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Homeland Hawaiki - Part 10 - Maluku - Ulimaroa - Aotearoa
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 10 - Maluku - Ulimaroa - Aotearoa
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: everlastingyouth
Homeland Hawaiki - Maluku / Moluccan origin
Homeland Hawaiki - Maluku / Moluccan origin
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: everlastingyouth
Beyond Hawaiki - Teaser 1
Beyond Hawaiki - Teaser 1
Published: 2012/06/07
Channel: Tony Coolidge
Hawaiki Nui To Matou Ai
Hawaiki Nui To Matou Ai'a - Te Ava Piti
Published: 2013/08/29
Channel: iMANACreatioNZ
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 7 - Maluku - Aotearoa - Arahura
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 7 - Maluku - Aotearoa - Arahura
Published: 2013/03/19
Channel: everlastingyouth
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 5 - Maluku - Fiji, Tonga, Samoa
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 5 - Maluku - Fiji, Tonga, Samoa
Published: 2013/01/16
Channel: everlastingyouth
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 6 - Maluku - Aotearoa / New Zealand
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 6 - Maluku - Aotearoa / New Zealand
Published: 2013/03/16
Channel: everlastingyouth
Team OPT   Hawaiki Nui Va
Team OPT Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2014 race preparation
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: jkokuna808
2016 Hawaiki Nui Va
2016 Hawaiki Nui Va'a
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: World of Adventure
Hawaiki AutoSplit Tutorial
Hawaiki AutoSplit Tutorial
Published: 2014/02/24
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Hawaiki Green Screen Keyer Vs Apple Green Screen Keyer
Hawaiki Green Screen Keyer Vs Apple Green Screen Keyer
Published: 2016/01/24
Channel: Crystal Hale
Hawaiki Nui 2012 (paddling Connection)
Hawaiki Nui 2012 (paddling Connection)
Published: 2012/12/07
Channel: kahakusurf
VOHI VIDEO HAWAIKI NUI 2016 ETAPE 3
VOHI VIDEO HAWAIKI NUI 2016 ETAPE 3
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: VOHI VIDEO
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 3ème étape
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 3ème étape
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
Hawaiki Tower - Kakaako condo
Hawaiki Tower - Kakaako condo
Published: 2015/04/05
Channel: Hawaii Living
Best of Hawaiki nui Tahaa - Bora Bora, 58 kms, 07/11/2014
Best of Hawaiki nui Tahaa - Bora Bora, 58 kms, 07/11/2014
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: Polynésie 1ère
Hawaiki AutoMatch: Color Grading Tutorial
Hawaiki AutoMatch: Color Grading Tutorial
Published: 2014/07/25
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Hawaiki Keyer 3.0 Introductory Tutorial
Hawaiki Keyer 3.0 Introductory Tutorial
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 1ère étape
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 1ère étape
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
HAWAIKI NUI - INSIDE EDT VAA
HAWAIKI NUI - INSIDE EDT VAA
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: Felipe Varejão Pimenta
Hawaiki Keyer: Extended Tutorial
Hawaiki Keyer: Extended Tutorial
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Exploring Color Correction With Hawaiki
Exploring Color Correction With Hawaiki's "Auto Grade"
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: Larry Jordan
Hawaiki Super Dissolve: Tutorial Revised
Hawaiki Super Dissolve: Tutorial Revised
Published: 2016/04/09
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Hawaiki Nui 2013 (highlights)
Hawaiki Nui 2013 (highlights)
Published: 2014/07/04
Channel: Felipe Varejão Pimenta
La minute Hawaiki nui 2016 - EDT vs OPT
La minute Hawaiki nui 2016 - EDT vs OPT
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Polynésie 1ère
HAWAIKI KEYER 2.0: Extended Tutorial
HAWAIKI KEYER 2.0: Extended Tutorial
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Hawaiki Keyer : Demo
Hawaiki Keyer : Demo
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
NAC and Paddling Connection  training before Hawaiki Nui Va
NAC and Paddling Connection training before Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2014
Published: 2014/12/14
Channel: Surf N Sport
VOHI VIDEO ETAPE 1 HAWAIKI NUI Mercredi 02 nov 2016 44mn
VOHI VIDEO ETAPE 1 HAWAIKI NUI Mercredi 02 nov 2016 44mn
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: VOHI VIDEO
VOHI VIDEO RESUME TAUREA ET DAMES HAWAIKI NUI 2016 25mn
VOHI VIDEO RESUME TAUREA ET DAMES HAWAIKI NUI 2016 25mn
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: VOHI VIDEO
Hawaiki AutoGrade 2.0 Demo
Hawaiki AutoGrade 2.0 Demo
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Check Out The Mean Green-Screen Effects of Hawaiki Keyer 2.0
Check Out The Mean Green-Screen Effects of Hawaiki Keyer 2.0
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Larry Jordan
Le meilleur de Hawaiki Nui Va
Le meilleur de Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2016 - module 1
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: Polynésie 1ère
Hawaiki Analyzer Tutorial A
Hawaiki Analyzer Tutorial A
Published: 2015/03/03
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Hawaiki Keyer 3 pour bien incruster dans FCPX
Hawaiki Keyer 3 pour bien incruster dans FCPX
Published: 2016/10/02
Channel: remydeveze
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 2ème étape
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 2ème étape
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
Beyond Hawaiki Teaser
Beyond Hawaiki Teaser
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: Tobie Openshaw
hawaiki nui va
hawaiki nui va'a 2008 - 2e étape
Published: 2008/10/31
Channel: hwnvaa
Hawaiki Keyer 3 Upgrade Tutorial
Hawaiki Keyer 3 Upgrade Tutorial
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Hawaiki
Hawaiki
Published: 2014/04/02
Channel: GLOW
Hawaiki Color for Final Cut Pro X
Hawaiki Color for Final Cut Pro X
Published: 2013/12/09
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Review/Overview: Hawaiki Keyer 3.0
Review/Overview: Hawaiki Keyer 3.0
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: Toolfarm Inc
Hawaiki Nui Va
Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2009
Published: 2009/11/23
Channel: Andrew Evans
HAWAIKI NUI : LA REMISE DES PRIX, LE SACRE POUR EDT
HAWAIKI NUI : LA REMISE DES PRIX, LE SACRE POUR EDT
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Polynésie 1ère
Hawaiki Nui Va
Hawaiki Nui Va'a, la 1ère étape
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: Kimo Overstims
Hawaiki nui vaa Résumé de la dernière étape
Hawaiki nui vaa Résumé de la dernière étape
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: Polynésie 1ère
Hawaiki nui va
Hawaiki nui va'a 2001 (Tepaetia) : les préparatifs
Published: 2010/10/15
Channel: VideoTahiti
VOHI VIDEO RESUME ETAPE 2 HAWAIKI NUI 2016 25mn
VOHI VIDEO RESUME ETAPE 2 HAWAIKI NUI 2016 25mn
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: VOHI VIDEO
52 minutes HAWAIKI NUI 2013 pour Sport+
52 minutes HAWAIKI NUI 2013 pour Sport+
Published: 2014/01/08
Channel: Laurent Célarié
Hawaiki AutoGrade Tutorial
Hawaiki AutoGrade Tutorial
Published: 2013/08/03
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In Polynesian mythology, Hawaiki (also rendered as "Avaiki" (Society Islands), "Savai'i", (Samoa), "Havai’i" (Reo Tahiti)) is the original home of the Polynesian peoples, before dispersal across Polynesia.[1] It also features as the underworld in many Māori stories.

Anne Salmond states Havai'i is the old name for Raiatea, the homeland of the Māori. When James Cook first sighted New Zealand in 1769, he had Tupaia on board, a Raiatean navigator and linguist. Cook's arrival seemed to be a confirmation of a prophecy by Toiroa, a priest from Mahia. At Tolaga Bay, Tupaia conversed with the priest, tohunga, associated with the school of learning located there, called Te Rawheoro. The priest asked about the Maori homelands, 'Rangiatea' (Ra'iatea), 'Hawaiki' (Havai'i, the ancient name for Ra'iatea), and 'Tawhiti' (Tahiti).[2]

Etymology[edit]

Linguists have reconstructed the term to Proto-Nuclear Polynesian *sawaiki.[3]

The Māori word Hawaiki figures in legends about the arrival of the Māori in Aotearoa (New Zealand). The same concept appears in other Polynesian cultures, the name appearing variously as Havaiki, Havai'i, or 'Avaiki in other Polynesian languages, though Hawaiki or the misspelling "Hawaiiki" appear to have become the most common variants used in English. Even though the Sāmoans have preserved no traditions of having originated elsewhere, the name of the largest Sāmoan island Savaiʻi preserves a cognate with the word Hawaiki, as does the name of the Polynesian islands of Hawaiʻi (the ʻokina denoting a glottal stop that replaces the "k" in some Polynesian languages).

On several island groups including New Zealand and the Marquesas the term has been recorded as associated with the underworld and death.[3] William Wyatt Gill discusses at length the legends about 'Avaiki as the underworld or Hades of Mangaia in the Cook Islands.[4] Gill (1876:155) records a proverb: Ua po Avaiki, ua ao nunga nei – 'Tis night now in spirit-land, for 'tis light in this upper world." Tregear (1891:392) also records the term Avaiki as meaning "underworld" at Mangaia, probably sourced from Gill.[5] There is of course no real contradiction in Hawaiki being the ancestral homeland (that is, the dwelling place of the ancestors) and the underworld, which is also the dwelling place of the ancestors and the spirits.

Other possible cognates of the word Hawaiki include sauali'i ("spirits" in Sāmoan) and hou'eiki ("chiefs" in Tongan). This has led some scholars to hypothesize that the word Hawaiki, and, by extension, Savai'i and Hawaiʻi, may not, in fact, have originally referred to a geographical place, but rather to chiefly ancestors and the chief-based social structure that pre-colonial Polynesia typically exhibited (Taumoefolau 1996).

On Easter Island, the name of the mythical home country appears as Hiva. According to Thor Heyerdahl Hiva allegedly lay east of the island. Sebastian Englert records:

He-kî Hau Maka: "He kaiga iroto i te raá, iruga! Ka-oho korua, ka-û'i i te kaiga mo noho o te Ariki O'Hotu Matu'a! Translation: "The island towards the sun, above! Go, see the island where King Hotu Matu'a will go and live!"

Englert puts forward the claim that Hiva lies to the West of the island.[6] The name "Hiva" is found in the Marquesas Islands, in the names of several islands: Nuku Hiva, Hiva Oa and Fatu Hiva (although in Fatu Hiva the "hiva" element may be a different word, ʻiva). It is also notable that in the Hawaiian Islands, the ancestral homeland is called Kahiki (a cognate of Tahiti, where at least part of the Hawaiian population came from).

Legends[edit]

According to various oral traditions, the Polynesians migrated from Hawaiki to the islands of the Pacific Ocean in open canoes, little different from the traditional craft found in Polynesia today. The Māori people of New Zealand trace their ancestry to groups of people who reportedly travelled from Hawaiki in about 40 named canoes (waka) (compare the discredited Great Fleet theory of the Polynesian settlement of New Zealand).

Polynesian oral traditions say that the spirits of Polynesian people return to Hawaiki after death. In the New Zealand context, such return-journeys take place via Spirits Bay, Cape Reinga and the Three Kings Islands at the extreme north of the North Island of New Zealand — giving a possible pointer as to the direction in which Hawaiki may lie.

Modern science and practical testing of theories[edit]

Possible migration routes of the Polynesians

Until recently, many anthropologists had doubts that the canoe-legends described a deliberate migration, tending to believe that the migration occurred accidentally when seafarers became lost and drifted to uninhabited shores. In 1947 Thor Heyerdahl sailed the Kon-Tiki, a balsa-wood raft, from South America into the Pacific in an attempt to show that humans could have settled Polynesia from the eastern shores of the Pacific Ocean, with sailors using the prevailing winds and simple construction techniques.

However, DNA, linguistic, botanical, and archaeological evidence indicates that the Austronesian-speaking peoples (including the Polynesians) probably originated from islands in eastern Asia, possibly from Taiwan,[7][8] and moved southwards and eastwards through the South Pacific Ocean. The common ancestry of all the Austronesian languages, of which the Polynesian languages form a major subgroup, as well as all Austronesian language families but Malayo-Polynesian existing only in Taiwan, support this theory. The sweet potato, which is of South American origin, is widely cultivated in Polynesia, indicating that some interaction between the Polynesians and the Amerindians of South America must have taken place. However, no Polynesian crops were introduced into the Americas, and there is no evidence of Polynesian settlement. This evidence indicates that at least some of the migration occurred using the prevailing winds. Austronesian and Polynesian navigators may have deduced the existence of uninhabited islands by observing migratory patterns of birds.

In recent decades, boatbuilders (see Polynesian Voyaging Society) have constructed ocean-going craft using traditional materials and techniques, and have sailed them over presumed traditional routes using ancient navigation methods, showing the feasibility of such deliberate migration.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hiroa, Te Rangi (1964). Vikings of the Sunrise. New Zealand: Whitecombe and Tombs Ltd. p. 69. ISBN 0-313-24522-3. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  2. ^ Salmond, Anne (2010). Aphrodite's Island. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 9780520261143. 
  3. ^ a b Polynesian Lexicon Project Online
  4. ^ Gill, William Wyatt, 1876. Myths and Songs from the South Pacific. Henry S. King, London, pp 152–174.
  5. ^ This meaning may be archaic or forgotten in the Cook Islands today. Buse (1996:90) in his dictionary Cook Islands Maori Dictionary with English Finderlist (edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moekaʻ) has this entry: Avaiki, prop. n. Hawaiki, the legendary homeland of the Polynesians. I tere tū mai rātou mei 'Avaiki. They voyaged direct from Hawaiki.
  6. ^ Englert notes that the phrase "The island towards the sun, above" seems to mean that, seen from Hiva, it lay towards the rising sun. Sourced from http://www.rongorongo.org/leyendas/008.htm
  7. ^ "Mitochondrial DNA Provides a Link between Polynesians and Indigenous Taiwanese," synopsis. Public Library of Science, July 5, 2005
  8. ^ The origin of the Polynesians. The Economist, July 7th, 2005.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Hawaiki in Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand

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