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Latest video from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Latest video from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Published: 2011/08/10
Channel: Star-Advertiser
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory - 100 years at Kilauea
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory - 100 years at Kilauea
Published: 2012/02/12
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Kilauea lava enters ocean (Video: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)
Kilauea lava enters ocean (Video: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: KHON2 News
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Epic New Hawaiian Volcano Activity
Published: 2012/10/25
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Published: 2017/01/31
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Joan Lunden Behind Closed Doors: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Joan Lunden Behind Closed Doors: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: JoanLunden
Jagger Museum and Hawai
Jagger Museum and Hawai'i Volcano Observatory
Published: 2008/09/01
Channel: DrBlizzardo
lava flows from hawaii
lava flows from hawaii's kilauea volcano into ocean
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: MR.FACTS
Kīlauea Volcano, Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, Summit Vent Lava Lake (4K B-Roll)
Kīlauea Volcano, Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, Summit Vent Lava Lake (4K B-Roll)
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: USGS
Liquid lava flows at Hawaii
Liquid lava flows at Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: News From World
Hawaii Volcano
Hawaii Volcano
Published: 2014/03/20
Channel: Natural Phenomena 2013
Hawaii Volcano eruption 31 year history - part 2 (1986 to 1992)
Hawaii Volcano eruption 31 year history - part 2 (1986 to 1992)
Published: 2014/02/02
Channel: Big Island Video News
Geothermal broken down by USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Geothermal broken down by USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Published: 2012/09/28
Channel: Big Island Video News
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY 1977
HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY 1977
Published: 2013/01/29
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Kilauea, HI, active lava flows, 1/13/2011
Kilauea, HI, active lava flows, 1/13/2011
Published: 2011/01/23
Channel: Allitel
Haleakala Observatories and Spectacular Views from the top of  Volcano ~ Maui Hawaii
Haleakala Observatories and Spectacular Views from the top of Volcano ~ Maui Hawaii
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: my35Xvision
SciTalk - Hawaii Volcano Observatory with Brian
SciTalk - Hawaii Volcano Observatory with Brian
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Science RoadTrip
Volcano explosion at Halemaumau on Jan. 8
Volcano explosion at Halemaumau on Jan. 8
Published: 2016/01/12
Channel: Star-Advertiser
Hawaii Volcano eruption 31 year history - part 4 (2007 to 2011)
Hawaii Volcano eruption 31 year history - part 4 (2007 to 2011)
Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: Big Island Video News
New Lava Flows Appear at Hawaii Volcano
New Lava Flows Appear at Hawaii Volcano
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: Wochit News
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Thomas Jaggar Museum, Hawai
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Thomas Jaggar Museum, Hawai'i, United States, North America
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: Pietro Pecco
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Published: 2011/05/24
Channel: Nicole Yvette Canegata
Time-lapse movie of Halemaumau overlook vent from Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Time-lapse movie of Halemaumau overlook vent from Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Published: 2014/03/07
Channel: Hawaii247com
Dramatic Volcano Lava Flows of Kilauea in Hawaii.wmv
Dramatic Volcano Lava Flows of Kilauea in Hawaii.wmv
Published: 2009/12/06
Channel: MyEarbot
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Published: 2014/06/18
Channel: gsdma surat
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Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Wall Street Journal
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Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: MR.FACTS
Hawaii Volcano Lava Flow "Firehose"
Hawaii Volcano Lava Flow "Firehose"
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Storyful News
Monday July 10th, 2017: Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, USA
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Published: 2017/07/10
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Lava Flows From Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii 12/09/11
Published: 2011/12/10
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Kilauea caldera, Jagger Museum and Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, the Big Island
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Published: 2013/07/09
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Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes / Educational Documentary Film
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Published: 2014/02/03
Channel: Big Island Video News
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Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: Hawaii247com
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10/25/2014 -- New Hawaii lava flow video released by USGS -- Town of Pahoa threatened
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Aerial view above HVO

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is a volcano observatory located at Uwekahuna Bluff on the rim of Kīlauea Caldera on the Island of Hawaiʻi. The observatory monitors four active Hawaiian volcanoes: Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, and Haleakalā. Because Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are significantly more active than Hualālai and Haleakalā, much of the observatory's research is concentrated on the former two mountains. The observatory has a worldwide reputation as a leader in the study of active volcanism. Due to the relatively non-explosive nature of Hawaiian volcanic eruptions, scientists can study on-going eruptions in proximity without being in extreme danger. Located at the main site is the public Thomas A. Jaggar Museum.

History[edit]

Whitney Seismograph Vault No. 29
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is located in Hawaii
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Nearest city Volcano, Hawaii
Coordinates 19°25′45″N 155°15′31″W / 19.42917°N 155.25861°W / 19.42917; -155.25861Coordinates: 19°25′45″N 155°15′31″W / 19.42917°N 155.25861°W / 19.42917; -155.25861
Area 18 feet (5.5 m) by 17.5 feet (5.3 m)
Built 1912
NRHP Reference # 74000292[1]
Added to NRHP July 24, 1974

Besides the oral history of Ancient Hawaiians, several early explorers left records of observations. Rev. William Ellis kept a journal of his 1823 missionary tour,[2] and Titus Coan documented eruptions through 1881.[3] Scientists often debated the accuracy of these descriptions. When prominent geologist Thomas Jaggar of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology gave a lecture in Honolulu in 1909, he was approached by businessman Lorrin A. Thurston (grandson of Asa Thurston who was on the 1823 missionary tour) about building a full-time scientific observatory at Kīlauea. The Hawaiian Volcano Research Association was formed by local businessmen for its support. George Lycurgus, who owned the Volcano House at the edge of the main caldera, proposed a site adjacent to his hotel and restaurant.

In 1911 and 1912, small cabins were built on the floor of the caldera next to the main active vent of Halemaʻumaʻu, but these were hard to maintain.[4] MIT added $25,000 in support in 1912 from the estate of Edward and Caroline Whitney to build a more permanent facility. The first instruments were housed in a cellar next to the Volcano House called the Whitney Laboratory of Seismology.[5] Inmates from a nearby prison camp had excavated through 5.5 feet (1.7 m) of volcanic ash. Massive reinforced concrete walls supported a small building built on top of the structure. Professor Fusakichi Omori of Japan, now best known for his study of aftershocks, designed the original seismometers. This seismograph vault (building number 29 on a site inventory) is state historic site 10-52-5506,[6] and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 24, 1974 as site 74000292.[7]

HVO volcanologist collecting pahoehoe samples, Kilauea, 1972

From 1912 until 1919, the observatory was run by Jaggar personally. Many important events were recorded, although as pioneers, the team often ran into major problems. For example, in 1913 an earthquake opened a crack in a wall and water seeped in. The windows meant to admit natural light caused the vault to heat up in the intense tropical sun.[4] The opening of the national park in 1916 (at the urging of Thurston) brought more visitors to bother the scientists, but also park rangers who would take over public lectures. The prison that had supplied laborers was replaced by the Kīlauea Military Camp.[8]

In 1919, Jaggar convinced the National Weather Service to take over operations at the observatory. In 1924, the observatory was taken over by the United States Geological Survey and it has been run by the USGS ever since (except for a brief period during the Great Depression, when the observatory was run by the National Park Service).[9] When the Volcano House hotel burned to the ground in 1940, the old building was torn down (although the instruments in the vault continued to be used until 1961).

George Lycurgus convinced friends in Washington D.C. (many of whom had stayed in the Volcano House) to build a larger building farther back from the cliff, so he could built a new larger hotel at the former HVO site. By 1942, the "Volcano Observatory and Naturalist Building" was designated number 41 on the park inventory. However, with the advent of World War II, it was commandeered as a military headquarters. HVO was allowed to use building 41 from October 1942 to September 1948, when it became the park headquarters (and still is today, after several additions).[4]

About two miles west, in an area known as Uwekahuna, a "National Park Museum and Lecture Hall" had been built in 1927. The name means roughly "the priest wept" in the Hawaiian Language, which indicates it might have been used to make offerings in the past.[10] The HVO moved there in 1948 after some remodeling of the building. This site was even closer to the main vent of Kīlauea. In 1985 a larger building was built for the observatory adjacent to the old lecture hall, which was turned back into a museum and public viewing site.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)[edit]

HVO Directors
HVO Scientists-in-Charge
  • 1958 to 1960, Kiguma J. Murata
  • 1960 to 1961, Jerry P. Eaton
  • 1961 to 1962, Donald H. Richter
  • 1962 to 1963, James G. Moore
  • 1964 to 1970, Howard A. Powers
  • 1970 to 1975, Donald W. Peterson
  • 1975 to 1976, Robert I. Tilling
  • 1976 to 1978, Gordon P. Eaton
  • 1978 to 1979, Donald W. Peterson
  • 1979 to 1984, Robert W. Decker (1927–2005)
  • 1984 to 1991, Thomas L. Wright
  • 1991 to 1996, David A. Clague
  • 1996 to 1997, Margaret T. Mangan
  • 1997 to 2004, Donald A. Swanson
  • 2004 to 2015, James P. Kauahikaua
  • 2015 to present, Christina A. Neal

Present day operations[edit]

A museum is open to the public

Modern electronic equipment now monitors earthquakes from several sites.[11] This information is provided immediately over the Internet, as is live coverage of ongoing eruptions from several webcams accessible from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory website (see External links). Another important function of HVO is to monitor the sulphur emissions that produce the volcanic pollution condition known as vog. The observatory advises the park service when to close areas due to this and other volcanic hazards.[12]

While the main Observatory building itself is not open to the public, the adjacent Thomas A. Jaggar Museum includes interpretive exhibits on the work performed at the observatory. The exhibits range from general information on volcanoes and lava to the scientific equipment and clothing used by volcanologists. Some of the museum's windows provide a sheltered view of the Kīlauea Caldera and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. A public observation deck, overlooking Kīlauea and open 24 hours a day, provides spectacular views.[13] It a popular destination within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, located at coordinates 19°25′12″N 155°17′16.8″W / 19.42000°N 155.288000°W / 19.42000; -155.288000, on Crater Rim Drive west from the Visitor Center.

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ William Ellis (1825). "A journal of a tour around Hawai'i, the largest of the Sandwich Islands". Crocker and Brewster, New York, republished 2004, Mutual Publishing, Honolulu: 282. ISBN 1-56647-605-4. 
  3. ^ Coan, Titus (1882). Life in Hawaii. New York: Anson Randolph & Company. ISBN 0-8370-6036-2. 
  4. ^ a b c "Buildings and Facilities". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  5. ^ Russell A. Apple. "HVO History". United States Geological Survey HVO web site. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  6. ^ Historic Places in Hawaii County on official state web site
  7. ^ Russell A. Apple (1972). "Whitney Seismograph Vault #29 nomination form" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  8. ^ "About KMC". Kīlauea Military Camp. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  9. ^ "Thomas Jaggar, HVO's founder". Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's Volcano Watch. March 21, 1997. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  10. ^ "Lookup of "Uwekahuna"". on Hawaiian Place Names web site. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  11. ^ "Earthquakes in Hawaii". USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Network. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  12. ^ "Closed Areas and Advisories". National Park Service Hawaii Volcanoes National Park web site. 
  13. ^ "Jaggar Museum". National Park Service web site. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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