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Hawaiian Style Band - "Heiau" Video
Hawaiian Style Band - "Heiau" Video
Published: 2010/07/27
Channel: Mountain Apple Company Inc
Hawaiian Style Band " Heiau "
Hawaiian Style Band " Heiau "
Published: 2011/09/04
Channel: funimuni808
Heiau
Heiau
Published: 2012/12/17
Channel: kamehamehapublishing
Pu
Pu'ukohola Heiau
Published: 2009/09/21
Channel: Big Island Television, Hawaii
Drumming heard at Ancient Hawaiian Heiau
Drumming heard at Ancient Hawaiian Heiau
Published: 2012/11/19
Channel: Marlene M
Heiau in Hawaii Kai preserved as cultural heritage site
Heiau in Hawaii Kai preserved as cultural heritage site
Published: 2014/03/21
Channel: KITV
Mo
Mo'okini Heiau
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Uncle Lar
Heiau by Hawaiian Style Band (432 Hz)
Heiau by Hawaiian Style Band (432 Hz)
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Sugar Cane Culture Club
Mookini Heiau and Kamehameha birthsite, Kohala
Mookini Heiau and Kamehameha birthsite, Kohala
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: Big Island Television, Hawaii
The Building of Pu
The Building of Pu'ukohola Heiau
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: John Harrington
Stones From Lost Hilo Heiau Recovered, Preserved (Sept. 20, 2016)
Stones From Lost Hilo Heiau Recovered, Preserved (Sept. 20, 2016)
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: Big Island Video News
Pulemelei, Samoa
Pulemelei, Samoa's Pyramid/Heiau
Published: 2011/05/20
Channel: Tamafaiga
Heiau: Sacred Places
Heiau: Sacred Places
Published: 2009/03/26
Channel: Adam Keawe Manalo-Camp
"Heiau" @SlackKeyShow Sterling Seaton on Maui
"Heiau" @SlackKeyShow Sterling Seaton on Maui
Published: 2013/12/03
Channel: Slack Key Show - Napili
Students hunt for history and culture at heiau
Students hunt for history and culture at heiau
Published: 2013/03/18
Channel: University of Hawai‘i News
Ulupo Heiau
Ulupo Heiau
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Christian Leidholm
Heiau
Heiau
Published: 2010/05/01
Channel: PrincessHalakahiki
West Hawai‘i historical sites - Restoring heiau
West Hawai‘i historical sites - Restoring heiau
Published: 2015/10/16
Channel: KamehamehaSchools
Kapono`ai chanting at Pu`u Kohola Heiau
Kapono`ai chanting at Pu`u Kohola Heiau
Published: 2012/02/01
Channel: Ruben Carrillo
Tour Shark Temple Big Island Hawaii - Pu
Tour Shark Temple Big Island Hawaii - Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: JibaJabaJ
Heiau - Hawaiian Style Band
Heiau - Hawaiian Style Band
Published: 2010/05/03
Channel: PrincessHalakahiki
Kuka
Kuka'au'au Cave & Kamalie Heiau, Island Of Oahu, Hawaii
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: storiesbyalex
Ulupō Heiau
Ulupō Heiau
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: Chris D
Ulupo Heiau  (Ancient Hawaiian Temple )
Ulupo Heiau (Ancient Hawaiian Temple )
Published: 2012/06/28
Channel: Philip Toledo
Maka O Hule Heiau, the Stonehenge of the Big Island, Hawaii
Maka O Hule Heiau, the Stonehenge of the Big Island, Hawaii
Published: 2008/03/21
Channel: DrBlizzardo
Keaiwa Heiau State Park, Oahu, Hawaii.
Keaiwa Heiau State Park, Oahu, Hawaii.
Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: LDLservices
Mo
Mo'okini Heiau: Warrior Kings and Human Sacrifice on Hawai'i
Published: 2008/03/24
Channel: DrBlizzardo
Pu
Pu'u O Mahuka Heiau
Published: 2011/04/07
Channel: The Road Less Traveled
Fly-through of Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kohala, HI
Fly-through of Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Kohala, HI
Published: 2015/03/04
Channel: HABS HAER HALS
Pu
Pu'ukohola Heiau - An ancient Hawaiian Historical site
Published: 2008/05/15
Channel: afartv
dR: Kawaewae Heiau Hike
dR: Kawaewae Heiau Hike
Published: 2012/03/04
Channel: dirteReviews
Ulupo Heiau Cleanup
Ulupo Heiau Cleanup
Published: 2013/10/07
Channel: Hawaiian Electric Companies
Kalani Pe
Kalani Pe'a Oli Piilani Heiau Hana Maui Hawaii
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: Kalani Pe'a
Pi
Pi'ilanihale Heiau Kahanu Garden
Published: 2012/11/19
Channel: PowerglideTV
Heiau Restoration — Huaka
Heiau Restoration — Huaka'i 'Āina Ho'oilina (6/10)
Published: 2008/11/27
Channel: KamehamehaSchools
Ulupō Heiau
Ulupō Heiau
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: sukotto55
Windward YMCA Togetherhood Project: Ulupo Heiau and Lo
Windward YMCA Togetherhood Project: Ulupo Heiau and Lo'i Restoration
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: YMCA of Honolulu
Keaiwa Heiau Hike
Keaiwa Heiau Hike
Published: 2009/10/24
Channel: hilary2020
Kukuipuka Heiau
Kukuipuka Heiau
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Kapena401
Heiau Visual Tour
Heiau Visual Tour
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Christian Leidholm
Ka Huaka`i i Kānē`ākī Heiau
Ka Huaka`i i Kānē`ākī Heiau
Published: 2009/07/24
Channel: malianika
Kaneiolouma Heiau Poipu Kauai
Kaneiolouma Heiau Poipu Kauai
Published: 2007/10/27
Channel: poipustory
Pu
Pu'u O Mahuka Heiau State Historic Site - LookIntoHawaii.com
Published: 2015/09/11
Channel: LookIntoHawaii.com
'Ahu'ena Heiau Temple in Kailua Village, Big Island Hawaii
Published: 2008/04/08
Channel: DrBlizzardo
Hauola City of Refuge Heiau, Lydgate Beach Park, Wailua, Kauai, Hawii
Hauola City of Refuge Heiau, Lydgate Beach Park, Wailua, Kauai, Hawii
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: farhad4art
Aiea Loop Trail 5 (Keaiwa Heiau State Recreation Area) 05/01/2014
Aiea Loop Trail 5 (Keaiwa Heiau State Recreation Area) 05/01/2014
Published: 2014/05/09
Channel: BlackGoldKnights
Ulupo Heiau
Ulupo Heiau
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Robert Linogon
Sacred Temple For Measuring Cosmic Time at Anahola Heiau on Kauai (Part 1)
Sacred Temple For Measuring Cosmic Time at Anahola Heiau on Kauai (Part 1)
Published: 2011/07/25
Channel: Tech Licensing International
Heeholua at Kapu
Heeholua at Kapu'a, Manuka ('Ahole Heiau)
Published: 2008/08/02
Channel: kaleiaualoha
Pahua Heiau - Ann Marie Kirk & Kaleo Paiki
Pahua Heiau - Ann Marie Kirk & Kaleo Paiki
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: LIVABLE HAWAII KAI HUI
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Hale O Pi'ilani Heiau, near Hāna on Maui
Pu'u O Mahuka Heiau
An illustration of a heiau at Kealakekua Bay at the time of James Cook's third voyage, by William Ellis.

A heiau (/ˈh/) is a Hawaiian temple. Many types of heiau were built, including heiau to treat the sick (heiau hōʻola), offer first fruits, offer first catch, start rain, stop rain, increase the population, ensure the health of the nation, achieve success in distant voyaging, reach peace, and achieve success in war (luakini).

Only the luakini was dedicated through human sacrifice.[1] There are two types of luakini. They were called the ʻohiʻa ko and hakuʻohiʻa.[2]

Heiau were made in different architectural styles depending upon their purpose and location. At the official end of Hawaiian religion in 1819 under pressure from Christian missionaries, many were deliberately destroyed, while others were allowed to fall into disrepair. Heiau are still considered sacred by many of the inhabitants of Hawaii, and some are not open to the public. In ancient times, only chiefs and priests were allowed into some of these heiau. Some heiau structures have been fully restored physically and are operated in the 21st century as public attractions.

Architecture[edit]

Heiau were made in different shapes depending upon their purpose, varying from simple stone markers to large stone platforms, which were both parts of human sacrificial temples.[3] Their shapes could be rectangular, square, or rounded.[4] Some consisted of simple earth terraces, while others were elaborately constructed stone platforms. They could be placed on hills, cliffs, level earth, valleys and on the coastline touching the sea.[4] Some koʻa or fishing shrines were built underwater. Heiaus of the people varied in size. Large heiaus were built by prominent people while small heiaus were built by the humble.[5]

US missionary Hiram Bingham described a heiau he saw on route hiking between the summits of Mauna Kea and Hualalai. Made of piled lava rock, it was a square of 100 feet (30 m), with walls eight feet high and four feet thick (2.5 by 1.3m). A doorway led through the middle of the north wall. Eight pyramids surrounded the outside of the temple. Made also of piled lava rock, they were 12 feet (3.7 m) in diameter and 12 to 15 feet (4.6 m) high.[6]

Heiau types[edit]

The luakini poʻokanaka were large heiaus. Only the Aliʻi nui of an island or moku could use this type of heiau. Other chiefs or the makaʻainana that built this type of heiau were considered rebels. This type of heiau was usually built alongside coastlines, in the interior of the land, or on mountain sides.[2] The largest heiau on Oahu is Puʻu O Mahuka, which covers almost two acres of land.[7]

Preserved sites[edit]

The heiau most commonly preserved are war temples of the later period of history (e.g. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site). They are composed of large stone platforms with various structures built upon them. The structures were used to house priests, sacred ceremonial drums, sacred items, and cult images representing the gods associated with that particular temple. There were also altars (Ahu) on which to offer sacrifices (plant, animal and human). The heiau were sacred places; only the kahuna (priests) and certain sacred ali'i (high chiefs) were allowed to enter.

The largest heiau known to exist, Hale O Pi'ilani Heiau, is a massive, three-acre (12,000-square-meter) platform with fifty-foot retaining walls, located in Hāna on Maui. Built for Pi'ilani, it dates to the 13th century.[8]

Agricultural heiau, called generally Hale-o-Lono for the god of fertility, can be found today on Oʻahu at Makaha (Kaneaki heiau - fully restored) and in Hawaii Kai (Pahua heiau - partially restored). The Kaneaki heiau was built in the 17th century, containing grass and thatched huts that were chambers used for prayer and meditation.[9]

The ruins of a healing heiau, Keaiwa ("the mysterious"), are located at the entrance to Keaiwa State Park in ʻAiea.[10]

Puʻuhonua o Honaunau, in South Kona on the island of Hawaiʻi, is a place of refuge. It incorporates a heiau complex within it.

Because the land of heiau was sacred, it was not unusual for successive generations to add to original structures and the heiau purpose could change over time. An example is Ulupo heiau in Kailua on Oʻahu, which is said to have been built by the menehune, that is, a long time ago. It is thought to have been used first as an agricultural heiau and later as a luakini.[11]

Destruction[edit]

The kapu or 'ʻai kapu system was abolished in October 1819 by Liholiho, Kamehameha II. The abolition of the kapu system ended the use of heiau as places of worship and sacrifice. A period referred to as the 'Ai Noa or "free eating" followed. Missionaries arrived in 1820, and most of the aliʻi converted to Christianity, including Kaʻahumanu and Keōpūolani.

It took 11 years for Kaʻahumanu to proclaim laws against ancient religious practices. All heiau were officially abandoned; most were destroyed over the years. Often they were broken up and plowed under to make way for fields of sugar cane. However, some of the families who were responsible for the heiau have continued the tradition of caring for them to this day.

List[edit]

Heiau on Necker Island (Mokumanamana), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Hawaii

Maui

Molokai

Oahu

Kauai

Niihau

  • Kauwaha Heiau
  • Pahau Heiau
  • Pueo Heiau
  • Kaunupou Heiau
  • Kaunuapua Heiau
  • Puhi Ula Heiau

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamakau, Samuel. The Works of the People of Old, pp. 129-134
  2. ^ a b Samuel Kamakau, Ka Poe Kahiko; The People of Old (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1993), 130.
  3. ^ "Pu'ukohala Heiau: History & Culture", Natural Park Service, 15 August 2012. Retrieved on 13 November 2012.
  4. ^ a b Kamakau, p. 135
  5. ^ Samuel Kamakau, Ka Poe Kahiko; The People of Old (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1993), 131.
  6. ^ Bingham, Hiram. A Residence 21 Years in the Sandwich Islands, Tuttle (1981) p. 397
  7. ^ Pu'u O Mahuka Heiau State Historic Site, Department of Land and Natural Resources, N.d. Retrieved on 13 November 2012.
  8. ^ Engledow, Jill (May 2009). "A Heiau in the Garden". Native Soul - The Culture and Aloha of Maui, Hawaii. 13 (3). Maui No Ka 'Oi Magazine. Archived from the original on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  9. ^ Kaneaki Heiau Oahu, Hawaii Web, N.d. Retrieved on 13 November 2012.
  10. ^ "> Parks > Oahu > Keaiwa Heiau State Recreation Area". Hawaii State Parks. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  11. ^ "> Parks > Oahu > Ulupo Heiau State Historic Site". Hawaii State Parks. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 

Further reading[edit]

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