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Illinois Stories | Anti Slavery In Quincy | WSEC-TV/PBS Springfield
Illinois Stories | Anti Slavery In Quincy | WSEC-TV/PBS Springfield
Published: 2013/02/20
Channel: Network Knowledge
THE OLD SLAVE HOUSE
THE OLD SLAVE HOUSE
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: MrHEBREW1
THE TRUTH ABOUT ABRAHAM LINCOLN Full Documentary
THE TRUTH ABOUT ABRAHAM LINCOLN Full Documentary
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: New Documentary TV
FULL DOCUMENTARY: Mississippi
FULL DOCUMENTARY: Mississippi's War: Slavery and Secession | MPB
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Mississippi Public Broadcasting
Slavery and Missouri Compromise in early 1800s | US History | Khan Academy
Slavery and Missouri Compromise in early 1800s | US History | Khan Academy
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Khan Academy
Ku Klux Klan - A Secret History
Ku Klux Klan - A Secret History
Published: 2013/03/14
Channel: Little Dread
Governor Augus C. French on Abolishing Slavery in Illinois 1852
Governor Augus C. French on Abolishing Slavery in Illinois 1852
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Untold Stories of Slavery in America by ANN
Connecticut
Connecticut's history tied to slavery
Published: 2016/02/01
Channel: WTNH News8
The Great Myths and History of the Lost OUACHITA(WASHITAW) Civilization of Moundbuilders
The Great Myths and History of the Lost OUACHITA(WASHITAW) Civilization of Moundbuilders
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: Kadohadacho(Caddo) Paw-Paw(Natchitoches)- Washitaw(Ouachita) -Tunica-Tensas-Muur(Moors)
Cherokee Oklahoma Reservation - Freedmen - Black Indians
Cherokee Oklahoma Reservation - Freedmen - Black Indians
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: Damon Knight
Why Did It Take War To Abolish Slavery?
Why Did It Take War To Abolish Slavery?
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: JoeRyanCivilWar
Discovered Graves of Slaves in Charlotte, NC
Discovered Graves of Slaves in Charlotte, NC
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: freeangfree
Why do Blacks ignore the history of slavery and the Democratic party?
Why do Blacks ignore the history of slavery and the Democratic party?
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Conservative Mexican
Abraham Lincoln: What They Wont Teach You in School
Abraham Lincoln: What They Wont Teach You in School
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: ThinkOutsideTheTV
The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion: Crash Course US History #18
The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion: Crash Course US History #18
Published: 2013/06/13
Channel: CrashCourse
Was Abraham Lincoln Really a Racist? Did He Want to End Slavery? (2000)
Was Abraham Lincoln Really a Racist? Did He Want to End Slavery? (2000)
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: The Film Archives
Who Were The Black Homosexuals During Slavery ?
Who Were The Black Homosexuals During Slavery ?
Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: Black Ninja X
Pastor Keith Gomez on Slavery
Pastor Keith Gomez on Slavery
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: sanderson1769
Arab Racism & Slavery of Blacks In Africa - Minister Farrakhan "Speaks" | Compilation
Arab Racism & Slavery of Blacks In Africa - Minister Farrakhan "Speaks" | Compilation
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Saviours Helper
American History - Part 081 - Buchanan - Kansas voters reject Slavery
American History - Part 081 - Buchanan - Kansas voters reject Slavery
Published: 2013/05/24
Channel: ListenAndReadAlong
The Many Myths of Slaves and the Underground Railroads
The Many Myths of Slaves and the Underground Railroads
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: American Heroes Channel
Illinois During the Civil War, 1861-1865: African Americans, Race and Ethnicity in the North, Part 1
Illinois During the Civil War, 1861-1865: African Americans, Race and Ethnicity in the North, Part 1
Published: 2011/02/23
Channel: niulibdiglab
Illinois Adventure #1304 "Alton"
Illinois Adventure #1304 "Alton"
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: WTVP
Brooklyn Revisited
Brooklyn Revisited
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: Illinois State Archaeological Survey
Tea Party Group Tries To Rewrite History By Removing Slavery From Textbooks
Tea Party Group Tries To Rewrite History By Removing Slavery From Textbooks
Published: 2012/01/30
Channel: Roland S. Martin
Slavery vs. Indentured Servitude in 1820  Illinios (5th Grade Lesson)
Slavery vs. Indentured Servitude in 1820 Illinios (5th Grade Lesson)
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Lucy Stephenson
The Ideological Use of Slavery in American Liberalism, featuring Dr. Don Livingston
The Ideological Use of Slavery in American Liberalism, featuring Dr. Don Livingston
Published: 2011/01/15
Channel: CharlestonSaltyDog
Rothschild and Freshfields founders linked to slavery
Rothschild and Freshfields founders linked to slavery
Published: 2009/06/28
Channel: StandardJohnDoe
BLACK SLAVE OWNERS? INCONVENIENT TRUTHS about slavery White liberals ignore
BLACK SLAVE OWNERS? INCONVENIENT TRUTHS about slavery White liberals ignore
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Josh Bernstein
How Much of the Civil War Was About Slavery?
How Much of the Civil War Was About Slavery?
Published: 2015/07/26
Channel: VisionLiberty
Lincoln Douglas Debates - Angry Town Halls of 1858 - ThirdChoiceVideos HD
Lincoln Douglas Debates - Angry Town Halls of 1858 - ThirdChoiceVideos HD
Published: 2011/02/09
Channel: Shane Richards
Why the Chicago Cubs are Named After a Baby Bear and The Long, Weird History of Their Mascot
Why the Chicago Cubs are Named After a Baby Bear and The Long, Weird History of Their Mascot
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Today I Found Out
BUCKLAND PLANTATION HOUSE BUILT IN 1667
BUCKLAND PLANTATION HOUSE BUILT IN 1667
Published: 2014/08/29
Channel: Pharaohstreasure
Bryan Stevenson: America
Bryan Stevenson: America's failure to deal with history of slavery and Jim Crow has manifested
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Martin Brodel
Illinois Pioneers - African-American Leaders
Illinois Pioneers - African-American Leaders
Published: 2012/08/03
Channel: cityofchampaign
Family Ties: Hidden-Black White Relations in Antebellum Alabama presented by Sharony Green
Family Ties: Hidden-Black White Relations in Antebellum Alabama presented by Sharony Green
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Alabama Department of Archives & History
Quincy Illinois is first place for anti slavery society in the state in 1835
Quincy Illinois is first place for anti slavery society in the state in 1835
Published: 2013/02/18
Channel: KHQA
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Mr. Beat
North American Pyramid Located In Kentucky
North American Pyramid Located In Kentucky
Published: 2013/06/10
Channel: UGottaKnowThis
Most Haunted Places in Each State Part 1
Most Haunted Places in Each State Part 1
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: American Eye
Crusade Against Slavery - Edward Coles, Pioneer of Freedom
Crusade Against Slavery - Edward Coles, Pioneer of Freedom
Published: 2011/07/02
Channel: bcarveth
Reclaiming History: The Search for the Underground Railroad
Reclaiming History: The Search for the Underground Railroad
Published: 2014/05/26
Channel: James Rada
MOOC | The Mexican War & Expansion of Slavery | The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1861 | 1.4.1
MOOC | The Mexican War & Expansion of Slavery | The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1861 | 1.4.1
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: ColumbiaLearn
Marc Hertzman – The Death of Zumbi: Suicide, Slavery, and History in Brazil and the Black Atlantic
Marc Hertzman – The Death of Zumbi: Suicide, Slavery, and History in Brazil and the Black Atlantic
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs
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What About Reparations 4 White Slavery ?
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: RealitysTemple OnEarth Internet Ministry
Compromise of 1850 ("Shake It Off" Parody) - @MrBettsClass
Compromise of 1850 ("Shake It Off" Parody) - @MrBettsClass
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: MrBettsClass
Freed Slave Emigrants to Samana
Freed Slave Emigrants to Samana
Published: 2010/08/29
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American Soul: The DuSable Museum of African-American History
American Soul: The DuSable Museum of African-American History
Published: 2010/02/15
Channel: Great Museums
MOOC | Politics, Whiteness, Religion | The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1861 | 1.5.5
MOOC | Politics, Whiteness, Religion | The Civil War and Reconstruction, 1850-1861 | 1.5.5
Published: 2014/10/29
Channel: ColumbiaLearn
The Gilded Age part 1 | The Gilded Age (1865-1898) | US History | Khan Academy
The Gilded Age part 1 | The Gilded Age (1865-1898) | US History | Khan Academy
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: Khan Academy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Slavery in Illinois existed for more than a century. Illinois did not become a state until 1818, but earlier regional systems of government had already established slavery. French settlers introduced African slavery to the Illinois Country in the early eighteenth century. French inhabitants of Illinois continued the practice of owning slaves throughout the Illinois Country's period of British rule (1763), as well as after its transfer to the new United States in 1783 (See, Illinois County, Virginia). The Northwest Ordinance (1787) banned slavery in Illinois and the rest of the Northwest Territory. Nonetheless, slavery remained a contentious issue, through the period when Illinois was part of the Indiana Territory and the Illinois Territory and some slaves remained in bondage even after statehood until their gradual emancipation by the Illinois Supreme Court.

During the early decades of statehood, the number of slaves in Illinois dwindled. Nevertheless, in the decade before the American Civil War an anti-Black law was adopted in the state, which made it difficult for new Black emigrants to enter or live in Illinois. Near the close of the civil war, Illinois repealed that law and became the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which abolished slavery nationally.

Colonial period[edit]

During the colonial period, the area of present-day Illinois was part of New France and, as such, was governed by its slavery laws. French settlers first brought African slaves into the Illinois Country from Saint-Domingue around 1720 under the legal terms of the Code Noir, which defined the conditions of slavery in the French empire and restricted the activities of free Black persons.[1][2] The first documented slavery in Illinois was in 1721, when Philip François Renault brought five hundred African slaves to the territory. After an unsuccessful attempt at mining, Renault founded St. Philippe, Illinois, in 1723, and used his slaves to produce crops.

The institution of slavery continued after Britain acquired the Illinois Country in 1763 following the French and Indian War. At the time, nine hundred slaves lived in the territory, although the French would take at least three hundred with them as they left the state for lands west of the Mississippi River.[3]

United States territory[edit]

Slavery continued following the American Revolutionary War, when the territory was ceded to the United States. The first legislation against slavery was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which forbade slavery in the Northwest Territory. However, territorial laws and practices allowed human bondage to continue in various forms. Territorial governors Arthur St. Clair and Charles Willing Byrd supported slavery and did not enforce the ordinance. When the Indiana Territory was split from the Northwest Territory in 1800, residents petitioned the United States Senate to allow slaves. A proposal offered emancipation to Illinois-born male slaves at age thirty-one and female slaves at age twenty-eight. Southern-born slaves were to be slaves for life. No response to the proposal was ever issued.[3]

Illinois Territory continued the Indiana Territory Black Code which restricted free blacks, who had to prove they were free.[4] Also, slaveowners could force their slaves to sign indentures of very long length (40 to 99 years), threatening them with sale elsewhere if they refused. Furthermore, free blacks could be kidnapped and sold in St. Louis in Missouri Territory or states where such sales were legal.[5] Also, salt was necessary for preserving meat, and the salt-works near Shawneetown were one of the largest businesses in the Illinois Territory, exploiting between 1000 and 2000 slaves hired from masters in slave states to keep the kettle fires burning.

Slavery during statehood[edit]

While Illinois' first state constitution in 1818 stated that slavery shall not be "thereafter introduced", slavery was still tolerated in the early years of Illinois statehood, and the constitution did not have a clause forbidding its amendment to allow slavery. However, due to the efforts of a coalition of religious leaders (Morris Birkbeck, Peter Cartwright, James Lemen, and John Mason Peck), publisher Hooper Warren and politicians (especially Edward Coles, Daniel Pope Cook and Risdon Moore), Illinois voters in 1824 rejected a proposal for a new constitutional convention that could have made slavery legal outright.[4]

In a series of legal decisions beginning with Cornelius v. Cohen in 1825, the Illinois Supreme Court developed a jurisprudence to gradually emancipate slaves in Illinois. In that first case, the justices decided that both parties must be in agreement and sign a servatude contract. In Phoebe v. Jay in 1828, the justices refused to allow transfer of indentures through wills. In Choisser v. Hargrave, they decided that indentures would not be enforced unless they complied with all provisions of Illinois law, including that they be registered within 30 days of entering the state. In 1836, the court in Boon v. Juliet held that children of registered slaves brought into the state were free, and could themselves only be indentured for 18 or 21 years (depending on their sex) according to the state's Constitution. In Sarah v. Borders (1843), the court held that if any fraud occurred in the signing of an indenture contract, it was void. Finally, in the 1845 decision, Jarrot v. Jarrot, that same court ended tolerance of slavery even for descendants of former French slaves, holding that descendants of slaves born after the 1787 Northwest Ordinance were born free.[6]

In one of the predecessors of the Dred Scott decision, Moore v. People, 55 U.S. 13 (1852),[7] the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a conviction for harboring a fugitive slave from Missouri, as had the Illinois Supreme Court a few years earlier. Illinois residents participated in the underground railroad for fugitive slaves seeking freedom, with major routes beginning in the Mississippi River towns of Chester, Alton and Quincy, to Chicago, and lesser routes from Cairo to Springfield, Illinois or up the banks of the Wabash River.[8]

The Illinois' Constitution of 1848 specifically banned slavery, section 16 of its Declaration of Rights specifying, "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the State, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted." Nevertheless, subsequent legislation led to one of the most restrictive Black Code systems in the nation until the American Civil War. The Illinois Black Code of 1853 prohibited any Black persons from outside of the state from staying in the state for more than ten days, subjecting Black emigrants who remain beyond the ten days to arrest, detention, a $50 fine, or deportation. The Code was repealed in early 1865, the same year that the Civil War ended.[9] At that time, Illinois also became the first state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery nationally.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Slavery in Illinois". 
  2. ^ "Slavery In Illinois, Freedom Trails: 2 Legacies of Hope". 
  3. ^ a b Lehman, Christopher P. (2011). Slavery in the Upper Mississippi Valley, 1787–1865: A History of Human Bondage in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. p. 27. ISBN 978-0786458721. 
  4. ^ a b Snively, Ethan A. (1901). "Slavery in Illinois". Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society. 
  5. ^ "Chapter 16: Illinois". 
  6. ^ Dexter, Darrel (2004). "Slavery In Illinois: How and Why the Underground Railroad Existed". Freedom Trails: Legacies of Hope. Illinois Freedom Trail Commission. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  7. ^ "Moore v. People :: 55 U.S. 13 (1852) :: Justia U.S. Supreme Court Center". Justia Law. 
  8. ^ Hudson, J. Blaine (March 3, 2006). Encyclopedia of the Underground Railroad. McFarland. ISBN 9781476602301 – via Google Books. 
  9. ^ Bridges, Roger D. The Illinois Black Codes. http://www.lib.niu.edu/1996/iht329602.html
  10. ^ "Illinois: First State to Ratify 13th Amendment". NBC Chicago. 

External links[edit]

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