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Hawaii
Hawaii's native Hibiscus
Published: 2016/05/17
Channel: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Endangered Yellow Hibiscus Plant Care and How to Grow and Repot  - Hawaiian Plant - CHINA ROSE
Endangered Yellow Hibiscus Plant Care and How to Grow and Repot - Hawaiian Plant - CHINA ROSE
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: Kitchen Gardening
Yellow Hibiscus Meri Pasand | How to Care Yellow Hawaiian Hibiscus | Hawaiian Flower
Yellow Hibiscus Meri Pasand | How to Care Yellow Hawaiian Hibiscus | Hawaiian Flower
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Kitchen Gardening
Hawaiian Hibiscus Flower
Hawaiian Hibiscus Flower
Published: 2010/07/18
Channel: Jeni Allen
Spring Break Inspired: Hawaiian Hibiscus Nail Art
Spring Break Inspired: Hawaiian Hibiscus Nail Art
Published: 2011/04/06
Channel: YAY NAILS
Learn How to Pipe a Royal Icing Hibiscus
Learn How to Pipe a Royal Icing Hibiscus
Published: 2014/06/01
Channel: Wilton
Tutorial- Hibiscus Flower
Tutorial- Hibiscus Flower
Published: 2013/03/31
Channel: Ichen Wu
Bath and Body Works Candle Review: Hawaiian Hibiscus
Bath and Body Works Candle Review: Hawaiian Hibiscus
Published: 2014/03/16
Channel: flamingoblush
Hawaiian Hibiscus Nail Art Tutorial (german/deutsch)
Hawaiian Hibiscus Nail Art Tutorial (german/deutsch)
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: NisiNails - Nageldesigns & Nailart Tutorials
How to Make a Hawaiian Flower
How to Make a Hawaiian Flower
Published: 2014/03/05
Channel: FMM Sugarcraft
Hibiscus in pasta di zucchero,Tutorial perfetto
Hibiscus in pasta di zucchero,Tutorial perfetto
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: uccia3000
Look inspirado en la flor de Hawaiian Hibiscus/Look inspired in Hawaiian Hibiscus :)
Look inspirado en la flor de Hawaiian Hibiscus/Look inspired in Hawaiian Hibiscus :)
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: Corazonmexicano0508
Hawaiian hibiscus /무궁화
Hawaiian hibiscus /무궁화
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: maonsan
Different Types Of Pink Hibiscus - Where It Is Available - Planting Tips- Hawaii State Flower
Different Types Of Pink Hibiscus - Where It Is Available - Planting Tips- Hawaii State Flower
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: MAD gardening tips
Easy Hawaiian hibiscus flower for beginners nail art design Summer 2013
Easy Hawaiian hibiscus flower for beginners nail art design Summer 2013
Published: 2013/07/15
Channel: Iuli Hobbies
Hawaii Hibiscus
Hawaii Hibiscus
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: Skully Smith
Beautiful Hawaiian Hibiscus
Beautiful Hawaiian Hibiscus
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Hemangana Kalita
Hawaiian Hibiscus
Hawaiian Hibiscus
Published: 2013/02/01
Channel: AngelBug8580
How to make hibiscus paper flower | Easy origami flowers for beginners making | DIY-Paper Crafts
How to make hibiscus paper flower | Easy origami flowers for beginners making | DIY-Paper Crafts
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: DIY-Paper Crafts
Hawaii Inspired Hibiscus Nail Art!
Hawaii Inspired Hibiscus Nail Art!
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Hannah Weir
Hawaiian Hibiscus CP Soap
Hawaiian Hibiscus CP Soap
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: Nailed It! Hawaii
Hawaiian hibiscus
Hawaiian hibiscus
Published: 2016/05/02
Channel: US_Singer's_Profile_INfo
Hibiscus in bloom photo time lapse (Hawaiian/Tropical flower)
Hibiscus in bloom photo time lapse (Hawaiian/Tropical flower)
Published: 2008/12/23
Channel: bighousetube
Hawaiian/Hibiscus Flower on Blue Glitter
Hawaiian/Hibiscus Flower on Blue Glitter
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: LaDaisyDee
Louis Vuitton Luggage Tag~ Hawaiian Hibiscus Hotstamp
Louis Vuitton Luggage Tag~ Hawaiian Hibiscus Hotstamp
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: pursejunky
How to Decorate Cupcakes Hibiscus Flower
How to Decorate Cupcakes Hibiscus Flower
Published: 2012/08/12
Channel: Liz Larson
Homemade Cold Process Soap, Making Hawaiian Hibiscus
Homemade Cold Process Soap, Making Hawaiian Hibiscus
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: C-Light Candles & Soap
Giant Paper Flower Hibiscus Tutorial
Giant Paper Flower Hibiscus Tutorial
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Abbi Kirsten Gillespie
Hawaiian hibiscus flower
Hawaiian hibiscus flower
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: pilialoha Hawaii
How to Make Decorated Hibiscus Sugar Cookies
How to Make Decorated Hibiscus Sugar Cookies
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: LilaLoa
[Metallic Painting] Hawaiian Hibiscus Flower - Speed Painting Time lapse
[Metallic Painting] Hawaiian Hibiscus Flower - Speed Painting Time lapse
Published: 2013/08/31
Channel: Hawaiian Designs
B&BW Candle Review: Hawaiian Hibiscus...
B&BW Candle Review: Hawaiian Hibiscus...
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: Mz.J Brown
My beautiful Hawaiian Hibiscus
My beautiful Hawaiian Hibiscus
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Hemangana Kalita
Hawaiian Hibiscus Iced Tea Cooking Demo
Hawaiian Hibiscus Iced Tea Cooking Demo
Published: 2012/01/29
Channel: Renee Johnston
Cholesterol Lowering Hawaiian Hibiscus Drink
Cholesterol Lowering Hawaiian Hibiscus Drink
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: CureJoy
Tropical Glow mix "Hawaiian Hibiscus"
Tropical Glow mix "Hawaiian Hibiscus"
Published: 2016/05/03
Channel: Nail Oracle
DIY |  HAWAIIAN STYLE PAPER FLOWERS | FLORES DE PAPEL ESTILO HAWAIANO ❤
DIY | HAWAIIAN STYLE PAPER FLOWERS | FLORES DE PAPEL ESTILO HAWAIANO ❤
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Florencia Vallejo
Beach Hemp Jewelry - Dreamer Hawaiian Hibiscus Hemp Anklet
Beach Hemp Jewelry - Dreamer Hawaiian Hibiscus Hemp Anklet
Published: 2017/08/05
Channel: Sara Self
48805 Summer Smock Top Baby Doll Viscose Dress - Hawaiian Hibiscus Flower - Orange
48805 Summer Smock Top Baby Doll Viscose Dress - Hawaiian Hibiscus Flower - Orange
Published: 2013/02/09
Channel: Thai Craft Warehouse
How to CREATE paper flower / this time hibiscus
How to CREATE paper flower / this time hibiscus
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: CandyTreeBaltimore Erika
DIY - How to Make Hibiscus Paper Flower for Room & Gift Box Decoration, Hair Bow
DIY - How to Make Hibiscus Paper Flower for Room & Gift Box Decoration, Hair Bow
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: Dewi Reynaldi
Homemade Cold Process Soap Making Hawaiian Hibiscus
Homemade Cold Process Soap Making Hawaiian Hibiscus
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: C-Light Candles & Soap
DIY Hawaiian Shirt Mani - Hibiscus Flower
DIY Hawaiian Shirt Mani - Hibiscus Flower
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: Stuck OnLacquer
Buttercream Hibiscus by www.sweetwise.com
Buttercream Hibiscus by www.sweetwise.com
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: Sweet Wise
Unghie per l
Unghie per l'estate - Hawaiian Hibiscus-flowers nail-art (Summer nail)
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: La truccatrice di unghie
Alba Hibiscus Facial Toner: 2 Minute Review!!! *Hawaiian*
Alba Hibiscus Facial Toner: 2 Minute Review!!! *Hawaiian*
Published: 2013/12/27
Channel: thePLAINESTjane
The Tainted Hibiscus: The Hawaiian Annexation
The Tainted Hibiscus: The Hawaiian Annexation
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: Ece Fisgin
HAWAIIAN HIBISCUS NAILS
HAWAIIAN HIBISCUS NAILS
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: passion for nailart designs
Blue Lagoon Hawaiian Hibiscus Dog Dress with Matching Leash
Blue Lagoon Hawaiian Hibiscus Dog Dress with Matching Leash
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: BaxterBooPets
Bath & Body Works- HAWAIIAN HIBISCUS Review!
Bath & Body Works- HAWAIIAN HIBISCUS Review!
Published: 2015/07/20
Channel: Always Being Belle
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Hawaiian hibiscus are seven species of hibiscus regarded as native to Hawaii. The yellow hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower. Although tourists regularly associate the hibiscus flower within experiences visiting the US state of Hawaii, and the plant family Malvaceae includes a relatively large number of species that are native to the Hawaiian Islands, those flowers regularly observed by tourists are generally not the native hibiscus flowers. Most commonly grown as ornamental plants in the Islands are the Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and its numerous hybrids.

The native plants in the genus Hibiscus in Hawaii are thought to have derived from four independent colonization events for the five endemic species (four closely related species plus the yellow-flowered species) and one each for the two indigenous species.[1]

Native species[edit]

The native hibiscus found in Hawaii are:

  • Hibiscus arnottianus A.Graykokiʻo keʻokeʻo ("kokiʻo that is white like the shine of silver") is an endemic species of hibiscus with white flowers. Three subspecies are recognized: H. arnottianus ssp. arnottianus found in the Waianae Range of western Oahu; H. a. ssp. immaculatus which is very rare (listed as endangered) on Molokai; and H. a. ssp. punaluuensis from the Koʻolau Range on Oahu. Perhaps only a dozen plants of H. a. ssp. immaculatus exist in nature in mesic and wet forests.[2] This species is closely related to H. waimeae, and the two are among the very few members of the genus with fragrant flowers. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental or crossed with H. rosa-sinensis. In the Hawaiian language, the white hibiscus is known as the pua aloalo.[3]
  • Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Graymaʻo hau hele ("hau most similar to maʻo") is a tall shrub (up to 10 m or 33 ft) with bright yellow flowers, closely related to the widespread H. divaricatus. Two subspecies are recognized: H. b. ssp. brackenridgei, a sprawling shrub to an erect tree found in dry forests and low shrublands at elevations of 400–2,600 ft (120–790 m) above sea level on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and the island of Hawaii;[4] and H. b. ssp. mokuleianus, a tree from dry habitats on Kauai and the Waianae Range on Oahu. This species is listed as an endangered species by the USFWS. The yellow flower of this species was made the official state flower of Hawaii on 6 June 1988,[5] and although endangered in its natural habitats, has become a moderately popular ornamental in Hawaiian yards.
  • Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg. is an endemic shrub or small tree with bright red flowers, generally similar to H. kokio, and found in nature on Kauai in dry forests. It is listed as endangered by USFWS.
  • Hibiscus furcellatus Desr. is a pink-flowered hibiscus considered an indigenous species, typically found in low and marshy areas of the Caribbean, Florida, Central and South America, and Hawaii, where it is known as ʻakiohala, ʻakiahala, hau hele, and hau hele wai ("entirely puce hau").
  • Hibiscus kokio Hillebr., kokiʻo or kokiʻo ʻula ("red kokiʻo") is a shrub or small tree (3–7 m or 9.8–23.0 ft) with red to orangish (or rarely yellow) flowers. This endemic species is not officially listed, but considered rare in nature. Two subspecies are recognized: H. kokio ssp. kokio found in dry to wet forests on Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and possibly Hawaii at elevations of 70–800 m (230–2,620 ft);[6] and H. k. ssp. saintjohnianus from northwestern Kauai at elevations of 150–890 m (490–2,920 ft).[7]
  • Hibiscus tiliaceus L., hau, is a spreading shrub or tree common to the tropics and subtropics, especially in coastal areas. This species is possibly indigenous to Hawaii, but may have been introduced by the early Polynesians.
  • Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller, kokiʻo keʻokeʻo or kokiʻo kea ("kokiʻo that is white as snow"), is a Hawaiian endemic, gray-barked tree, 6–10 m (20–33 ft) tall, with white flowers that fade to pink in the afternoon. Two subspecies are recognized: H. waimeae ssp. hannerae (rare and listed as endangered) found in northwestern valleys of Kauai, and H. w. ssp. waimeae occurring in the Waimea Canyon and some western to southern valleys on Kauai. This species closely resembles H. arnottianus in a number of characteristics.

Other Malvaceae[edit]

In addition to the species of Hibiscus listed above, flowers of several other related Hawaiian plants of the family Malvaceae resemble Hibiscus flowers, although are generally smaller. The endemic genus, Hibiscadelphus, comprises seven species described from Hawaii. Three of these are now thought to be extinct and the remaining four are listed as critically endangered or extinct in the wild. Another endemic genus, Kokia, comprises four species of trees. All but one (K. kauaiensis) are listed as either extinct or nearly extinct in the wild.

Three endemic species of the pantropical genus, Abutilon occur in Hawaii: A. eremitopetalum, A. menziesii, and A. sandwicense; all are listed as endangered. Cotton plants (Gossypium spp.), whose bright yellow flowers are certainly hibiscus-like, include one endemic: G. tomentosum, uncommon but found in dry places on all the main islands except Hawaii. The widespread milo (Thespesia populnea) is an indigenous tree with yellow and maroon flowers.

South Korea's national flower is the Hibiscus syriacus which is widely found in Hawaii, too.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wagner, Djamal news W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i (Revised ed.). Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2166-1. 
  2. ^ Barboza, Rick (2003-01-03). "Kokiʻo Keʻo Keʻo". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 
  3. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo, native white hibiscus" (PDF). United States Forest Service. 
  4. ^ "Hibiscus brackenridgei subsp. brackenridgei". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  5. ^ "Hawaii State Flower". NETSTATE.COM. 2009-09-28. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  6. ^ "Hibiscus kokio subsp. kokio". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  7. ^ "Hibiscus kokio subsp. saintjohnianus". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 

External links[edit]

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