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THE OLD SLAVE HOUSE
THE OLD SLAVE HOUSE
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: MrHEBREW1
Governor Augus C. French on Abolishing Slavery in Illinois 1852
Governor Augus C. French on Abolishing Slavery in Illinois 1852
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Untold Stories of Slavery in America by ANN
Chicago Slaves
Chicago Slaves
Published: 2010/10/16
Channel: Marc Sims
The Old Slave House
The Old Slave House
Published: 2014/04/05
Channel: starvideonorway
Old Slave House Southern IL
Old Slave House Southern IL
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: pete summers
Illinois Stories | Anti Slavery In Quincy | WSEC-TV/PBS Springfield
Illinois Stories | Anti Slavery In Quincy | WSEC-TV/PBS Springfield
Published: 2013/02/20
Channel: Network Knowledge
THE TRUTH ABOUT ABRAHAM LINCOLN Full Documentary
THE TRUTH ABOUT ABRAHAM LINCOLN Full Documentary
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: New Documentary TV
FULL DOCUMENTARY: Mississippi
FULL DOCUMENTARY: Mississippi's War: Slavery and Secession | MPB
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Mississippi Public Broadcasting
Was the Civil War About Slavery?
Was the Civil War About Slavery?
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: PragerU
Slavery and Missouri Compromise in early 1800s | US History | Khan Academy
Slavery and Missouri Compromise in early 1800s | US History | Khan Academy
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Khan Academy
Abraham Lincoln: What They Wont Teach You in School
Abraham Lincoln: What They Wont Teach You in School
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: ThinkOutsideTheTV
The Many Myths of Slaves and the Underground Railroads
The Many Myths of Slaves and the Underground Railroads
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: American Heroes Channel
History of Chicago and The Great Migration: Carol Adams & Timuel Black - Shimer College Ideas Series
History of Chicago and The Great Migration: Carol Adams & Timuel Black - Shimer College Ideas Series
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Shimer College Chicago
The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion: Crash Course US History #18
The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion: Crash Course US History #18
Published: 2013/06/13
Channel: CrashCourse
Crusade Against Slavery - Edward Coles, Pioneer of Freedom
Crusade Against Slavery - Edward Coles, Pioneer of Freedom
Published: 2011/07/02
Channel: bcarveth
Who Were The Black Homosexuals During Slavery ?
Who Were The Black Homosexuals During Slavery ?
Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: Black Ninja X
Illinois Freedom Project Episode 3: A Vision for Something Better
Illinois Freedom Project Episode 3: A Vision for Something Better
Published: 2016/02/03
Channel: LookingForLincoln HeritageCoalition
What Economists Are Saying Now About Slavery
What Economists Are Saying Now About Slavery
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: hnneditor
Old Slave House
Old Slave House
Published: 2014/11/14
Channel: TheCircleMRanch
Was Abraham Lincoln Really a Racist? Did He Want to End Slavery? (2000)
Was Abraham Lincoln Really a Racist? Did He Want to End Slavery? (2000)
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: The Film Archives
Experts Find Pro-slavery Book Read by Lincoln
Experts Find Pro-slavery Book Read by Lincoln
Published: 2014/08/07
Channel: Associated Press
Quincy Illinois is first place for anti slavery society in the state in 1835
Quincy Illinois is first place for anti slavery society in the state in 1835
Published: 2013/02/18
Channel: KHQA
The Ideological Use of Slavery in American Liberalism, featuring Dr. Don Livingston
The Ideological Use of Slavery in American Liberalism, featuring Dr. Don Livingston
Published: 2011/01/15
Channel: CharlestonSaltyDog
The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (2005)
The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights (2005)
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: The Film Archives
Why do Blacks ignore the history of slavery and the Democratic party?
Why do Blacks ignore the history of slavery and the Democratic party?
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Conservative Mexican
Arab Racism & Slavery of Blacks In Africa - Minister Farrakhan "Speaks" | Compilation
Arab Racism & Slavery of Blacks In Africa - Minister Farrakhan "Speaks" | Compilation
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Saviours Helper
American History - Part 081 - Buchanan - Kansas voters reject Slavery
American History - Part 081 - Buchanan - Kansas voters reject Slavery
Published: 2013/05/24
Channel: ListenAndReadAlong
Texas Textbooks and Slavery
Texas Textbooks and Slavery
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: Mustafa Tameez
Bryan Stevenson: America
Bryan Stevenson: America's failure to deal with history of slavery and Jim Crow has manifested
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Martin Brodel
Tea Party Group Tries To Rewrite History By Removing Slavery From Textbooks
Tea Party Group Tries To Rewrite History By Removing Slavery From Textbooks
Published: 2012/01/30
Channel: Roland Martin
BLACK SLAVE OWNERS? INCONVENIENT TRUTHS about slavery White liberals ignore
BLACK SLAVE OWNERS? INCONVENIENT TRUTHS about slavery White liberals ignore
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Josh Bernstein
Lincoln Douglas Debates - Angry Town Halls of 1858 - ThirdChoiceVideos HD
Lincoln Douglas Debates - Angry Town Halls of 1858 - ThirdChoiceVideos HD
Published: 2011/02/09
Channel: Shane Richards
Sunlight and Shadows: Slavery at Ulysses S. Grant
Sunlight and Shadows: Slavery at Ulysses S. Grant's White Haven
Published: 2013/11/07
Channel: JeffNatlParks
Rothschild and Freshfields founders linked to slavery
Rothschild and Freshfields founders linked to slavery
Published: 2009/06/28
Channel: StandardJohnDoe
Slaves to the Gods
Slaves to the Gods
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Hidden Human Story
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Story Is, BULLSH-T !
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Story Is, BULLSH-T !
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: RealitysTemple OnEarth
Illinois Adventure #1803 "Lovejoy Homestead"
Illinois Adventure #1803 "Lovejoy Homestead"
Published: 2013/08/16
Channel: WTVP
Illinois Veterans History Project-Oral History Interview with Gerald A. Horn
Illinois Veterans History Project-Oral History Interview with Gerald A. Horn
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: IL VHP
Illinois Freedom Project Episode 2: A Bad Start
Illinois Freedom Project Episode 2: A Bad Start
Published: 2016/02/03
Channel: LookingForLincoln HeritageCoalition
MOOC | The Mexican War & Expansion of Slavery | The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1861 | 1.4.1
MOOC | The Mexican War & Expansion of Slavery | The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1861 | 1.4.1
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: ColumbiaLearn
The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
Published: 2013/03/21
Channel: CrashCourse
Ku Klux Klan - A Secret History
Ku Klux Klan - A Secret History
Published: 2013/03/14
Channel: Little Dread
Why Did It Take War To Abolish Slavery?
Why Did It Take War To Abolish Slavery?
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: JoeRyanCivilWar
The Civil War: A War Over Slavery Or To Preserve The Union?
The Civil War: A War Over Slavery Or To Preserve The Union?
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: Massachusetts School of Law at Andover
Emancipation of Slaves New York State July 4th 1799
Emancipation of Slaves New York State July 4th 1799
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Untold Stories of Slavery in America by ANN
Bradley University
Bradley University's Anti-Slavery Coalition Presentation at U of I Springfield
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: MiketotheX
Pastor Keith Gomez on Slavery
Pastor Keith Gomez on Slavery
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: sanderson1769
Brazil Inconvenient History BBC
Brazil Inconvenient History BBC
Published: 2014/06/18
Channel: NeverEndingVictory
How The South Defended Slavery! Dick Morris TV: Lunch ALERT!
How The South Defended Slavery! Dick Morris TV: Lunch ALERT!
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: dickmorrisreports
A Word About Slavery -Video Blog/Harmony Baptist - Black History Month: True story of a slave trader
A Word About Slavery -Video Blog/Harmony Baptist - Black History Month: True story of a slave trader
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Harmony Baptist
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Slavery in Illinois existed for more than a century. French settlers introduced African slavery to the Illinois Country in the early eighteenth century. French inhabitants of Illinois continued the practice of owning slaves throughout the Illinois Country's period of British rule (1763), as well as after its transfer to the new United States in 1783. The Northwest Ordinance (1787) banned slavery in Illinois and the rest of the Northwest Territory, but many slaves remained in bondage in the state until their gradual emancipation by the Illinois Supreme Court.

During the early decades of statehood, the number of slaves in Illinois dwindled before dropping to zero. Nevertheless, in the decade before the American Civil War an anti-Black law was adopted in the state, which made it difficult for new Black emigrants to enter or live in Illinois. Near the close of the civil war, Illinois repealed that law and became the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which abolished slavery nationally.

Colonial period[edit]

During the colonial period, the area of present-day Illinois was part of New France and, as such, was governed by its slavery laws. French settlers first brought African slaves into the Illinois Country from Saint-Domingue around 1720 under the legal terms of the Code Noir, which defined the conditions of slavery in the French empire and restricted the activities of free Black persons.[1][2] The first documented slavery in Illinois was in 1721, when Philip François Renault brought five hundred African slaves to the territory. After an unsuccessful attempt at mining, Renault founded St. Philippe, Illinois, in 1723, and used his slaves to produce crops.

The institution of slavery continued after Britain acquired the Illinois Country in 1763 following the French and Indian War. At the time, nine hundred slaves lived in the territory, although the French would take at least three hundred with them as they left the state for lands west of the Mississippi River.[3]

United States territory[edit]

Slavery continued following the American Revolutionary War, when the territory was ceded to the United States. The first legislation against slavery was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which forbade slavery in the Northwest Territory. However, territorial laws and practices allowed human bondage to continue in various forms. Territorial governors Arthur St. Clair and Charles Willing Byrd supported slavery and did not enforce the ordinance. When the Indiana Territory was split from the Northwest Territory in 1800, residents petitioned the United States Senate to allow slaves. A proposal offered emancipation to Illinois-born male slaves at age thirty-one and female slaves at age twenty-eight. Southern-born slaves were to be slaves for life. No response to the proposal was ever issued.[3]

Illinois had a Black Code which restricted free blacks. Also, slaveowners could force their slaves to sign indentures of very long length (40 to 99 years), threatening them with sale elsewhere if they refused. Furthermore, free blacks could be kidnapped and sold in St. Louis in Missouri Territory or states where such sales were legal.[4] Also, salt was necessary for preserving meat, and the salt-works near Shawneetown were one of the largest businesses in the Illinois Territory, exploiting between 1000 and 2000 slaves hired from masters in slave states to keep the kettle fires burning.

Slavery during statehood[edit]

Slavery was also tolerated in the early years of Illinois statehood, and its first state constitution did not have a clause forbidding its amendment to allow slavery, as did the constitutions of the two earlier states formed from the Northwest Territory (Indiana and Ohio). However, due to the efforts of a coalition of religious leaders (Morris Birkbeck, Peter Cartwright, James Lemen, and John Mason Peck), publisher Hooper Warren and politicians (especially Edward Coles, Daniel Pope Cook and Risdon Moore), Illinois voters in 1824 rejected a proposal for a new constitutional convention that could have made slavery legal outright. Ohio and Indiana had defeated similar convention proposals in 1819 and 1823, respectively.[citation needed]

In a series of legal decisions beginning with Cornelius v. Cohen in 1825, the Illinois Supreme Court developed a jurisprudence to gradually emancipate slaves in Illinois. In that first case, the justices decided that both parties must be in agreement and sign the contract. In Phoebe v. Jay in 1828, the justices refused to allow transfer of indentures through wills. In Choisser v. Hargrave, they decided that indentures would not be enforced unless they complied with all provisions of Illinois law, including that they be registered within 30 days of entering the state. In 1836, the court in Boon v. Juliet the court held that children of registered slaves brought into the state were free, and could themselves only be indentured for 18 or 21 years (depending on their sex) according to the state's Constitution. In Sarah v. Borders (1843), the court held that if any fraud occurred in the signing of an indenture contract, it was void. Finally, in the 1845 decision, Jarrot v. Jarrot, that same court ended tolerance of slavery even for descendants of former French slaves, holding that descendants of slaves born after the 1787 Northwest Ordinance were born free.[5]

In one of the predecessors of the Dred Scott decision, Moore v. People, 55 U.S. 13 (1852),[6] the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a conviction for harboring a fugitive slave from Missouri, as had the Illinois Supreme Court a few years earlier. Illinois residents participated in the underground railroad for fugitive slaves seeking freedom, with major routes beginning in the Mississippi River towns of Chester, Alton and Quincy, to Chicago, and lesser routes from Cairo to Springfield, Illinois or up the banks of the Wabash River.[7]

The Illinois' Constitution of 1848 specifically banned slavery, section 16 of its Declaration of Rights specifying, "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the State, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." Nevertheless, the same constitution led to one of the harshest Black Code systems in the nation until the American Civil War. The Illinois Black Code of 1853 prohibited any Black persons from outside of the state from staying in the state for more than ten days, subjecting Black emigrants who remain beyond the ten days to arrest, detention, a $50 fine, or deportation. The Code was repealed in early 1865, the same year that the Civil War ended.[8] At that time, Illinois also became the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery nationally.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Slavery in Illinois". 
  2. ^ "Slavery In Illinois, Freedom Trails: 2 Legacies of Hope". 
  3. ^ a b Lehman, Christopher P. (2011). Slavery in the Upper Mississippi Valley, 1787–1865: A History of Human Bondage in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. p. 27. ISBN 978-0786458721. 
  4. ^ "Chapter 16: Illinois". 
  5. ^ Dexter, Darrel (2004). "Slavery In Illinois: How and Why the Underground Railroad Existed". Freedom Trails: Legacies of Hope. Illinois Freedom Trail Commission. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  6. ^ "Moore v. People :: 55 U.S. 13 (1852) :: Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center". Justia Law. 
  7. ^ Hudson, J. Blaine (March 3, 2006). Encyclopedia of the Underground Railroad. McFarland. ISBN 9781476602301 – via Google Books. 
  8. ^ Bridges, Roger D. The Illinois Black Codes. http://www.lib.niu.edu/1996/iht329602.html
  9. ^ "Illinois: First State to Ratify 13th Amendment". NBC Chicago. 

See also[edit]

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