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Hawaii Declared 50th State (1959)
Hawaii Declared 50th State (1959)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
University of Hawaii at Manoa Admissions Decision Reaction! Applying to Colleges #15
University of Hawaii at Manoa Admissions Decision Reaction! Applying to Colleges #15
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: Nathan Card
Accepted to University of Hawai
Accepted to University of Hawai'i at Mānoa!
Published: 2015/02/03
Channel: Xelian Xelian
When Was Hawaii Purchased By The United States?
When Was Hawaii Purchased By The United States?
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hadassah Hartman
SAT ACT PSAT tutoring prep classes Honolulu Hawaii services lessons college
SAT ACT PSAT tutoring prep classes Honolulu Hawaii services lessons college
Published: 2015/04/06
Channel: keninom2
SAT and ACT Test Optional Admissions
SAT and ACT Test Optional Admissions
Published: 2015/08/11
Channel: MagooshACT
BYU Admissions Presentation
BYU Admissions Presentation
Published: 2014/12/11
Channel: Tyler Bracken
BREAKING: HAWAII JUST BECAME GROUND ZERO FOR HORRIFIC NEW BRAIN EATING PARASITE EPIDEMIC
BREAKING: HAWAII JUST BECAME GROUND ZERO FOR HORRIFIC NEW BRAIN EATING PARASITE EPIDEMIC
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: The Next News Network
SAT, ACT Will Be Optional For Applicants To Hofstra University In 2015
SAT, ACT Will Be Optional For Applicants To Hofstra University In 2015
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: CBS New York
Welcome to BYU-Hawaii: Admissions
Welcome to BYU-Hawaii: Admissions
Published: 2010/06/03
Channel: BYU-Hawaii Learning Channel
21 vintage photos of Hawaii from before it became a state
21 vintage photos of Hawaii from before it became a state
Published: 2017/08/26
Channel: News USA
What Was The Status Of Hawaii In 1941?
What Was The Status Of Hawaii In 1941?
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hadassah Hartman
WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY IN ST. LOUIS ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION!
WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY IN ST. LOUIS ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION!
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Nathan Card
Hawaii Becomes 50th State - 1959 | Today in History | 21 Aug 16
Hawaii Becomes 50th State - 1959 | Today in History | 21 Aug 16
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: AP Archive
Hawaii Tourists Generously Pay Waitress
Hawaii Tourists Generously Pay Waitress' College Tuition
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Honolulu Civil Beat
Habilitat Hawaii Admission Counselor Vocational Training
Habilitat Hawaii Admission Counselor Vocational Training
Published: 2012/01/21
Channel: HabilitatHawaii
Amazon Ebook - Secrets of Admission to Hawaii
Amazon Ebook - Secrets of Admission to Hawaii's Top Private Schools
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: keninom2
SSAT Tutoring Honolulu Hawaii Punahou Kamehameha admission testing
SSAT Tutoring Honolulu Hawaii Punahou Kamehameha admission testing
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: keninom2
ACT vs. SAT - BYU Application
ACT vs. SAT - BYU Application
Published: 2011/11/18
Channel: BYU Admissions
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Nathan Card
How to get into BYU?
How to get into BYU?
Published: 2014/07/01
Channel: BYU COMMTECH
Rep. Tulsi Gabbard Urges Congress to Reauthorize CHIP For Hawaii
Rep. Tulsi Gabbard Urges Congress to Reauthorize CHIP For Hawaii's Keiki
Published: 2017/11/01
Channel: Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard
AMERICAN UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION!
AMERICAN UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION!
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: Nathan Card
GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION!
GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS DECISION REACTION!
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: Nathan Card
VANDY college admissions reaction 2017 // Vanderbilt
VANDY college admissions reaction 2017 // Vanderbilt
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: Krystin B
Why Did Alaska Join The Union?
Why Did Alaska Join The Union?
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hadassah Hartman
50th FAKEHOOD 3 18 09
50th FAKEHOOD 3 18 09
Published: 2009/03/19
Channel: Pono Kealoha
FBI HAWAII CONSPIRACY 1 OF 2... Judge Evades Oath of Office Question by Anthony Williams
FBI HAWAII CONSPIRACY 1 OF 2... Judge Evades Oath of Office Question by Anthony Williams
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: Sun2k
Test Tutor Hawaii - KALO TV Oceanic Ch.25 Christian station
Test Tutor Hawaii - KALO TV Oceanic Ch.25 Christian station
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: keninom2
FBI HAWAII CONSPIRACY 2 of 2, Anthony Williams framed and assaulted.
FBI HAWAII CONSPIRACY 2 of 2, Anthony Williams framed and assaulted.
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: Sun2k
BREAKING: HAWAII JUST TOOK A SHOCKING MOVE TO PROTECT THE ISLANDS FROM KIM’S FIRST STRIKE
BREAKING: HAWAII JUST TOOK A SHOCKING MOVE TO PROTECT THE ISLANDS FROM KIM’S FIRST STRIKE
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: The Next News Network
Dental Implants Procedure in Honolulu, HI and Aiea, HI | Oral Surgery Hawaii
Dental Implants Procedure in Honolulu, HI and Aiea, HI | Oral Surgery Hawaii
Published: 2016/07/11
Channel: Oral Surgery Hawaii, Dental Implants and Wisdom Teeth
Hawaiian Separatist Bill: HR 2314
Hawaiian Separatist Bill: HR 2314
Published: 2010/02/24
Channel: McClintockCA04
University of Hawaii Law School - Apply without taking the LSAT!
University of Hawaii Law School - Apply without taking the LSAT!
Published: 2015/05/19
Channel: Radiant Prep
Mililani Trask Suggests Amending SB246 so it
Mililani Trask Suggests Amending SB246 so it's Not Racist
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: Occupy Hawaii
Surprise Performance by Jim Nabors at Tuxes & Tails - April 2014
Surprise Performance by Jim Nabors at Tuxes & Tails - April 2014
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: Hawaiian Humane Society
BYU–Hawaii Holomua 2015
BYU–Hawaii Holomua 2015
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: BYU–Hawaii
Seized Lands  the Village of Leialii
Seized Lands the Village of Leialii
Published: 2011/10/15
Channel: Pono Kealoha
Jonathan Osorio CEDED SCAM 11-24-08
Jonathan Osorio CEDED SCAM 11-24-08
Published: 2008/12/16
Channel: Pono Kealoha
BREAKING North Korean threat to Hawaii is real now, commander says  - News
BREAKING North Korean threat to Hawaii is real now, commander says - News
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: TOP TOP
Psychiatric Patient Who Escaped From Hawaii Mental Hospital Speaks Out
Psychiatric Patient Who Escaped From Hawaii Mental Hospital Speaks Out
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: CBS Sacramento
Tulsi Gabbard Urges Congress to Pass Deborah Sampson Act to Address Gender Disparities at the VA
Tulsi Gabbard Urges Congress to Pass Deborah Sampson Act to Address Gender Disparities at the VA
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: Tulsi Gabbard
Tulsi Gabbard, U.S. Representative from Hawaii
Tulsi Gabbard, U.S. Representative from Hawaii
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Dennis Goodrich
Hawaii, USA 2 Collage Video - youtube.com/tanvideo11
Hawaii, USA 2 Collage Video - youtube.com/tanvideo11
Published: 2013/12/24
Channel: tanvideo11
BYU–Hawaii Holomua 2016
BYU–Hawaii Holomua 2016
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: BYU–Hawaii
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BYUH Hale 7,8,9
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: BYUH Housing
PBS Hawaii - Insights: What Changes Can Hawaii Residents Expect from the Affordable Care Act?
PBS Hawaii - Insights: What Changes Can Hawaii Residents Expect from the Affordable Care Act?
Published: 2013/08/09
Channel: PBSHawaiiorg
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Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: Yo Tube
PBS Hawaii - Insights: Native Hawaiian Sovereignty
PBS Hawaii - Insights: Native Hawaiian Sovereignty
Published: 2013/07/20
Channel: PBSHawaiiorg
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What Does Your GPA Have To Be To Get Into NYU?
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Robert Robert
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Hawaii Admission Act
Great Seal of the United States
Long title An Act to provide for the admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union.
Nicknames Hawaii Statehood
Enacted by the 86th United States Congress
Effective March 18, 1959
Citations
Public law 86-3
Statutes at Large 73 Stat. 4
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the Senate as S. 50
  • Passed the Senate on March 11, 1959 (76-15)
  • Passed the House on March 12, 1959 (323-89, in lieu of H.R. 4221)
  • Signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on March 18, 1959

The Admission Act, formally An Act to Provide for the Admission of the State of Hawaii into the Union (Pub.L. 86–3, 73 Stat. 4, enacted March 18, 1959) is a statute enacted by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower which dissolved the Territory of Hawaii and established the State of Hawaii as the 50th state to be admitted into the Union.[1] Statehood became effective on August 21, 1959.[2] Hawaii remains the most recent state to join the United States.

Hawaii statehood and international law[edit]

Prior to 1959, Hawaii was a territory of the United States. In 1946, the United Nations listed Hawaii as a non-self-governing territory under the administration of the United States (Resolution 55(I) of 1946-12-14). Also listed as non-self-governing territories under the jurisdiction of the United States were Alaska Territory, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

Statehood vote[edit]

Copy of official ballot (inset) and referendum results approving Admission Act.

Out of a total population of 600,000 in the islands and 155,000 registered voters, 140,000 votes were cast, the highest turnout ever in Hawaii. The vote showed approval rates of at least 93% by voters on all major islands (see adjacent figure for details). Of the approximately 140,000 votes cast, fewer than 8,000 rejected the Admission Act of 1959.

Opposition to statehood[edit]

The acceptance of statehood for Hawaii was not without its share of controversy. There were Native Hawaiians who protested against statehood. Prior to admission, various bills creating the State were stalled in congressional hearings since the early 1900s. There was a fear of establishing a state that was governed by an ethnic minority, namely the large Asian American population. Some lawmakers worried about the adhesion of Hawaii's residents to the United States, in light of protests and possibly split loyalties. Upon the election of John A. Burns from the Hawaii Democratic Party as delegate of the Territory of Hawaii to Congress, southern leaders charged that Burns' election was evidence of Hawaii as a haven for communism. Burns, in 1959, would reflect on the obstacles against the statehood campaign and place more emphasis on the resistance to statehood in the islands, rather than in Washington itself.

The reasons why Hawaii did not achieve statehood, say, ten years ago—and one could without much exaggeration say sixty years ago—lie not in the Congress but in Hawaii. The most effective opposition to statehood has always originated in Hawaii itself. For the most part it has remained under cover and has marched under other banners. Such opposition could not afford to disclose itself, since it was so decidedly against the interests and desires of Hawaii's people generally.[3]

Southern lawmakers[edit]

Burns was involved in vigorous lobbying of his colleagues persuading them that the race-based objections were unfair and charges that Communist Party sympathizers controlled Hawaii were blatant lies. Burns worked especially hard with the southern Democrats, led by Lyndon Johnson, who blocked the various Hawaii statehood bills. Upon leaving her seat as delegate from Hawaii, Elizabeth P. Farrington said, "Of course, Lyndon Johnson was no friend of statehood." Farrington added, "There were 22 times when he voted against us. He did everything he could, because he was representing the Southern racial opposition." She claimed Johnson had a fear that Hawaii would send representatives and senators to Congress who would oppose segregation, in spite of Johnson's record as a supporter of civil rights for blacks (Johnson had hedged in his support for the Civil Rights Act of 1957 to avoid splitting his party, giving it modest support and was to finally break up a Southern Democratic attempt to filibuster the Civil Rights Act of 1960).

Alice Kamokila Campbell[edit]

On the 53rd anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, January 17, 1946, Territorial Senator Alice Kamokila Campbell, one of the few voices that opposed statehood for Hawaii, offered her testimony to the joint congressional committee sent to investigate and report on statehood. Kamokila Campbell testified at Iolani Palace in front of a small crowd of 600 to frequent applause. There she stated.

I do not feel...we should forfeit the traditional rights and privileges of the natives of our islands for a mere thimbleful of votes in Congress, that we, the lovers of Hawaii from long association with it should sacrifice our birthright for the greed of alien desires to remain on our shores, that we should satisfy the thirst for power and control of some inflated industrialists and politicians who hide under the guise of friends of Hawaii, yet still keeping an eagle eye on the financial and political pressure button of subjugation over the people in general of these islands.[4]

In 1947 Kamokila Campbell opened the Anti-Statehood Clearing House, where she sent “anti-statehood information, reports and arguments to congress.”[5]

On March 29, 1949, Kamokila Campbell successfully sued the Hawaii Statehood Commission, to stop them from spending public money to lobby for statehood, invalidating a single section of the Act which created the Hawaii Statehood Commission.[6]

Formation of the state[edit]

The State of Hawaii's territory was defined thus in the Act:

The State of Hawaii shall consist of all the islands, together with their appurtenant reefs and territorial waters, included in the Territory of Hawaii on the date of enactment of this Act, except the atoll known as Palmyra Island, together with its appurtenant reefs and territorial waters, but said State shall not be deemed to include the Midway Islands, Johnston Island, Sand Island (off-shore from Johnston Island), or Kingman Reef, together with their appurtenant reefs and territorial waters.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Dwight D. Eisenhower: "Statement by the President Upon Signing the Hawaii Statehood Bill.," March 18, 1959". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "48 USC 3 Hawaii". 
  3. ^ John A. Burns, "Statehood and Hawaii's People," State Government 32 (Summer 1959): 132
  4. ^ John S. Whitehead, "The Anti-Statehood Movement and the Legacy of Alice Kamokila Campbell" in The Hawaiian Journal of History, vol. 27 (1993) – Article on one of the few voices opposing statehood for Hawaii in 1959, that of a prominent public and cultural figure, a descendant of Hawaiian royalty and an heir of the James Campbell Estate.
  5. ^ September 18, 1947, Honolulu Star-Bulletin
  6. ^ Campbell v. Stainback, et al., 1948
  7. ^ Hawaii Admission Act, s. 2

External links[edit]

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