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1
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.20BEST8第1試合mol53 vs HENAN(11.10 .30)@BEST BOUTその4
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.20BEST8第1試合mol53 vs HENAN(11.10 .30)@BEST BOUTその4
::2011/11/25::
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2
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.20 準決勝 第1試合 チプルソ vs HENAN (11.10 .30)@BEST BOUTその3
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.20 準決勝 第1試合 チプルソ vs HENAN (11.10 .30)@BEST BOUTその3
::2011/11/25::
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3
[Beautiful China 720HD] Henan Province / 河南
[Beautiful China 720HD] Henan Province / 河南
::2011/09/05::
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4
【Travelogue HQ】 Kaifeng of Henan / 河南 开封 1/2
【Travelogue HQ】 Kaifeng of Henan / 河南 开封 1/2
::2011/08/23::
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5
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.18 HENAN vs エイジ(11.6.18)@BEST BOUTその5
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.18 HENAN vs エイジ(11.6.18)@BEST BOUTその5
::2011/07/16::
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6
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上昇気流MC BATTLE Vol.2(12.2.12)BEST BOUT 19.ベスト4 HENAN VS LA GLORIA
::2012/02/27::
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7
INSIDE HENAN CHINA
INSIDE HENAN CHINA
::2012/04/18::
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8
Fruit Ponchi vol.7@ねるとん口説き MCBATTLE アスベスト vs HENAN (2011.5.8)
Fruit Ponchi vol.7@ねるとん口説き MCBATTLE アスベスト vs HENAN (2011.5.8)
::2011/05/26::
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9
Erhu - Ballad of North Henan Province  豫北叙事曲
Erhu - Ballad of North Henan Province 豫北叙事曲
::2012/05/26::
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10
Henan dialect
Henan dialect
::2013/05/27::
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11
Chinese Breakfast at a Street Restaurant in Zhengzhou, Henan, China!
Chinese Breakfast at a Street Restaurant in Zhengzhou, Henan, China!
::2011/09/08::
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12
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.17マキシム vs HENAN (11.1.9)@BEST BOUTその7
戦慄MC BATTLE Vol.17マキシム vs HENAN (11.1.9)@BEST BOUTその7
::2011/02/17::
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13
QaQa Znjiray 15 Zhn Henan درامای قاقا زنجیرەی١٥ ژن هێنان
QaQa Znjiray 15 Zhn Henan درامای قاقا زنجیرەی١٥ ژن هێنان
::2013/07/24::
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14
Erhu - Ballad of North Henan Province  豫北叙事曲 HQ
Erhu - Ballad of North Henan Province 豫北叙事曲 HQ
::2012/05/26::
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15
Zhengzhou, Henan
Zhengzhou, Henan
::2014/06/03::
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16
Henan Jianye vs Dalian Aerbin, Chinese Super League 2014 (Round 3)
Henan Jianye vs Dalian Aerbin, Chinese Super League 2014 (Round 3)
::2014/03/22::
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17
Kaifeng, Henan
Kaifeng, Henan
::2014/06/04::
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18
Shaolin Temple Henan
Shaolin Temple Henan
::2013/08/06::
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19
Henan, China (Part 1 of 2)
Henan, China (Part 1 of 2)
::2011/08/10::
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20
Luoyang, Henan
Luoyang, Henan
::2014/06/03::
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21
China:  Visiting The Fantastic Henan Museum
China: Visiting The Fantastic Henan Museum
::2008/05/14::
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22
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Gols do atacante Henan - maior artilheiro do Red Bull Brasil
::2013/06/07::
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23
Daniella Wang Li Dan 王李丹 from Henan, China | Hot Sexy Women
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::2014/03/09::
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24
Abderrazak Hamd Allah Vs Henan Jianye 13/04/14
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::2014/04/14::
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25
Luoyang, Henan  河南洛陽
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::2012/10/24::
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26
Henan Jianye - Guizhou Renhe 1-2 河南建业 - 贵州人和 1-2
Henan Jianye - Guizhou Renhe 1-2 河南建业 - 贵州人和 1-2
::2014/04/18::
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27
Yin Xu, Henan
Yin Xu, Henan
::2014/06/03::
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28
henan wushu team trailer 2007
henan wushu team trailer 2007
::2008/03/21::
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29
Chinese fa cup:Alberto Gilardino goal Henan Jianye 2-1 Guangzhou Evergrande
Chinese fa cup:Alberto Gilardino goal Henan Jianye 2-1 Guangzhou Evergrande
::2014/07/24::
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30
Diamanti 1st China Super League Game| Guangzhou 3 - 0 Henan
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::2014/03/08::
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31
Henan Kaifeng Travel
Henan Kaifeng Travel
::2012/04/24::
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32
Flimi Kurdi Comedy 3abo Zhn Henan
Flimi Kurdi Comedy 3abo Zhn Henan
::2014/02/11::
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33
Zhengzhou - henan - china
Zhengzhou - henan - china
::2009/09/06::
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34
Henan Jianye vs Shanghai East Asia, Chinese Super League 2014 (Round 5)
Henan Jianye vs Shanghai East Asia, Chinese Super League 2014 (Round 5)
::2014/04/06::
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35
ZHENG ZHOU 郑州 capital of Henan province -GREEN CITY
ZHENG ZHOU 郑州 capital of Henan province -GREEN CITY
::2008/12/27::
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36
[2014 CSL 15th Round] Henan Jianye 2-1 Beijing Guoan 140720
[2014 CSL 15th Round] Henan Jianye 2-1 Beijing Guoan 140720
::2014/07/20::
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37
Ceremony, Henan
Ceremony, Henan
::2014/06/03::
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38
Anyang, Henan
Anyang, Henan
::2014/06/03::
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39
[2014 CSL 16th Round]Henan Jianye 0-1 Guangzhou Evergrande (7/27/2014)
[2014 CSL 16th Round]Henan Jianye 0-1 Guangzhou Evergrande (7/27/2014)
::2014/07/27::
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40
Shaolin Temple, Henan
Shaolin Temple, Henan
::2014/06/03::
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41
Henan Silveira
Henan Silveira
::2012/02/05::
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42
Henan Mine Crane Co.,Ltd, www.hnkscrane.com, China overhead crane, gantry crane
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::2012/11/23::
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43
Henan University of Technology
Henan University of Technology
::2014/04/23::
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44
上昇気流MC BATTLE Vol.4(12.6.10)BEST BOUT 12.決勝 ぺてせーん VS HENAN
上昇気流MC BATTLE Vol.4(12.6.10)BEST BOUT 12.決勝 ぺてせーん VS HENAN
::2012/06/24::
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45
Zheng Zhou | Noodles of Henan
Zheng Zhou | Noodles of Henan
::2014/07/30::
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46
10th All China Games - Henan Wushu Team 1
10th All China Games - Henan Wushu Team 1
::2008/01/04::
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47
Guangzhou Evergrande vs Henan Jianye, Chinese Super League 2014 (Round 1)
Guangzhou Evergrande vs Henan Jianye, Chinese Super League 2014 (Round 1)
::2014/03/08::
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48
Enhance Interoperability for Henan Medical Care
Enhance Interoperability for Henan Medical Care
::2013/12/11::
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49
Severe drought in Henan, China affects thousands
Severe drought in Henan, China affects thousands
::2014/07/28::
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50
Guoliang tunnel, Henan, China
Guoliang tunnel, Henan, China
::2014/04/21::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For the Swedish locality, see Henån.
Henan Province
河南省
Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 河南省 (Hénán Shěng)
 • Abbreviation (pinyin: Yù)
Map showing the location of Henan Province
Map showing the location of Henan Province
Coordinates: 33°54′N 113°30′E / 33.9°N 113.5°E / 33.9; 113.5Coordinates: 33°54′N 113°30′E / 33.9°N 113.5°E / 33.9; 113.5
Named for hé - (Yellow) River
nán - south
"south of the Yellow River"
Capital Zhengzhou
Largest city Nanyang
Divisions 17 prefectures, 159 counties, 2455 townships
Government
 • Secretary Guo Gengmao
 • Governor Xie Fuzhan
Area[1]
 • Total 167,000 km2 (64,000 sq mi)
Area rank 17th
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 94,023,567
 • Rank 3rd
 • Density 560/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Density rank 6th
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition Han - 98.8%
Hui - 1%
 • Languages and dialects Zhongyuan Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-41
GDP (2013) CNY 3.22 trillion
US$ 525.29 billion (5th)
 - per capita CNY 34,247
US$ 5,587 (21st)
HDI (2010) 0.677[3] (medium) (20th)
Website www.henan.gov.cn

Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: Hénán; Wade–Giles: Ho-nan) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "" (yù), named after Yuzhou (豫州; Yùzhōu), a Han Dynasty state (zhou) that included parts of Henan. Although the name of the province (河南) means "south of the river",[4] approximately a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River, also known as the "Huang He".

Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州) which literally means "central plains" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 5,000 years of history, and remained China's cultural, economical, and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago. Numerous heritages have been left behind including the ruins of Shang Dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Luoyang, Anyang, Kaifeng, and Zhengzhou are located in Henan.

With an area of 167,000 square kilometres (64,000 sq mi), Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain. Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 12th most populous country in the world, behind Mexico and ahead of the Philippines.

Henan is the 5th largest provincial economy of China and the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other eastern and central provinces, and Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China. The economy continues to depend on its dwindling aluminum and coal reserves, as well as agriculture, heavy industry, tourism, and retail. High-tech industry and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang.

History[edit]

Widely regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns. The economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location also means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China. In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding.

Ancient Era[edit]

A Yangshao pot carving of an owl

Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era. The more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia Dynasty, the first and largely legendary Chinese dynasty that was established, roughly, in the 21st century BC. Virtually the entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan.

The Xia Dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang Dynasty (16th-11th centuries BC) was the first literate dynasty of China. Its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu, Yanshi, and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, Yin, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.

Shang Dynasty oracle bone script, the first form of Chinese writing

In the 11th century BC, the Zhou Dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang Dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, and the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang. This began the Spring and Autumn Period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states, constantly at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had virtually disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in northern Chu, part of modern day Henan.

Later on, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, and Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, and the Han in the middle. In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare.

Imperial Era[edit]

Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself (220 BCE) as the First Emperor. He abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin Dynasty and unified the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire quickly collapsed after the death (210 BCE) of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han Dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus began a golden age of Chinese culture, economy, and military power. The capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin Dynasty. Luoyang quickly regained control of China, and the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) began, extending the golden age for another two centuries.

The late Eastern Han Dynasty saw war and rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who eventually succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei then moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin Dynasty. During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being repeatedly damaged by warfare.

With the fall of the Western Jin Dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples from the north invaded northern China and established many successive regimes in northern China, including Henan. These people were gradually assimilated into the Chinese culture in a process known as sinification.

The short-lived Sui Dynasty reunified China again in 589 with its capital back in Chang'an. It collapsed due to Sui Emperor Yang's costly attempt to relocate the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang and the construction of many extravagant palaces there. The succeeding Tang Dynasty (618-907) kept its capital in Chang'an, marking the beginning of China's second golden age, with Henan being one of the wealthiest places in the empire.

The Tang Dynasty lasted for three centuries before it eventually succumbed to internal strife. In the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960) that followed, Kaifeng in eastern Henan became the capital of four dynasties. The Song Dynasty that reunified China in 982 also had its capital at Kaifeng. Under Song rule, China entered another era of culture and prosperity, and Kaifeng overtook Luoyang and Chang'an as the largest city in China and in the world.[5] In 1127, however, the Song Dynasty succumbed to Jurchen (Jin Dynasty) invaders from the north in the Jin–Song war, and in 1142 ceded all of northern China, including Henan. The Song government moved its capital to Hangzhou in Southern China, which, under the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279) continued to enjoy relative economic and culture prosperity. A prolonged period of peace and cultural and economic prosperity in the Yangtze River delta Jiangnan region (modern southern Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang, and Shanghai) made this the new center of Chinese culture and economy.

Kaifeng served as the Jurchen's "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time.[6][7] But the Jurchen kept their main capital further north, until 1214, when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee the Mongol onslaught. In 1234 they succumbed to combined Mongol and Song Dynasty forces. Mongols took control, and in 1279 they conquered all of China, establishing the Yuan Dynasty and set up the equivalent of modern Henan province, with borders very similar to the modern ones. Neither its territories nor its role in the economy changed under later dynasties. Henan remained important in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) that followed, though its economy slowly deteriorated due to frequent natural disasters.

Modern Era[edit]

The Qing Dynasty was overthrown by the Republic of China in 1911, marking the beginning of China's modern era. The construction and extension of the Pinghan Railway and Longhai Railway had turned Zhengzhou, a minor county town at the time, into a major transportation hub. Despite the rise of Zhengzhou, Henan's overall economy repeatedly stumbled as it was the hardest hit by the many disasters that struck China in its modern era.

In 1938, when the Imperial Japanese Army captured Kaifeng, the government led by Chiang Kai-shek bombed the Huayuankou dam in Zhengzhou in order to prevent the Japanese forces from advancing further. However, this caused massive flooding in Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu resulting in a famine that caused millions of deaths.

In 1954, the new government of the People's Republic of China moved the capital of Henan from Kaifeng to Zhengzhou, as a result of its economic importance. The PRC had earlier established a short-lived Pingyuan Province consisting of what is now northern Henan and western Shandong with Xinxiang as its capital. This province was abolished in 1952.

In 1958, Yashan in Suiping County, Henan, became the first people's commune of China, heralding the beginning of the "Great Leap Forward". In the subsequent famines of the early 1960s popularly attributed to the Great Leap Forward, Henan was one of the hardest hit and millions of lives were lost.[8]

A destructive flooding of the Huai River in the summer of 1950 prompted large-scale construction of dams on its tributaries in central and southern Henan. Unfortunately, many of the dams were not able to withstand the extraordinarily high levels of rainfall caused by Typhoon Nina in August 1975. Sixty-two dams, the largest of which was the Banqiao Dam in Biyang County collapsed; catastrophic flooding, spread over several counties throughout Zhumadian Prefecture and further downstream, killed at least 26,000 people.[9][10] Unofficial human life loss estimates, including deaths from the ensuing epidemics and famine, range as high as 85,600,[9] 171,000[11] or even 230 000.[9] This is considered the most deadly dam-related disaster in human history.[9]

By the early 1970s, China was one of the poorest countries in the world, and Henan was one of the poorest provinces in China. In 1978, however, when the communist leader Deng Xiaoping initiated the open door policy and embraced capitalism, China entered an economic boom that continues today. The boom did not reach inland provinces such as Henan initially, but by the 1990s Henan's economy was expanding at an even faster rate than that of China overall.

Henan has still not, however, entirely shed its reputation as an economic backwater. In recent years the prevalence of "selling blood" (blood donations for payment) among poor villagers has put Henan in the national spotlight. It was exposed that AIDS villages, where most of the population is HIV positive, exist in Henan. In many rural areas of China during the 1990s, particularly in the province of Henan, tens to hundreds of thousands of farmers and peasants were infected with HIV through participation in state-run blood collection programs in which contaminated equipment was reused.[12][13] The initial cover up of the crisis by local officials, followed by the national exposure, has put Henan in a somewhat negative spotlight.

In November 2004, martial law was declared in Zhongmou County, Henan, to quell deadly ethnic clashes between Han Chinese and the Muslim Hui Chinese. [2] The reported number of deaths ranged between 7 and 148.

Geography[edit]

Longmen Grottoes (Mt. Longmen), Luoyang, Henan

Henan has a diverse landscape with floodplains in the east and mountains in the west. Much of the province forms part the densely populated North China Plain, an area known as the "breadbasket of China". The Taihang Mountains intrude partially into Henan's northwestern borders from Shanxi, forming the eastern edge of Loess Plateau. To the west the Xionger and Funiu Mountains form an extensive network of mountain ranges and plateaus, supporting one of the few remaining temperate deciduous forests which once covered all of Henan. The renowned Mount Song and its Shaolin Temple is located in the far east of the region, near the capital city Zhengzhou. To the far south, the Dabie Mountains divides Hubei from Henan. The Nanyang Basin, separated from North China Plain by these mountains, is another important agricultural and population center, with culture and history distinct from the rest of Henan and closer to that of Hubei's. Unlike the rest of northern China, desertification is not a problem in Henan, though sandstorms are common in cities near the Yellow River due to the large amount of sand present in the river.

The Yellow River passes through central Henan. It enters from the northwest, via the Sanmenxia Reservoir. After it passes Luoyang, the mountains gave way to plains. Excessive amount of sediments are formed due to the silt it picks up from the Loess Plateau, raising the riverbed and causing frequent floods which shaped the habitat of the region. More recently however, construction of dams and levees, as well as the depletion of water resources have ended the floods. The Huai River in southern Henan is another important river, and has been recognized as part of the boundary dividing northern and southern Chinese climate and culture.

Henan shares borders with six other provinces. It is bordered to the west by Shaanxi, to the south by Hubei, and to the north by Shanxi (northwest) and Hebei (northeast). To the east lie Shandong (northeast) and Anhui (southeast), whose borders meet at a narrow strip of land which separates Henan from Jiangsu to the east.

Climate[edit]

Henan has a temperate climate that is humid subtropical (Köppen Cwa or Cfa) to the south of the Yellow River and bordering on humid continental (Köppen Dwa) to the north. It has a distinct seasonal climate characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cool to cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Temperatures average around the freezing mark in January and 27 to 28 °C in July. A great majority of the annual rainfall occurs during the summer.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Henan is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions − all prefecture-level cities − and one directly administered county-level city.The prefecture-level cities are:

Map # Name Administrative Seat Hanzi
Hanyu Pinyin
Population (2010)
Henan prfc map.png
Prefecture-level city
1 Zhengzhou Zhongyuan District 郑州市
Zhèngzhōu Shì
8,626,505
2 Anyang Beiguan District 安阳市
Ānyáng Shì
5,172,834
3 Hebi Qibin District 鹤壁市
Hèbì Shì
1,569,100
4 Jiaozuo Jiefang District 焦作市
Jiāozuò Shì
3,539,860
5 Kaifeng Gulou District 开封市
Kāifēng Shì
4,676,159
6 Luohe Yancheng District 漯河市
Luòhé Shì
2,544,103
7 Luoyang Xigong District 洛阳市
Luòyáng Shì
6,549,486
8 Nanyang Wolong District 南阳市
Nányáng Shì
10,263,006
9 Pingdingshan Xinhua District 平顶山市
Píngdǐngshān Shì
4,904,367
10 Puyang Hualong District 濮阳市
Púyáng Shì
3,598,494
11 Sanmenxia Hubin District 三门峡市
Sānménxiá Shì
2,233,872
12 Shangqiu Liangyuan District 商丘市
Shāngqiū Shì
7,362,472
13 Xinxiang Weibin District 新乡市
Xīnxiāng Shì
5,707,801
14 Xinyang Shihe District 信阳市
Xìnyáng Shì
6,108,683
15 Xuchang Weidu District 许昌市
Xǔchāng Shì
4,307,199
16 Zhoukou Chuanhui District 周口市
Zhōukǒu Shì
8,953,172
17 Zhumadian Yicheng District 驻马店市
Zhùmǎdiàn Shì
7,230,744
Sub-prefecture-level city
18 Jiyuan Jiyuan 济源市
Jǐyuán Shì
675,710

The seventeen prefecture-level divisions and one directly administered county-level city of Henan are subdivided into 159 county-level divisions (50 districts, twenty-one county-level cities, and 88 counties; Jiyuan is counted as a county-level city here). Those are in turn divided into 2440 township-level divisions (866 towns, 1234 townships, twelve ethnic townships, and 328 subdistricts).

Demographics[edit]

With a population of approximately 93.6 million, Henan is the third most populous Chinese province after Guangdong and Shandong. It is also the fifth most populous sub-national division in the world. If it were a country by itself, it would be the twelfth most populous in the world, just behind Mexico and ahead of the Philippines. However, the hukou system shows Henan as the most populous province in China with over 103 million people, as it counts the migrant Henanese laborers as residents of Henan, instead of the province they currently reside in. On the other hand, Guangdong is shown as having only 81 million people, though the actual population is 95 million due to the influx of migrants from other provinces.

The population is highly homogeneous with 98.8% of the population being Han. Small populations of Mongols and Manchus exists in scattered rural communities as well as major urban centers. Along with Jiangxi, Henan has one of the most unbalanced gender ratios in China. As a result of the Chinese government's one-child policy (many parents do not want the only child to be female and abort the fetus), the gender ratio was 118.46 males for 100 females in 2000. Subsequently, aborting fetuses due to their female sex was banned in Henan and heavy fines are issued for those who violate the law. In addition, daughter-only families receive an annual allowance from the government.[14] Despite these efforts the problem seems to have become far worse. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1-4 age group;[15] this might be a strong exaggeration, as many families with more than one child do not register their daughters to the hukou in order to escape fines.

Religions[edit]



Circle frame.svg

Religion in Henan (2012)[16]

  Non religious and traditional faiths (86.1%)
  Buddhism (6.4%)
  Protestantism (5.6%)
  Islam (1.3%)
  Catholicism (0.5%)
  Others (0.2%)
The Spring Temple Buddha in Henan, the highest statue in the world.

According to a 2012 survey[16] only around 13% of the population of Henan belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.4%, followed by Protestants with 5.6%, Muslims with 1.3% and Catholics with 0.5%. Around 86% of the population is non religious or partakes to traditional folk religions, Taoist rites, worship of gods and ancestors. Henan has the largest Christian population by numbers and percentage of any province of China.[17]

Politics[edit]

The Government of Henan is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Henan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Henan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Henan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Henan CPC Party Chief".

Economy[edit]

Henan has seen rapid development in its economy over the past two decades, and its economy has expanded at an even faster rate than the national average of 10%. This rapid growth has transformed Henan from one of the poorest provinces to one that matches other central provinces, though still relatively impoverished on a national scale. In 2011, Henan's nominal GDP was 3.20 trillion RMB (US$427 billion),[18] making it the fifth largest economy in China, although it ranks nineteenth in terms of GDP per capita.

Henan is a semi-industrialized economy with an underdeveloped service sector. In 2009, Henan's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 277 billion RMB (US$40 billion), 1.097 trillion RMB (US$160 billion), and 563 billion RMB (US$82 billion), respectively. Agriculture has traditionally been a pillar of its economy, with the nation's highest wheat and sesame output and second highest rice output, earning its reputation as the breadbasket of China. Henan is also an important producer of beef, cotton, maize, pork, animal oil, and corn. Food production and processing makes up more than 14% of the output from the province's secondary industry,[19] and it is said that 90% of Chinese McDonald's and KFC ingredients comes from Henan.[20]

Although Henan's industry has traditionally been based on light textiles and food processing, recent developments have diversified the industry sector to metallurgy, petrol, cement, chemical industry, machinery and electronics. Henan has the second largest molybdenum reserves in the world. Coal, aluminum, alkaline metals and tungsten are also present in large amounts in western Henan. Export and processing of these materials is one of the main sources of revenues.

Henan is actively trying to build its economy around the provincial capital of Zhengzhou, and it is hoped that the province may become an important transportation and manufacturing hub in the years to come.[19] In 2008, the total trade volume (import and export) was US$17.5 billion, including US$10.7 billion for exports. Since 2002, 7,111 foreign enterprises have been approved, and foreign funds (FDI) of US$10.64 billion have been used in contracts with a realized FDI of US$5.3 billion. Foreign exchanges are increasing continuously. Friendly provincial relationships have been established with 16 states (districts) in the United States, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, and others. Some cities of Henan have established friendly relationships (sister city) with thirty-two foreign cities.

Henan's service sector is rather small and underdeveloped. Finance and commerce are largely concentrated in urban centers such as Zhengzhou and Luoyang, where the economy is fueled by a large and relatively affluent consumer base. In order to make the economy more knowledge and technology based, the government established a number of development zones in all of the major cities, promoting industries such as software, information technologies, new materials, bio-pharmaceutical and photo-machinery-electronics.[21] Henan is a major destination for tourists, with places such as Shaolin Temple and Longmen Grottoes attracting millions of tourists each year.

Transportation[edit]

Henan has some of the most advanced transportation system in China due to its flat terrain and its location at the heart of central China's construction boom. The Jingguang and Longhai Railway, the nation's two most important railways, run through much of the province and intersects at Zhengzhou. Other railway hubs such as Shangqiu, Xinxiang, and Luohe have also become important centers of trade and manufacturing as a result. A high-speed railway links Zhengzhou with Xi'an. Henan's expressway system is highly developed and the total length is approximately 5,000 km (3,100 mi), the highest total for any Chinese province. The state of air transport is less stellar, the only 3 public airports are located in Xinzheng (near Zhengzhou), Luoyang, and Nanyang.

Culture[edit]

  • Most of Henan speaks dialects of the Mandarin group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. Linguists put these dialects into the category of "Zhongyuan Mandarin". The northwestern corner of Henan is an exception, where people speak Jin dialects instead. The dialects of Henan are collectively called "the Henan dialect" in popular usage, with easily identifiable stereotypical features.
  • Important traditional art and craft products include: Junci, a type of porcelain originating in Yuzhou noted for its unpredictable colour patterns; the jade carvings of Zhenping; and Luoyang's Tangsancai ("Tang Three Colours"), which are earthenware figurines made in the traditional style of the Tang Dynasty.

Tourism[edit]

Henan is located in the Yellow River valley where ancient people lived. Earlier in the New Stone Age, the light of civilization had appeared and the delicate potteries in the Peiligang Culture and Yangshao Culture, and the character signs and musical instruments 8,000 years ago have filled the present world and the ancient times with wonders. Three of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China are in Henan: Luoyang, Kaifeng and Anyang. Henan is one of the few provinces which has many historical relics in the country. There are 16 key national units of protecting historical relics and 267 provincial units of protecting historical relics. The over-ground historical relics are the second in China in number. Historical relics in museums take up one-eighth of those in China, and the underground historical relics are the first in China in number. In Henan Museum there are 120,000 historical relics, including over 40,000 rare ones.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Public (a partial list)

Notable individuals[edit]

Sports teams[edit]

Professional sports teams in Henan include;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "《2013中国人类发展报告》" (PDF) (in zh-cn). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  4. ^ (Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.
  5. ^ Largest Cities Through History
  6. ^ Ethics of China 7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck
  7. ^ http://www.upkorea.net/news/photo/7345-2-7037.pdf
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ a b c d Yi Si, "The World's Most Catastrophic Dam Failures: The August 1975 Collapse of the Banqiao and Shimantan Dams", in: Dai Qing et al, The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People, pp. 25-38.
  10. ^ After 30 years, secrets, lessons of China's worst dams burst accident surface
  11. ^ Evan Osnos, "Faust, China, and Nuclear Power". New Yorker, 2011-10-12
  12. ^ Dong, Dong The Discourse of HIV/AIDS in China: News Construction and Representation of the Chinese HIV Blood Scandal (1998-2002) Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, May 27, 2004.
  13. ^ Kellogg, Tom. Health officials seek to avoid responsibility for the spread of HIV/AIDS in rural Henan. Human Rights in China. February 23, 2003.
  14. ^ People's Daily Online - China's most populous province legislates to curb gender imbalance
  15. ^ China’s excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey | BMJ
  16. ^ a b 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据. p. 013
  17. ^ 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据. p. 024
  18. ^ China’s Provincial GDP Figures in 2011 | China Briefing News
  19. ^ a b China Economy @ China Perspective
  20. ^ 河南_百度百科
  21. ^ RightSite.asia | Zhengzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

External links[edit]

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