Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Paradise Found: The Hawaiian Islands
Paradise Found: The Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: GOGOvacations
Hawaiian Islands Vacation Travel Video Guide
Hawaiian Islands Vacation Travel Video Guide
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: Expoza Travel
The Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2012/12/31
Channel: abarger
10 Best Places to Visit in Hawaii | USA
10 Best Places to Visit in Hawaii | USA
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: World Top 10
Hawaii
Hawaii's Big Island Vacation Travel Guide | Expedia
Published: 2013/10/29
Channel: Expedia
The Unusual Formation of the Hawaiian Islands
The Unusual Formation of the Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Physics Girl
Maui, Hawaii Travel Guide - Must-See Attractions
Maui, Hawaii Travel Guide - Must-See Attractions
Published: 2013/09/18
Channel: BookingHunterTV
Island of Kauai, Hawaii
Island of Kauai, Hawaii
Published: 2011/02/07
Channel: Lex Fletcher
A New Hawaiian Island | National Geographic
A New Hawaiian Island | National Geographic
Published: 2009/08/06
Channel: National Geographic
Island Hopping - HAWAII
Island Hopping - HAWAII
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: Chasing Summer Productions
DISCOVERING HAWAII Travel Discovery History documentary
DISCOVERING HAWAII Travel Discovery History documentary
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Doc History
Hawaiian Islands.
Hawaiian Islands.
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: TINA EN
hawaiian islands
hawaiian islands
Published: 2013/12/10
Channel: ucanhali123
What Hawaiian Island is Best for You With Reviews of Kauai, Maui, Big Island and Oahu
What Hawaiian Island is Best for You With Reviews of Kauai, Maui, Big Island and Oahu
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: JibaJabaJ
Aerial Hawaii - These Islands by Danny Couch
Aerial Hawaii - These Islands by Danny Couch
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: Live in Hawaii Now
How the Earth Was Made: Hawaii | History
How the Earth Was Made: Hawaii | History
Published: 2009/11/23
Channel: HISTORY
Things to know about visiting Hawaii - what island is best for a vacation
Things to know about visiting Hawaii - what island is best for a vacation
Published: 2016/08/16
Channel: JibaJabaJ
Living on the Hawaiian Island of Maui
Living on the Hawaiian Island of Maui
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Sotheby's International Realty
Good Documentary Films: Hawaii Like You
Good Documentary Films: Hawaii Like You've Never Seen it Before
Published: 2014/08/19
Channel: Documentary Films
Why Hawaiian is not the primary language of the Hawaiian Islands
Why Hawaiian is not the primary language of the Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2015/09/21
Channel: Tracie Keolalani
Best of Hawaii Four-Island Tour
Best of Hawaii Four-Island Tour
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: YMT Vacations
Drone footage reveals sheer magnificence of Hawaiian Islands
Drone footage reveals sheer magnificence of Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: Rumble Viral
Kai Lenny’s Downwind Voyage through the Hawaiian Islands for Environmental Change
Kai Lenny’s Downwind Voyage through the Hawaiian Islands for Environmental Change
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Red Bull
Explore The Hawaiian Islands
Explore The Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Cartoons By The Fans
How This Poo Problem Could Destroy The Hawaiian Islands
How This Poo Problem Could Destroy The Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Stories
How a Hawaiian island is fighting invasive parakeets
How a Hawaiian island is fighting invasive parakeets
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Hawaiian islands formation | Cosmology & Astronomy | Khan Academy
Hawaiian islands formation | Cosmology & Astronomy | Khan Academy
Published: 2011/02/03
Channel: Khan Academy
Perillo Tours - The Islands Of Hawaii
Perillo Tours - The Islands Of Hawaii
Published: 2009/01/14
Channel: Merging Media
Hawaiian Islands   Predictions about their Future DOCUMENTARY
Hawaiian Islands Predictions about their Future DOCUMENTARY
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: MarriageSupper OfTheLamb
Hawaii - Which Island is Right for You? Tourism, Activities, Attractions, Accommodations Overview
Hawaii - Which Island is Right for You? Tourism, Activities, Attractions, Accommodations Overview
Published: 2013/09/22
Channel: Vacation Side Travel
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: Laura Sullivan - Topic
The BIg Myth: The Origin Story of the Hawaiian Islands!
The BIg Myth: The Origin Story of the Hawaiian Islands!
Published: 2016/08/13
Channel: MrPsWorldHistory
HAWAII, OAHU - HONOLULU 4K
HAWAII, OAHU - HONOLULU 4K
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: Jacek Zarzycki
Flying Over the Hawaiian Islands
Flying Over the Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2012/07/03
Channel: Alaska Airlines
THE STORY OF QUEEN KAPIOLANI  CHRISTIAN MISSION TO HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  "TONGUES OF FIRE"  75784
THE STORY OF QUEEN KAPIOLANI CHRISTIAN MISSION TO HAWAIIAN ISLANDS "TONGUES OF FIRE" 75784
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Mandela Effect: The 7 Chakras and Hawaiian Islands!!!
Mandela Effect: The 7 Chakras and Hawaiian Islands!!!
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: Lone Eagle
Beauty of the Hawaiian Islands (HD1080p)
Beauty of the Hawaiian Islands (HD1080p)
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: MrBangthamai
Best island in Hawaii To Live On
Best island in Hawaii To Live On
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: JibaJabaJ
2017-2018 Hawaiian Islands with Princess Cruises
2017-2018 Hawaiian Islands with Princess Cruises
Published: 2016/06/07
Channel: Princess Cruises
The Greatest Maps to the Hawaiian Islands: Nelles Maps
The Greatest Maps to the Hawaiian Islands: Nelles Maps
Published: 2015/08/07
Channel: mountain n air books
Hawaiian Islands Music: Traditional Hawaiian Songs for Deep Relaxation
Hawaiian Islands Music: Traditional Hawaiian Songs for Deep Relaxation
Published: 2017/04/24
Channel: Relax River
Which Island Should Your Family Explore? - Explore More Hawaii - Hip Travel Mama & Alaska Airlines
Which Island Should Your Family Explore? - Explore More Hawaii - Hip Travel Mama & Alaska Airlines
Published: 2013/11/12
Channel: Alaska Airlines
Hawaii Vacation Connection - Island Hopping Ideas
Hawaii Vacation Connection - Island Hopping Ideas
Published: 2013/05/11
Channel: Bruce Fisher
Oahu or Maui Which Hawaiian Island is best with live Q and A
Oahu or Maui Which Hawaiian Island is best with live Q and A
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Yellow Productions
Hawaii Drone Compilation 4K (Oahu, Maui, Kauai, Hawaii, Molokai Lanai) 20 MINUTES OF ALL ISLANDS
Hawaii Drone Compilation 4K (Oahu, Maui, Kauai, Hawaii, Molokai Lanai) 20 MINUTES OF ALL ISLANDS
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Earth Explored
Hot spot formation-Hawaiian islands
Hot spot formation-Hawaiian islands
Published: 2015/08/26
Channel: W. W. Norton-Marshak Geology
Thomas A. Edison
Thomas A. Edison's "Hawaiian Islands" | The Surf Scenes Shot in 1906
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: SurferToday.com
Maui: The Grand Wailea Resort on the Hawaiian Islands
Maui: The Grand Wailea Resort on the Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2011/02/18
Channel: askabouthoneymoons
Monk Seal Mystery - Northwest Hawaiian Islands
Monk Seal Mystery - Northwest Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2009/01/07
Channel: NatGeoOceans
WAIKIKI | HONOLULU - OAHU / HAWAII , UNITED STATES - A TRAVEL TOUR - HD 1080P
WAIKIKI | HONOLULU - OAHU / HAWAII , UNITED STATES - A TRAVEL TOUR - HD 1080P
Published: 2014/03/05
Channel: GlobeTrotterAlpha
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hawaiian Islands
Native name: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i
Hawaje-NoRedLine.jpg
True color satellite image of the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiianislandchain USGS.png
Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 1,500 mi (2,400 km) in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the island of Hawaiʻi.
Geography
Location North Pacific Ocean
Highest point Mauna Kea
13,796 ft (4,205 m)
Administration
Demographics
Population 1,450,000 (2015)

The Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the "Sandwich Islands", a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island.

The Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893 and the United States annexed the islands in 1898.[1] The U.S. state of Hawaii now occupies the archipelago almost in its entirety (including the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands), with the sole exception of Midway Island, which instead separately belongs to the United States as one of its unincorporated territories within the United States Minor Outlying Islands.

The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The islands are about 1,860 miles (3,000 km) from the nearest continent.[2]

Islands and reefs[edit]

Captain James Cook visited the islands on January 18, 1778 and named them the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, who was one of his sponsors as the First Lord of the Admiralty.[3] This name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name "Hawaii" gradually began to take precedence.[4]

The Hawaiian Islands have a total land area of 6,423.4 square miles (16,636.5 km2). Except for Midway, which is an unincorporated territory of the United States, these islands and islets are administered as Hawaii—the 50th state of the United States.[5]

Main islands[edit]

The eight main islands of Hawaii (also called the Hawaiian Windward Islands) are listed here. All except Kahoolawe are inhabited.[6]

Island Nickname Area Population
(as of 2010)
Density Highest point Elevation Age (Ma)[7] Location
Hawaiʻi[8] The Big Island 1 4,028.0 sq mi (10,432.5 km2) 185,079 4 45.948/sq mi (17.7407/km2) Mauna Kea 1 13,796 ft (4,205 m) 0.4 19°34′N 155°30′W / 19.567°N 155.500°W / 19.567; -155.500 (Hawaii)
Maui[9] The Valley Isle 2 727.2 sq mi (1,883.4 km2) 144,444 2 198.630/sq mi (76.692/km2) Haleakalā 2 10,023 ft (3,055 m) 1.3–0.8 20°48′N 156°20′W / 20.800°N 156.333°W / 20.800; -156.333 (Maui)
Oʻahu[10] The Gathering Place 3 596.7 sq mi (1,545.4 km2) 953,207 1 1,597.46/sq mi (616.78/km2) Mount Kaʻala 5 4,003 ft (1,220 m) 3.7–2.6 21°28′N 157°59′W / 21.467°N 157.983°W / 21.467; -157.983 (Oahu)
Kauaʻi[11] The Garden Isle 4 552.3 sq mi (1,430.5 km2) 66,921 3 121.168/sq mi (46.783/km2) Kawaikini 3 5,243 ft (1,598 m) 5.1 22°05′N 159°30′W / 22.083°N 159.500°W / 22.083; -159.500 (Kauai)
Molokaʻi[12] The Friendly Isle 5 260.0 sq mi (673.4 km2) 7,345 5 28.250/sq mi (10.9074/km2) Kamakou 4 4,961 ft (1,512 m) 1.9–1.8 21°08′N 157°02′W / 21.133°N 157.033°W / 21.133; -157.033 (Molokai)
Lānaʻi[13] The Pineapple Isle 6 140.5 sq mi (363.9 km2) 3,135 6 22.313/sq mi (8.615/km2) Lānaʻihale 6 3,366 ft (1,026 m) 1.3 20°50′N 156°56′W / 20.833°N 156.933°W / 20.833; -156.933 (Lanai)
Niʻihau[14] The Forbidden Isle 7 69.5 sq mi (180.0 km2) 170 7 2.45/sq mi (0.944/km2) Mount Pānīʻau 8 1,250 ft (381 m) 4.9 21°54′N 160°10′W / 21.900°N 160.167°W / 21.900; -160.167 (Niihau)
Kahoʻolawe[15] The Target Isle 8 44.6 sq mi (115.5 km2) 0 8 0 Puʻu Moaulanui 7 1,483 ft (452 m) 1.0 20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W / 20.550; -156.600 (Kahoolawe)

Smaller islands, atolls, reefs[edit]

Hawaiian Islands from space.[16]

Smaller islands, atolls, and reefs (all west of Niʻihau are uninhabited) form the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, or Hawaiian Leeward Islands:

Islets[edit]

3-D perspective view of the southeastern Hawaiian Islands, with the white summits of Mauna Loa (4,170 m or 13,680 ft high) and Mauna Kea (4,206 m or 13,799 ft high). The islands are the tops of massive volcanoes, the bulk of which lie below the sea surface. Ocean depths are colored from violet (5,750 m or 18,860 ft deep northeast of Maui) and indigo to light gray (shallowest). Historical lava flows are shown in red, erupting from the summits and rift zones of Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Hualalai volcanoes on Hawaiʻi.

The state of Hawaii counts 137 "islands" in the Hawaiian chain.[17] This number includes all minor islands and islets, or very small island, offshore of the main islands (listed above) and individual islets in each atoll. These are just a few:

A composite satellite image from NASA of the Hawaiian Islands taken from outer space. Click on the image for a larger view that shows the main islands and the extended archipelago.

Geology[edit]

This chain of islands, or archipelago, developed as the Pacific Plate moved slowly northwestward over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle at a rate of approximately 32 miles (51 km) per million years. Thus, the southeast island is volcanically active, whereas the islands on the northwest end of the archipelago are older and typically smaller, due to longer exposure to erosion. The age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods.[18] From this study and others,[19][20] it is estimated that the northwestern most island, Kure Atoll, is the oldest at approximately 28 million years (Ma); while the southeastern most island, Hawaiʻi, is approximately 0.4 Ma (400,000 years). The only active volcanism in the last 200 years has been on the southeastern island, Hawaiʻi, and on the submerged but growing volcano to the extreme southeast, Loʻihi. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the USGS documents recent volcanic activity and provides images and interpretations of the volcanism.

Almost all of the magma of the hotspot has the composition of basalt, and so the Hawaiian volcanoes are composed almost entirely of this igneous rock. There is very little coarser-grained gabbro and diabase. Nephelinite is exposed on the islands but is extremely rare. The majority of eruptions in Hawaiʻi are Hawaiian-type eruptions because basaltic magma is relatively fluid compared with magmas typically involved in more explosive eruptions, such as the andesitic magmas that produce some of the spectacular and dangerous eruptions around the margins of the Pacific basin.

Eruptions from the Hawaii hotspot left a trail of underwater mountains across the Pacific over millions of years, called the Emperor Seamounts

Hawaiʻi island (the Big Island) is the biggest and youngest island in the chain, built from five volcanoes. Mauna Loa, taking up over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield volcano on the Earth. The measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles (4 km), from sea level to sea floor about 3.1 miles (5 km).[21]

Earthquakes[edit]

The Hawaiian Islands have many earthquakes, generally caused by volcanic activity. Most of the early earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo, by missionaries Titus Coan, Sarah J. Lyman and her family. From 1833 to 1896, approximately 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year.[22]

Hawaii accounted for 7.3% of the United States' reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes. Hawaii ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this time period, after Alaska and California.[23]

On October 15, 2006, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii, near the Kona area of the big island. The initial earthquake was followed approximately five minutes later by a magnitude 5.7 aftershock. Minor-to-moderate damage was reported on most of the Big Island. Several major roadways became impassable from rock slides, and effects were felt as far away as Honolulu, Oahu, nearly 150 miles (240 km) from the epicenter. Power outages lasted for several hours to days. Several water mains ruptured. No deaths or life-threatening injuries were reported.

Earthquakes are monitored by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory run by the USGS.

Tsunamis[edit]

Aftermath of the 1960 Chilean tsunami in Hilo, Hawaiʻi, where the tsunami left 61 people dead and 282 seriously injured. The waves reached 35 feet (11 m) high.

The Hawaiian Islands are subject to tsunamis, great waves that strike the shore. Tsunamis are most often caused by earthquakes somewhere in the Pacific. The waves produced by the earthquakes travel at speeds of 400–500 miles per hour (600–800 km/h) and can affect coastal regions thousands of miles (kilometers) away.

Tsunamis may also originate from the Hawaiian Islands. Explosive volcanic activity can cause tsunamis. The island of Molokaʻi had a catastrophic collapse or debris avalanche over a million years ago; this underwater landslide likely caused tsunamis. The Hilina Slump on the island of Hawaiʻi is another potential place for a large landslide and resulting tsunami.

The city of Hilo on the Big Island has been most affected by tsunamis, where the in-rushing water is accentuated by the shape of Hilo Bay. Coastal cities have tsunami warning sirens.

A tsunami resulting from an earthquake in Chile hit the islands on February 27, 2010. It was relatively minor, but local emergency management officials utilized the latest technology and ordered evacuations in preparation for a possible major event. The Governor declared it a "good drill" for the next major event.

A tsunami resulting from an earthquake in Japan hit the islands on March 11, 2011. It was relatively minor, but local officials ordered evacuations in preparation for a possible major event. The tsunami caused about $30.1 million in damages.[24]

Ecology[edit]

The endemic plant and animal species of the Hawaiian Islands developed in nearly complete isolation over about 70 million years.[clarification needed] Prior to human arrival, the only native mammals were the Hawaiian hoary bat and the Hawaiian monk seal.[25][not in citation given]

Human contact, first by Polynesians, introduced new trees, other plants and animals. These included voracious species such as rats and pigs, who took a heavy toll on native birds and invertebrates that evolved in the absence of such predators. The growing population also brought deforestation, forest degradation, treeless grasslands, and environmental degradation. As a result, many species which depended on forest habitats and food became extinct. As humans cleared land for farming, monocultural crop production replaced multi-species systems.[citation needed]

The arrival of the Europeans had a more significant impact, with the promotion of large-scale single-species export agriculture and livestock grazing. This led to increased clearing of forests, and the development of towns, adding many more species to the list of extinct animals of the Hawaiian Islands. As of 2009, many of the remaining endemic species are considered endangered.[26]

National Monument[edit]

On June 15, 2006, President George W. Bush issued a public proclamation creating Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument under the Antiquities Act of 1906. The Monument encompasses the northwestern Hawaiian Islands and surrounding waters, forming the largest[27] marine wildlife reserve in the world. In August 2010, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee added Papahānaumokuākea to its list of World Heritage Sites.[28][29][30] On August 26, 2016, President Barack Obama greatly expanded Papahānaumokuākea, quadrupling it from its original size.[31][32][33]

Climate[edit]

The climate of the Hawaiian Islands is tropical but it experiences many different climates, depending on altitude and weather.[34] The islands receive most rainfall from the trade winds on their north and east flanks (the windward side) as a result of orographic precipitation.[34] Coastal areas in general and especially the south and west flanks or leeward sides, tend to be drier.[34]

In general, the lowlands of Hawaiian Islands receive most of their precipitation during the winter months (October to April).[34] Drier conditions generally prevail from May to September.[34] The tropical storms, and occasional hurricanes, tend to occur from July through November.[34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kent, Noel J. (1993). Hawaii: Islands Under the Influence. University of Hawaii Press. pp. x. ISBN 0-8248-1552-1. 
  2. ^ Macdonald, Abbott, and Peterson, 1984
  3. ^ James Cook and James King (1784). A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean: Undertaken, by the Command of His Majesty, for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere, to Determine the Position and Extent of the West Side of North America, Its Distance from Asia, and the Practicability of a Northern Passage to Europe: Performed Under the Direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in His Majesty's Ships the Resolution and Discovery, in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. 2. Nicol and Cadell, London. p. 222. 
  4. ^ Clement, Russell. "From Cook to the 1840 Constitution: The Name Change from Sandwich to Hawaiian Islands" (PDF). University of Hawai'i at Manoa Hamilton Library. Retrieved June 17, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Guide to State and Local Census Geography – Hawaii" (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 2013-09-09. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  6. ^ "Hawaii Population 2016 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 2016-09-12. 
  7. ^ Blay, Chuck, and Siemers, Robert. Kauai‘’s Geologic History: A Simplified Guide. Kaua‘i: TEOK Investigations, 2004. ISBN 9780974472300. (Cited in "Hawaiian Encyclopedia : The Islands". Retrieved June 20, 2012. )
  8. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Island of Hawaiʻi
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Maui Island
  10. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Oʻahu Island
  11. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kauaʻi Island
  12. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Molokaʻi Island
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lānaʻi Island
  14. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Niʻihau Island
  15. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kahoʻolawe Island
  16. ^ "Hawaii : Image of the Day". nasa.gov. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  17. ^ "Hawai'i Facts & Figures" (PDF). state web site. State of Hawaii Dept. of Business, Economic Development & Tourism. December 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  18. ^ "Tectonics, geochronology, and origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain" (PDF). The Geology of North America, Volume N: The Eastern Pacific Ocean and Hawaii. The Geology Society of America. 1989. Retrieved 2011-01-17. 
  19. ^ McDougall, IAN; Swanson, D. A. (1972). "Potassium-Argon Ages of Lavas from the Hawi and Pololu Volcanic Series, Kohala Volcano, Hawaii". Geological Society of America Bulletin. Geology Society of American Bulletin. 83 (12): 3731–3738. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1972)83[3731:PAOLFT]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2011-01-17. 
  20. ^ "Petrography and K-Ar Ages of Dredged Volcanic Rocks from the Western Hawaiian Ridge and the Southern Emperor Seamount Chain". 86 (7). Geology Society of America Bulletin. 1975: 991–998. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1975)86. Retrieved 2011-01-17. 
  21. ^ "Mauna Loa Earth's Largest Volcano". Hawaiian Volcano Observatory web site. USGS. February 2006. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  22. ^ "Hawaii Earthquake History". Earthquake Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. 1972. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  23. ^ "Top Earthquake States". Earthquake Hazards Program. United States Geological Survey. 2003. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  24. ^ Trusdell, Frank A.; Chadderton, Amy; Hinchliffe, Graham; Hara, Andrew; Patenge, Brent; Weber, Tom (2012-11-15). "Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Tsunami Runup and Inundation Data for Sites Around the Island of Hawai‘i" (PDF). USGS. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  25. ^ "Hawaiian Monk Seal". statesymbolsusa.org. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  26. ^ Craig R. Elevitch and Kim M. Wilkinson, eds. (2000). Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands. Permanent Agriculture Resources. ISBN 0-9702544-0-7. 
  27. ^ Barnett, Cynthia (August 26, 2016). "Hawaii Is Now Home to an Ocean Reserve Twice the Size of Texas". National Geographic. Retrieved September 2, 2016. 
  28. ^ "21 sites added to Unesco World Heritage list – Wikinews, the free news source". en.wikinews.org. Retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  29. ^ Saltzstein, Dan (2010-08-04). "Unesco Adds 21 Sites to World Heritage List". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  30. ^ "World Heritage Committee inscribes a total of 21 new sites on UNESCO World Heritage List". whc.unesco.org. 2010-08-02. Retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  31. ^ Cocke, Sophie (2016-08-25). "Obama expands Papahanaumokuakea marine reserve; plans Oahu trip". Honolulu Star Advertiser. Retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  32. ^ "Fact Sheet: President Obama to Create the World’s Largest Marine Protected Area". whitehouse.gov. 2016-08-26. Retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  33. ^ Barnett, Cynthia (2016-08-26). "Hawaii Is Now Home to an Ocean Reserve Twice the Size of Texas". NationalGeographic.com. Retrieved 2017-03-28. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f Lau, Leung-Ku Stephen; Mink, John Francis (2006-10-01). Hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands. pp. 39, 43, 49, 53. ISBN 9780824829483. 

Further reading[edit]

Coordinates: 21°N 157°W / 21°N 157°W / 21; -157

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license