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1
herbarium self-made
herbarium self-made
::2011/10/19::
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2
How to press plants for mounting on herbarium sheets
How to press plants for mounting on herbarium sheets
::2012/09/02::
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3
RBGE Herbarium: Basic Plant Collecting and Pressing
RBGE Herbarium: Basic Plant Collecting and Pressing
::2013/10/24::
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The New York Botanical Garden: The Steere Herbarium
The New York Botanical Garden: The Steere Herbarium
::2013/07/11::
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How to make a Herbarium Press
How to make a Herbarium Press
::2009/09/02::
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Behind the scenes of the University Herbarium
Behind the scenes of the University Herbarium
::2012/09/25::
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Hoe maak je een herbarium?
Hoe maak je een herbarium?
::2011/06/16::
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Herbarium Laboratório Botânico
Herbarium Laboratório Botânico
::2011/12/12::
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How to Make an Herb Press and an Herbarium, Part 1
How to Make an Herb Press and an Herbarium, Part 1
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CSU Herbarium Short
CSU Herbarium Short
::2013/05/10::
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Head Room: The Herbarium
Head Room: The Herbarium
::2014/02/03::
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How to Make an Herb Press and an Herbarium, Part 2
How to Make an Herb Press and an Herbarium, Part 2
::2009/02/09::
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WILLI Herbarium Demonstration
WILLI Herbarium Demonstration
::2011/02/02::
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Denver Botanic Gardens Herbarium Specimen Demonstration
Denver Botanic Gardens Herbarium Specimen Demonstration
::2010/10/13::
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Herbarium Mount
Herbarium Mount
::2009/09/24::
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Kaedah membuat herbarium
Kaedah membuat herbarium
::2011/09/08::
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BRIT Herbarium Video 2012.mov
BRIT Herbarium Video 2012.mov
::2012/04/04::
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Herbarium digitisation: 4M in 1.5 years for Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Herbarium digitisation: 4M in 1.5 years for Naturalis Biodiversity Center
::2013/09/24::
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The Herbarium - Wayne Clements
The Herbarium - Wayne Clements
::2011/07/23::
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Disfigurement Of Flesh - Herbarium With Grotesque Necrotic Malformations (2014) (FULL)
Disfigurement Of Flesh - Herbarium With Grotesque Necrotic Malformations (2014) (FULL)
::2014/03/20::
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Mounting herbarium specimens-1.wmv
Mounting herbarium specimens-1.wmv
::2012/05/17::
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Disfigurement Of Flesh - Herbarium With Grotesque Necrotic Malformations(Promotional Video)
Disfigurement Of Flesh - Herbarium With Grotesque Necrotic Malformations(Promotional Video)
::2013/12/19::
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Exclusively March 2014 : PO3 - Herbarium cave flythrough
Exclusively March 2014 : PO3 - Herbarium cave flythrough
::2014/04/01::
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Pressing herbarium samples in the field
Pressing herbarium samples in the field
::2010/04/01::
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The Herbarium - Philip Terry
The Herbarium - Philip Terry
::2011/07/22::
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The Herbarium - SJ Fowler
The Herbarium - SJ Fowler
::2011/07/23::
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RBGE Herbarium: Mounting Plant Specimens
RBGE Herbarium: Mounting Plant Specimens
::2008/10/29::
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Herbarium Frisicum hâldt iepen dagen
Herbarium Frisicum hâldt iepen dagen
::2013/02/16::
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5. The re-curation of the national herbarium.
5. The re-curation of the national herbarium.
::2014/03/28::
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How to collect an herbarium specimen
How to collect an herbarium specimen
::2013/08/13::
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Herbarium Techniques Part 1 (intro)
Herbarium Techniques Part 1 (intro)
::2014/02/10::
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Herbarium Hotel & SPA ****, wesele Chomiąża Szlachecka - poleca GdzieWesele.pl
Herbarium Hotel & SPA ****, wesele Chomiąża Szlachecka - poleca GdzieWesele.pl
::2014/02/25::
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Herbarium Frisicum, Karst Meijer meldt: hoe droog je planten.
Herbarium Frisicum, Karst Meijer meldt: hoe droog je planten.
::2013/11/17::
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New Zealand Fungal Herbarium (PDD)
New Zealand Fungal Herbarium (PDD)
::2012/02/27::
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What is a herbarium specimen?
What is a herbarium specimen?
::2013/10/11::
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Herbarium
Herbarium
::2013/01/30::
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History of the Herbarium at Kew Gardens
History of the Herbarium at Kew Gardens
::2010/02/17::
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Mounting plants on herbarium sheets
Mounting plants on herbarium sheets
::2012/09/02::
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Humlans herbarium - Pressa växter är lätt som en plätt!
Humlans herbarium - Pressa växter är lätt som en plätt!
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Daina: The Herbarium Steam Game 2014
Daina: The Herbarium Steam Game 2014
::2014/02/23::
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Imaging of Herbarium Specimen Sheets
Imaging of Herbarium Specimen Sheets
::2011/08/12::
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COI - Coimbra Herbarium - Herbário da Universidade de Coimbra
COI - Coimbra Herbarium - Herbário da Universidade de Coimbra
::2014/02/27::
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The Manchester Museum Herbarium
The Manchester Museum Herbarium
::2010/02/26::
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44
The Fairy Herbarium
The Fairy Herbarium
::2011/10/09::
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45
Herbarium at kabul University VOA-Pashto
Herbarium at kabul University VOA-Pashto
::2010/07/08::
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Botanikus krijt unyk herbarium
Botanikus krijt unyk herbarium
::2012/10/17::
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0070X Herbarium - Mój zielnik #3
0070X Herbarium - Mój zielnik #3
::2012/06/06::
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Disfigurement Of Flesh -  Herbarium With Grotesque Necrotic Malformations (Full Album 2014)
Disfigurement Of Flesh - Herbarium With Grotesque Necrotic Malformations (Full Album 2014)
::2014/03/20::
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49
プノンペン大学 カンボジア国立ハーバリアム National Herbarium of Cambodia
プノンペン大学 カンボジア国立ハーバリアム National Herbarium of Cambodia
::2012/05/22::
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Herbarium Wanariset Samboja
Herbarium Wanariset Samboja
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Herbarium specimens of various Nepenthes at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France

A herbarium (plural: herbaria) – sometimes known by the Anglicized term herbar – is a collection of preserved plant specimens. These specimens may be whole plants or plant parts: these will usually be in a dried form mounted on a sheet but, depending upon the material, may also be kept in alcohol or other preservative. The same term is often used in mycology to describe an equivalent collection of preserved fungi, otherwise known as a fungarium.

The term can also refer to the building where the specimens are stored or to the scientific institute that not only stores but researches these specimens. The specimens in a herbarium are often used as reference material in describing plant taxa; some specimens may be types.

A xylarium is a herbarium specialising in specimens of wood. A hortorium (as in the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium) is one specialising in preserved specimens of cultivated plants.


Specimen preservation[edit]

Preparing a plant for mounting

To preserve their form and color, plants collected in the field are spread flat on sheets of newsprint and dried, usually in a plant press, between blotters or absorbent paper. The specimens, which are then mounted on sheets of stiff white paper, are labeled with all essential data, such as date and place found, description of the plant, altitude, and special habitat conditions. The sheet is then placed in a protective case. As a precaution against insect attack, the pressed plant is frozen or poisoned, and the case disinfected.

Certain groups of plants are soft, bulky, or otherwise not amenable to drying and mounting on sheets. For these plants, other methods of preparation and storage may be used. For example, conifer cones and palm fronds may be stored in labeled boxes. Representative flowers or fruits may be pickled in formaldehyde to preserve their three-dimensional structure. Small specimens, such as mosses and lichens, are often air-dried and packaged in small paper envelopes.

No matter the method of preservation, detailed information on where and when the plant was collected, habitat, color (since it may fade over time), and the name of the collector is usually included.

Collections management[edit]

A large herbarium may have hundreds of cases filled with specimens.

Most herbaria utilize a standard system of organizing their specimens into herbarium cases. Specimen sheets are stacked in groups by the species to which they belong and placed into a large lightweight folder that is labelled on the bottom edge. Groups of species folders are then placed together into larger, heavier folders by genus. The genus folders are then sorted by taxonomic family according to the standard system selected for use by the herbarium and placed into pigeonholes in herbarium cabinets.

Locating a specimen filed in the herbarium requires knowing the nomenclature and classification used by the herbarium. It also requires familiarity with possible name changes that have occurred since the specimen was collected, since the specimen may be filed under an older name.

Modern herbaria often maintain electronic databases of their collections. Many herbaria have initiatives to digitize specimens to produce a virtual herbarium. These records and images are made publicly accessible via the Internet when possible.


Uses[edit]

Herbaria are essential for the study of plant taxonomy, the study of geographic distributions, and the stabilizing of nomenclature. Thus, it is desirable to include in a specimen as much of the plant as possible (e.g., flowers, stems, leaves, seed, and fruit). Linnaeus's herbarium now belongs to the Linnean Society in England.

Specimens housed in herbaria may be used to catalogue or identify the flora of an area. A large collection from a single area is used in writing a field guide or manual to aid in the identification of plants that grow there. With more specimens available, the author of the guide will better understand the variability of form in the plants and the natural distribution over which the plants grow.

Herbaria also preserve a historical record of change in vegetation over time. In some cases, plants become extinct in one area or may become extinct altogether. In such cases, specimens preserved in an herbarium can represent the only record of the plant's original distribution. Environmental scientists make use of such data to track changes in climate and human impact.

Many kinds of scientists use herbaria to preserve voucher specimens, representative samples of plants used in a particular study to demonstrate precisely the source of their data.

They may also be a repository of viable seeds for rare species.[1]


Largest herbaria[edit]

Many universities, museums, and botanical gardens maintain herbaria. Herbaria have also proven very useful as sources of plant DNA for use in taxonomy and molecular systematics. The largest herbaria in the world, in approximate order of decreasing size, are:

See also[edit]


External links[edit]


References[edit]


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