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Beyond Hawaiki - Teaser 1
Beyond Hawaiki - Teaser 1
Published: 2012/06/07
Channel: Tony Coolidge
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 7 - Maluku - Aotearoa - Arahura
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 7 - Maluku - Aotearoa - Arahura
Published: 2013/03/19
Channel: everlastingyouth
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 10 - Maluku - Ulimaroa - Aotearoa
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 10 - Maluku - Ulimaroa - Aotearoa
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: everlastingyouth
Homeland Hawaiki - Maluku / Moluccan origin
Homeland Hawaiki - Maluku / Moluccan origin
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: everlastingyouth
Hawaiki Nui To Matou Ai
Hawaiki Nui To Matou Ai'a - Te Ava Piti
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: Studio Alphonse
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 5 - Maluku - Fiji, Tonga, Samoa
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 5 - Maluku - Fiji, Tonga, Samoa
Published: 2013/01/16
Channel: everlastingyouth
2016 Hawaiki Nui Va
2016 Hawaiki Nui Va'a
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: World of Adventure
Hawaiki, vidéo explicative
Hawaiki, vidéo explicative
Published: 2014/10/30
Channel: Autre Chose
Hawaiki Nui 2013 (highlights)
Hawaiki Nui 2013 (highlights)
Published: 2014/07/04
Channel: Felipe Varejão Pimenta
Hawaiki
Hawaiki
Published: 2014/04/02
Channel: GLOW
Hawaiki Cable - Groundbreaking ceremony - Mangawhai Heads
Hawaiki Cable - Groundbreaking ceremony - Mangawhai Heads
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: Hawaiki Cable
Beyond Hawaiki Teaser
Beyond Hawaiki Teaser
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: Tobie Openshaw
Final Cut Pro X Hawaiki AutoGrade
Final Cut Pro X Hawaiki AutoGrade
Published: 2013/08/14
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 1ère étape
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 1ère étape
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 3ème étape
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 3ème étape
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
VOHI VIDEO HAWAIKI NUI 2016 ETAPE 3
VOHI VIDEO HAWAIKI NUI 2016 ETAPE 3
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: VOHI VIDEO
NAC and Paddling Connection  training before Hawaiki Nui Va
NAC and Paddling Connection training before Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2014
Published: 2014/12/14
Channel: Val S
Analyzer for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, After Effects and Motion Tutorial
Analyzer for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, After Effects and Motion Tutorial
Published: 2015/03/12
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Exploring Color Correction With Hawaiki
Exploring Color Correction With Hawaiki's "Auto Grade"
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: Larry Jordan
Hawaiki Nui Va
Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2016
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: polynesie1ere
Hawaiki Super Dissolve: Tutorial Revised
Hawaiki Super Dissolve: Tutorial Revised
Published: 2016/04/09
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
VOHI VIDEO ETAPE 1 HAWAIKI NUI Mercredi 02 nov 2016 44mn
VOHI VIDEO ETAPE 1 HAWAIKI NUI Mercredi 02 nov 2016 44mn
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: VOHI VIDEO
Hawaiki AutoSplit Tutorial
Hawaiki AutoSplit Tutorial
Published: 2014/02/25
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 6 - Maluku - Aotearoa / New Zealand
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 6 - Maluku - Aotearoa / New Zealand
Published: 2013/03/16
Channel: everlastingyouth
Hawaiki AutoMatch: Color Grading Tutorial
Hawaiki AutoMatch: Color Grading Tutorial
Published: 2014/07/25
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 2ème étape
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2016 - 2ème étape
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
Hawaiki Tower - Kakaako condo
Hawaiki Tower - Kakaako condo
Published: 2015/04/05
Channel: Honolulu HI 5
Hawaiki Keyer 3 - Introduction
Hawaiki Keyer 3 - Introduction
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Hawaiki Keyer 3 Upgrade Tutorial
Hawaiki Keyer 3 Upgrade Tutorial
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Clip Hawaiki Nui Va
Clip Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2013 HD
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: Laurent Célarié
HAWAIKI NUI VA
HAWAIKI NUI VA'A 2012
Published: 2012/11/10
Channel: Erwan Le Duc
Hawaiki AutoGrade 2.0 Demo
Hawaiki AutoGrade 2.0 Demo
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
Hawaiki Keyer for FCP, Premiere Pro, After Effects & Motion Extended Tutorial
Hawaiki Keyer for FCP, Premiere Pro, After Effects & Motion Extended Tutorial
Published: 2015/03/25
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
La minute Hawaiki nui 2016 - EDT vs OPT
La minute Hawaiki nui 2016 - EDT vs OPT
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: polynesie1ere
Hawaiki Color for Final Cut Pro X
Hawaiki Color for Final Cut Pro X
Published: 2013/12/09
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 9 - Maluku - Babau - Motu
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 9 - Maluku - Babau - Motu
Published: 2014/02/09
Channel: everlastingyouth
L’AVIRON S’INVITE A HAWAIKI NUI
L’AVIRON S’INVITE A HAWAIKI NUI
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: polynesie1ere
A Ahi Nui (3) Pêche en Haute Mer "Spécial Hawaiki Nui" - Yellowfin
A Ahi Nui (3) Pêche en Haute Mer "Spécial Hawaiki Nui" - Yellowfin
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Dan F
Hawaiki Style for FCPX In-Depth Tutorial
Hawaiki Style for FCPX In-Depth Tutorial
Published: 2014/10/06
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Hawaiki AutoGrade for Final Cut Pro X
Hawaiki AutoGrade for Final Cut Pro X
Published: 2013/08/14
Channel: FxFactory Plugins for Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, AE and Motion
Hawaiki Nui Va
Hawaiki Nui Va'a, la 1ère étape
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: Kimo Overstims
Hawaiki Nui Va
Hawaiki Nui Va'a 2013
Published: 2013/12/08
Channel: TheSweetyKiwi
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2015 - Etape 1
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2015 - Etape 1
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
Hawaiki nui vaa Résumé de la dernière étape
Hawaiki nui vaa Résumé de la dernière étape
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: polynesie1ere
Hawaiki Tower: A Kakaako Condo
Hawaiki Tower: A Kakaako Condo
Published: 2016/01/27
Channel: Honolulu HI 5
Check Out The Mean Green-Screen Effects of Hawaiki Keyer 2.0
Check Out The Mean Green-Screen Effects of Hawaiki Keyer 2.0
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Larry Jordan
Hawaiki Color Tutorial
Hawaiki Color Tutorial
Published: 2013/07/12
Channel: Simon Ubsdell
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2015 - Etape 2
HAWAIKI NUI VAA 2015 - Etape 2
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: Tahiti Nui Télévision
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 3 - Maluku - Minahasa
Homeland Hawaiki - Part 3 - Maluku - Minahasa
Published: 2012/12/11
Channel: everlastingyouth
HInemoana Hawaiki Rising Waka Voyage Kaipara
HInemoana Hawaiki Rising Waka Voyage Kaipara
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Hopotatoe
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In Polynesian mythology, Hawaiki (also rendered as "Avaiki" (Society Islands), "Savai'i", (Samoa), "Havaiki" (Reo Tahiti)) is the original home of the Polynesian peoples, before dispersal across Polynesia.[1] It also features as the underworld in many Māori stories.

Etymology[edit]

Linguists have reconstructed the term to Proto-Nuclear Polynesian *sawaiki.[2]

The Māori word Hawaiki figures in legends about the arrival of the Māori in Aotearoa (New Zealand). The same concept appears in other Polynesian cultures, the name appearing variously as Havaiki, Havai'i, or 'Avaiki in other Polynesian languages, though Hawaiki or the misspelling "Hawaiiki" appear to have become the most common variants used in English. Even though the Sāmoans have preserved no traditions of having originated elsewhere, the name of the largest Sāmoan island Savaiʻi preserves a cognate with the word Hawaiki, as does the name of the Polynesian islands of Hawaiʻi (the ʻokina denoting a glottal stop that replaces the "k" in some Polynesian languages).

On several island groups including New Zealand and the Marquesas the term has been recorded as associated with the underworld and death.[2] William Wyatt Gill discusses at length the legends about 'Avaiki as the underworld or Hades of Mangaia in the Cook Islands.[3] Gill (1876:155) records a proverb: Ua po Avaiki, ua ao nunga nei – 'Tis night now in spirit-land, for 'tis light in this upper world." Tregear (1891:392) also records the term Avaiki as meaning "underworld" at Mangaia, probably sourced from Gill.[4] There is of course no real contradiction in Hawaiki being the ancestral homeland (that is, the dwelling place of the ancestors) and the underworld, which is also the dwelling place of the ancestors and the spirits.

Other possible cognates of the word Hawaiki include sauali'i ("spirits" in Sāmoan) and hou'eiki ("chiefs" in Tongan). This has led some scholars to hypothesize that the word Hawaiki, and, by extension, Savai'i and Hawaiʻi, may not, in fact, have originally referred to a geographical place, but rather to chiefly ancestors and the chief-based social structure that pre-colonial Polynesia typically exhibited (Taumoefolau 1996).

On Easter Island, the name of the mythical home country appears as Hiva. According to Thor Heyerdahl Hiva allegedly lay east of the island. Sebastian Englert records:

He-kî Hau Maka: "He kaiga iroto i te raá, iruga! Ka-oho korua, ka-û'i i te kaiga mo noho o te Ariki O'Hotu Matu'a! Translation: "The island towards the sun, above! Go, see the island where King Hotu Matu'a will go and live!"

Englert puts forward the claim that Hiva lies to the West of the island.[5] The name "Hiva" is found in the Marquesas Islands, in the names of several islands: Nuku Hiva, Hiva Oa and Fatu Hiva (although in Fatu Hiva the "hiva" element may be a different word, ʻiva). It is also notable that in the Hawaiian Islands, the ancestral homeland is called Kahiki (a cognate of Tahiti, where at least part of the Hawaiian population came from).

Legends[edit]

According to various oral traditions, the Polynesians migrated from Hawaiki to the islands of the Pacific Ocean in open canoes, little different from the traditional craft found in Polynesia today. The Māori people of New Zealand trace their ancestry to groups of people who reportedly travelled from Hawaiki in about 40 named canoes (waka) (compare the discredited Great Fleet theory of the Polynesian settlement of New Zealand).

Polynesian oral traditions say that the spirits of Polynesian people return to Hawaiki after death. In the New Zealand context, such return-journeys take place via Spirits Bay, Cape Reinga and the Three Kings Islands at the extreme north of the North Island of New Zealand — giving a possible pointer as to the direction in which Hawaiki may lie.

Modern science and practical testing of theories[edit]

Possible migration routes of the Polynesians

Until recently, many anthropologists had doubts that the canoe-legends described a deliberate migration, tending to believe that the migration occurred accidentally when seafarers became lost and drifted to uninhabited shores. In 1947 Thor Heyerdahl sailed the Kon-Tiki, a balsa-wood raft, from South America into the Pacific in an attempt to show that humans could have settled Polynesia from the eastern shores of the Pacific Ocean, with sailors using the prevailing winds and simple construction techniques.

However, DNA, linguistic, botanical, and archaeological evidence indicates that the Austronesian-speaking peoples (including the Polynesians) probably originated from islands in eastern Asia, possibly from Taiwan,[6][7] and moved southwards and eastwards through the South Pacific Ocean. The common ancestry of all the Austronesian languages, of which the Polynesian languages form a major subgroup, as well as all Austronesian language families but Malayo-Polynesian existing only in Taiwan, support this theory. The sweet potato, which is of South American origin, is widely cultivated in Polynesia, indicating that some interaction between the Polynesians and the Amerindians of South America must have taken place. However, no Polynesian crops were introduced into the Americas, and there is no evidence of Polynesian settlement. This evidence indicates that at least some of the migration occurred using the prevailing winds. Austronesian and Polynesian navigators may have deduced the existence of uninhabited islands by observing migratory patterns of birds.

In recent decades, boatbuilders (see Polynesian Voyaging Society) have constructed ocean-going craft using traditional materials and techniques, and have sailed them over presumed traditional routes using ancient navigation methods, showing the feasibility of such deliberate migration.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hiroa, Te Rangi (1964). Vikings of the Sunrise. New Zealand: Whitecombe and Tombs Ltd. p. 69. ISBN 0-313-24522-3. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  2. ^ a b Polynesian Lexicon Project Online
  3. ^ Gill, William Wyatt, 1876. Myths and Songs from the South Pacific. Henry S. King, London, pp 152–174.
  4. ^ This meaning may be archaic or forgotten in the Cook Islands today. Buse (1996:90) in his dictionary Cook Islands Maori Dictionary with English Finderlist (edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moekaʻ) has this entry: Avaiki, prop. n. Hawaiki, the legendary homeland of the Polynesians. I tere tū mai rātou mei 'Avaiki. They voyaged direct from Hawaiki.
  5. ^ Englert notes that the phrase "The island towards the sun, above" seems to mean that, seen from Hiva, it lay towards the rising sun. Sourced from http://www.rongorongo.org/leyendas/008.htm
  6. ^ "Mitochondrial DNA Provides a Link between Polynesians and Indigenous Taiwanese," synopsis. Public Library of Science, July 5, 2005
  7. ^ The origin of the Polynesians. The Economist, July 7th, 2005.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Hawaiki in Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand

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