'e Fault Zone.

Photo showing clouds of steam surrounding lava that is partly black and partly glowing orange
Lava entering the Pacific at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in April 2005, increasing the size of the island

The Great Crack is an eight-mile-long (12,875 m), 60-foot-wide (18 m) and 60-foot-deep (18 m) fissure in the island, in the district of Kau. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Great Crack is the result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the southwest rift zone of Kilauea.[17] While neither the earthquake of 1868 nor that of 1975 caused a measurable change in the Great Crack, lava welled out of the lower 6 miles (10 km) of the Great Crack in 1823.[17]

Visitors can find trails, rock walls, and archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. Approximately 1,951 acres (790 ha) of private land were purchased during the presidency of Bill Clinton, specifically to protect various artifacts in this area, as well as the habitat of local wildlife.[citation needed]

Hilina Slump[edit]

Photo of coastline with 10 people standing or walking on the beach and palm trees in background
Punalu'u Black Sand Beach Park
La'aloa Bay, also known as "Magic Sands," one of few white sand beaches on the island

The Hilina Slump is a 4,760-cubic-mile (19,800 km3) chunk of the south slope of the Kīlauea volcano which is slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements showed a southward displacement of about 4 inches (10 cm) per year.[18] Undersea measurements show that a "bench" has formed a buttress and that this buttress may tend to reduce the likelihood of future catastrophic detachment.[19][20]

Earthquakes and tsunamis[edit]

Anaeho'omalu Beach panorama

On April 2, 1868, an earthquake with a magnitude estimated between 7.25 and 7.9 on the Richter scale rocked the southeast coast of Hawaii. This was the most destructive earthquake in the recorded history of Hawaii.[21] It triggered a landslide on Mauna Loa, 5 miles (8 km) north of Pahala, killing 31 people. A tsunami claimed 46 more lives. The villages of Punalu'u, Nīnole, Kawaa, Honuapo, and Keauhou Landing were severely damaged. The tsunami reportedly rolled over the tops of the coconut trees up to 60 feet (18 m) high, and it reached inland a distance of a quarter of a mile (400 meters) in some places.[22]

On 29 November 1975, a 37-mile-wide (60 km) section of the Hilina Slump dropped 11.5 feet (3.5 m) and slid 26 feet (7.9 m) toward the ocean. This movement caused a 7.2 magnitude earthquake and a 48-foot-high (15 m) tsunami. Oceanfront property was washed off its foundations in Punaluu. Two deaths were reported at Halape, and 19 other people were injured.[23]

The island suffered tsunami damage from earthquakes in Alaska on 1 April 1946, and in Chile on 23 May 1960. Downtown Hilo was severely damaged by both tsunamis, with many lives lost. Just north of Hilo, Laupāhoehoe lost 16 schoolchildren and five teachers in the tsunami of 1946.[24]

In March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake off the east coast of Japan again created a tsunami that caused minor damage in Hawaii. The estimated damage to public buildings alone was about US$3 million.[25] In the Kona area this tsunami washed a house into Kealakekua Bay, destroyed a yacht club and tour boat offices in Keauhou Bay, caused extensive damage in Kailua Kona, flooded the ground floor of the King Kamehameha Hotel,[26] and permanently closed the Kona Village Resort.[27]

Volcanic fog[edit]

Vog (volcanic fog) can envelop the island. The gas plumes of the Kīlauea Volcano create a blanket of vog which the dominant trade winds mostly deflect toward the Kona coast on the west side of the island of Hawaiʻi. Vog contains chemicals that can damage the environment and the health of plants, humans, and other animals. Most of the aerosols are acidic and of a size where they can remain in the lungs to damage them and impair function. Flu-like symptoms and general lethargy are reported, especially pronounced in people with respiratory conditions.[28][29][30][31]

National protected areas[edit]

Lehua blossoms, Hawaiʻi

Adjacent counties[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 46,843
1910 55,382 18.2%
1920 64,895 17.2%
1930 73,325 13.0%
1940 73,276 −0.1%
1950 68,350 −6.7%
1960 61,332 −10.3%
1970 63,468 3.5%
1980 92,053 45.0%
1990 120,317 30.7%
2000 148,677 23.6%
2010 185,079 24.5%
Est. 2013 190,821 3.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[32]
1790–1960[33] 1900–1990[34]
1990–2000[35] 2010–2013[5]

As of the census[36] of 2010, the island had a resident population of 185,079. There were 64,382 households in the county. The population density was 17.7/km2 (45.9/mi2). There were 82,324 housing units at an average density of 8/km2 (20/mi2). The racial makeup of the county was 34.5% White, 0.7% African American, 22.6% Asian, 12.4% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and 29.2% from two or more races; 11.8% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.[citation needed]

There were 64,382 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a woman whose husband did not live with her, and 30.40% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.24.[citation needed]

The age distribution was 26.10% under 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, and 13.50% who were 65 or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98 males.[citation needed]

41.31% of the people on Hawai`i island are religious, meaning they affiliate with a religion. 18.38% are Catholic; 3.70% are another Christian faith; 5.14% are LDS; 0.06% in Hawaii, Hawaii are Jewish; 5.04% are an eastern faith; 0.05% are Muslim.[citation needed]

Government and infrastructure[edit]

County government[edit]

Hawaii County encompasses the entire island of Hawaii. Executive authority is vested in the mayor of Hawaii County, who is elected for a four-year term. Since 2004, the election by the voters has been on a non-partisan basis. In 2008, Billy Kenoi was elected mayor, succeeding Harry Kim who had served a two-term limit.[37] Legislative authority is vested in a nine-member county council. Each member represents a geographical region of the island, which closely correlates to one of the nine tax map districts of Hawaiʻi County. Members of the county council are elected on a non-partisan basis to two-year terms, with elections occurring in November of even-numbered years.

Administrative districts were originally based on the traditional land divisions called Moku of ancient Hawaii. Some of the more heavily populated districts have since been split into North and South districts to make them more comparable on a population basis.[citation needed]

The number following each district is the Tax Map Key (TMK) number, used to locate state property information. They are assigned in a counter-clockwise order, beginning on the eastern side of the island.[38]

Nr. District Area
mi2
Population
2000
moku Map
1 Puna 499.45 31335 Puna District subdivision of Hawaii County
2 South Hilo 394.38 47386 Hilo
3 North Hilo 370.65 1720 Hilo
4 Hāmākua 580.50 6108 Hāmākua
5 North Kohala 132.92 6038 Kohala
6 South Kohala 351.72 13131 Kohala
7 North Kona 489.01 28543 Kona
8 South Kona 335.38 8589 Kona
9 Kaʻū 922.22 5827 Kaʻū
  Hawaiʻi County 4028.02 148677 6 moku

County council districts do not directly match the property tax districts because of the variation in the population density of voters in urban areas to rural areas; Hilo and Kailua (Kailua-Kona) towns are densely populated areas, while other districts such as Kaʻū, Puna, Hāmakua, and North & South Kohala are more sparsely populated.[39]

Several government functions are administered at the county level that are at the state or municipal level in other states. For example, the county has its own office of liquor control.[40]

State government[edit]

The Hawaii Department of Public Safety previously operated the Kulani Correctional Facility on the island of Hawaii.[41] In 2009, the Hawaii Department of Public Safety announced that the facility would close.[42]

Economy[edit]

Aerial view of Cyanotech Corp. microalgae ponds at NELHA

Sugarcane was the backbone of the island of Hawaiʻi's economy for more than a century. In the mid-20th century, sugarcane plantations began to downsize, and in 1996 the last plantation closed.[citation needed]

Most of the island's economy is based on tourism, centered primarily in resort areas on the western coast of the island in the North Kona and South Kohala districts. More recently, Hawaiʻi Island has become a focus for sustainable tourism.[citation needed]

Diversified agriculture is a growing sector of the economy. Major crops include macadamia nuts, papaya, flowers, tropical and temperate vegetables, and coffee beans. Only coffee grown in the Kona District of this island may be branded Kona coffee. The island's orchid agriculture is the largest in the state, and resulted in the unofficial nickname "The Orchid Isle". The island is home to one of the United States' largest cattle ranches: Parker Ranch, on 175,000 acres (708 km2) in Waimea. The island is also known for astronomy, with numerous telescopes operated on the summit of Mauna Kea, where atmospheric clarity is excellent and there is little light pollution.[citation needed]

NELHA (Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority), a 675-acre (273 ha) state developed site, is a green economic development ocean science and technology park on the west side of the island. It provides resources and facilities for energy and ocean-related research, education, and commercial activities in an environmentally sound and culturally sensitive manner. Business tenants on this coastal site include microalgae farms, aquaculture, solar technology and marine biotech. Tenants have access to three sets of pipelines delivering deep-sea water from a depth of up to 3,000 feet (910 m), as well as pristine sea surface water and almost constant sunshine. A 2012 study by the University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization (UHERO) found the total economic impact of activities at NELHA was $87.7 million and created 583 jobs.[43]

Top employers[edit]

According to the county's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[44] the top employers in the county are:[citation needed]

# Employer # of Employees
1 State of Hawaii 8,115
2 Hawaii County 2,745
3 United States Government 1,364
4 Hilton Waikoloa Village 984
5 Wal-Mart 852
6 KTA Super Stores 800
7 Mauna Loa Resort 685
8 The Fairmont Orchid 577
9 Four Seasons Resort Hualalai 562
10 Hapuna Beach Prince Hotel 487

Education[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Bus in Hilo

Roads[edit]

Three routes connect the two major towns, Hilo on the east coast and Kailua-Kona on the west coast of the island:[45]

There are also State highways 270 (KawaihaeHawi) and 180 (the "Kona coffee road", from Honalo to State highway 190), South Point Road (Highway 11 to South Point), etc.

There are presently three Hawaii Scenic Byways on the island of Hawaii:

  • Mamalahoa Kona Heritage Center
  • Royal Footsteps Along the Kona Coast
  • Ka'u Scenic Byway – The Slopes of Mauna Loa

Rental car offices are at the international airports. Taxi service is also available. Island-wide bus service is provided by the "Hele-On Bus".[46]

Airports[edit]

Two commercial airports serve Hawaiʻi Island:

There is also:

Seaports[edit]

Major commercial ports are Hilo on the east side and Kawaihae on the west side of the island. Cruise ships often stop at Kailua-Kona (90 times in 2017)[47] and Hilo (108 times in 2017).[48]

Places of interest[edit]

ʻAkaka Falls on Kolekole Stream
Green sea turtle lying on an old lava flow; the background shows a Hawaiian temple, known as a "heiau" in the Hawaiian language.

Maps[edit]

Communities[edit]

The island was traditionally divided into districts called moku. The names of the districts are (counter-clockwise, from the southeast): Puna, Hilo, Hāmākua, Kohala, Kona, and Kaʻū. The county government subdivides some of these to form elective districts of the county council. There are no incorporated municipalities on the island.[citation needed]

Census-designated places[edit]

Hawaii from space, 26 January 2014[49]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Summit USGS 1977". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved 18 August 2010. 
  2. ^ "Hawaii Island Flower – Red Pua Lehua ('Ohi'a blossom)". statesymbolsusa.org. State Symbols USA. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "List of the Islands of Polynesia". Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. 
  4. ^ According to the Geographic Names Information System, Island of Hawaiʻi is the preferred name, see U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Island of Hawaiʻi.
  5. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  6. ^ Geography, US Census Bureau. "2010 Geographic Terms and Concepts – Place". www.census.gov. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. 
  7. ^ Jarves, James Jackson (1843). History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands. Tappa et Dennet. p. 1. 
  8. ^ "History – Captain James Cook". BBC. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  9. ^ Homans, Margaret; Munich, Adrienne. Remaking Queen Victoria. Cambridge University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-521-57485-3. 
  10. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 12 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  11. ^ Delaware's Sussex County comes in second at 48.0 percent, while Rhode Island's Providence County is third at 39.6 percent.
  12. ^ "Table 5.08 – Land Area of Islands: 2000" (PDF). State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  13. ^ "Highest Mountain in the World". Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  15. ^ MacDonald, G. A.; Abbott, A. T. (1970). Volcanoes in the Sea. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 0-87022-495-6. 
  16. ^ Garcia, Michael; Hanano, Diane (March 2008). "Age, geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of Mahukona Volcano, Hawai`i" (PDF). Bulletin of Volcanology. 74 (6): 1445–1463. doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0602-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "Are We Breaking Away – The Great Crack" Archived 10 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., USGS, 16 July 1998.
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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 19°34′N 155°30′W / 19.567°N 155.500°W / 19.567; -155.500

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