Play Video
1
SIX MILLION JEWS, HOLOCAUST 1915 1938
SIX MILLION JEWS, HOLOCAUST 1915 1938
::2014/01/18::
Play Video
2
Ahmadinejad Greeted by Anti-Zionist Jews in New York
Ahmadinejad Greeted by Anti-Zionist Jews in New York
::2007/12/12::
Play Video
3
Who Rules The World, The Psychopaths Behind The Scenes
Who Rules The World, The Psychopaths Behind The Scenes
::2014/09/20::
Play Video
4
Britain
Britain's 200 country INVASION HELLWARS
::2014/11/17::
Play Video
5
Rosa Luxemburg Quotes
Rosa Luxemburg Quotes
::2012/03/23::
Play Video
6
war 2012 Christian Jews on Arab Islam
war 2012 Christian Jews on Arab Islam
::2012/09/02::
Play Video
7
Iran TV Serial: Iranian Jews & World War II - Part 1 of 5
Iran TV Serial: Iranian Jews & World War II - Part 1 of 5
::2007/12/26::
Play Video
8
Ancient Jews - History
Ancient Jews - History
::2013/01/24::
Play Video
9
lies lies lies WHY DO JEWS FALL IN LOVE WITH DEATH CAMP lies. part 1
lies lies lies WHY DO JEWS FALL IN LOVE WITH DEATH CAMP lies. part 1
::2013/03/18::
Play Video
10
Miko Peled, 1/2, Speech with slides
Miko Peled, 1/2, Speech with slides
::2014/06/24::
Play Video
11
March 27, 2013 Ambassador Stuart Eizenstat - The Future of the Jews
March 27, 2013 Ambassador Stuart Eizenstat - The Future of the Jews
::2013/07/16::
Play Video
12
Islamic Terrorism Against Jews and Israelis (Anti Islam Cartoon Movie 2013 by Imran Firasat)
Islamic Terrorism Against Jews and Israelis (Anti Islam Cartoon Movie 2013 by Imran Firasat)
::2013/07/21::
Play Video
13
Shia and Iran Loves Jews LOL
Shia and Iran Loves Jews LOL
::2009/05/31::
Play Video
14
Jews abandoned Judaism and converted to Islam يهود تركوا اليهودية واعتنقوا الاسلام
Jews abandoned Judaism and converted to Islam يهود تركوا اليهودية واعتنقوا الاسلام
::2013/08/14::
Play Video
15
Holocaust: Roman Catholicism
Holocaust: Roman Catholicism's Nazi History Exposed!
::2011/07/01::
Play Video
16
Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
::2012/09/20::
Play Video
17
Invisible Jewish Pedophiles.
Invisible Jewish Pedophiles.
::2010/04/04::
Play Video
18
Al-Quran - The Original Syriac Manuscript & Interpretation
Al-Quran - The Original Syriac Manuscript & Interpretation
::2011/08/16::
Play Video
19
Waibstadt / Germany: Some Impressions from the Jewish Cemetery
Waibstadt / Germany: Some Impressions from the Jewish Cemetery
::2012/08/08::
Play Video
20
The Ancient Jewish Art: Dancing Badly
The Ancient Jewish Art: Dancing Badly
::2008/01/28::
Play Video
21
911 Missing Link ISRAEL 12/14
911 Missing Link ISRAEL 12/14
::2010/04/15::
Play Video
22
LUX - Dominique Moïsi  1 - on hope and being Jewish
LUX - Dominique Moïsi 1 - on hope and being Jewish
::2010/01/05::
Play Video
23
Talking about the Jews in Palestine
Talking about the Jews in Palestine
::2008/09/23::
Play Video
24
trailer2
trailer2
::2013/03/20::
Play Video
25
trailer
trailer
::2013/03/19::
Play Video
26
Germany: Thousands march to remember Liebknecht and Luxemburg
Germany: Thousands march to remember Liebknecht and Luxemburg
::2014/01/16::
Play Video
27
Aesthetic of Resilience: Jewish Art in the Roman Empire
Aesthetic of Resilience: Jewish Art in the Roman Empire
::2013/05/27::
Play Video
28
WWII Nazi Camp gets liberated
WWII Nazi Camp gets liberated
::2013/08/04::
Play Video
29
From hatred to hope. Ending religious intolerance
From hatred to hope. Ending religious intolerance
::2012/07/30::
Play Video
30
Bringing them Back to Zion
Bringing them Back to Zion
::2012/10/24::
Play Video
31
Amsterdam Jewish quarter
Amsterdam Jewish quarter
::2012/05/25::
Play Video
32
What an American thinks about Bulgaria
What an American thinks about Bulgaria
::2012/01/03::
Play Video
33
Ogród Luksemburski, Paryż
Ogród Luksemburski, Paryż
::2013/12/26::
Play Video
34
April Rain Hail Lighting Wind Storms In Indiana
April Rain Hail Lighting Wind Storms In Indiana
::2013/10/25::
Play Video
35
St  Catherine Church of Bethlehem Christmas Eve Mass
St Catherine Church of Bethlehem Christmas Eve Mass
::2013/10/25::
Play Video
36
Andere Seite Studio & DoShaska! - "TEROIDY"
Andere Seite Studio & DoShaska! - "TEROIDY"
::2013/03/08::
Play Video
37
The Evils of Socialism and Communism.
The Evils of Socialism and Communism.
::2011/04/28::
Play Video
38
What an American thinks about Nepal
What an American thinks about Nepal
::2009/12/01::
Play Video
39
Pope
Pope's Flesh n blood just placed on Altar in Rome - Will People Worship him
::2014/05/06::
Play Video
40
Dr. Fredrick Töben - Support For His Trial
Dr. Fredrick Töben - Support For His Trial
::2012/09/23::
Play Video
41
Croatian Righteous - Hrvatski Pravednici (Yad Vashem)
Croatian Righteous - Hrvatski Pravednici (Yad Vashem)
::2007/12/02::
Play Video
42
Israel Travel Doc  Part 08
Israel Travel Doc Part 08
::2008/10/14::
Play Video
43
What an American thinks about Lithuania
What an American thinks about Lithuania
::2010/08/07::
Play Video
44
What an American thinks about Albania
What an American thinks about Albania
::2012/01/04::
Play Video
45
Old Jerusalem-The Western Wall Tunnels - jerusalimo.com
Old Jerusalem-The Western Wall Tunnels - jerusalimo.com
::2012/07/28::
Play Video
46
What an American thinks about Argentina
What an American thinks about Argentina
::2012/01/04::
Play Video
47
Who were our ancestors- Genetic history of Europe - DNA - Truth or Machination from IGENEA.
Who were our ancestors- Genetic history of Europe - DNA - Truth or Machination from IGENEA.
::2011/06/14::
Play Video
48
Apartheid Zionism: Necessity to Distort History
Apartheid Zionism: Necessity to Distort History
::2007/12/13::
Play Video
49
Miko Peled, 2/2, Discussion
Miko Peled, 2/2, Discussion
::2014/06/24::
Play Video
50
Giants Holy Bible history real girls animals
Giants Holy Bible history real girls animals
::2012/10/05::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The current synagogue in Luxembourg City is the centre of Jewish worship in Luxembourg, having been rebuilt after the Second World War.

There are roughly 1,200 Jews in Luxembourg,[1] and Jews form one of the largest and most important religious and ethnic minority communities in Luxembourg historically.

Judaism is the fifth-largest religious denomination in Luxembourg, behind Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Orthodox Christianity, and Islam. By absolute size, Luxembourg's community is one of the smallest in the European Union; relative to total population, it is the sixth largest.[2] However, Luxembourg is one of the few European countries to have a larger Jewish population today than it had before the Nazi era (others include France and Spain)[citation needed]. Judaism is recognised and supported by the government as one of the major state-mandated religions (see: Religion in Luxembourg).

History[edit]

The first record of a Jewish community in Luxembourg was made in 1276,[3] and, over the next fifty years, the population grew as a result of immigration from Trier. During the Black Death, the Jews were made scapegoats, and were murdered or expelled from the towns of Luxembourg City and Echternach. A few remained, protected by the intervention of Emperor Charles IV. After the death of Charles, the new Emperor, Wenceslaus, took little interest in affairs in Luxembourg. Deprived of Imperial protection, in 1391, Luxembourg's Jewish population was expelled.

After the initial expulsion, the ban was not thoroughly enforced, and a few Jewish families began to return to Luxembourg from 1405 onwards. During an uprising in 1478, Jewish homes were torched. Only two families remained, but this number had grown to fifteen by 1515.[4] In 1530, Jews were again expelled. This ban was enforced stringently, and Jews did not return to Luxembourg until the late 18th century.

After the Napoleonic conquest of the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, Jews were allowed back into Luxembourg, and the community flourished. By 1810, the number of Jewish families had reached 20. The first synagogue was opened in Luxembourg City in 1823, and Samuel Hirsch was appointed the first chief rabbi in 1843. By 1880, there were 150 Jewish families in Luxembourg, mostly in the Gutland. The first Great Synagogue was built in Luxembourg City in 1894, and the first provincial synagogue in Luxembourg was opened in Echternach in 1899. By 1927, the Jewish community had grown to 1,171, most of whom had fled the Russian pogroms, and, by the outbreak of the Second World War, the population had grown to about 4,200, fuelled by the arrival of 3,200 refugees from Nazi Germany and Central Europe.[5]

Luxembourg and the Holocaust[edit]

Luxembourg was invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940; before and during the invasion, 50,000 Luxembourgers managed to flee the country, amongst which were 1,650 Jews, who escaped into France and Belgium.[5] Other Jews managed to escape thanks to clandestine rescues, carried out by both the resistance and individuals; the most famous of these individuals was Victor Bodson, a cabinet minister and Righteous Among the Nations. On 5 September, Gustav Simon announced the extension of the Nuremberg Laws to Luxembourg.[5] From October 1940, the Gestapo adopted a policy of encouraging Jews to emigrate westwards; in the following year, nearly, 1,000 took this opportunity, although it would not be enough to escape the Nazis' persecution.[5]

On 22 October 1940 the synagogue of Esch was destroyed. In May 1941 the synagogue of Luxembourg City was closed by the Gestapo, vandalised and then razed, which took until autumn of 1943. On 3 June 1941 the synagogue in Esch was also destroyed.

From 7 February 1941 a law mandated the confiscation of all property of those who had emigrated up until 1940. From 18 April 1941 this was extended to Jews remaining in Luxembourg. The confiscated property was either sold off or used by various Nazi organisations. The money was intended to be used towards funding the germanisation policy in Luxembourg, the so-called Aufbaufonds Moselland. In November 1941 all Jewish organisations were dissolved. and more than 35,000 Reichsmark were confiscated.

Most Jews that remained in the Grand Duchy were interned at Fünfbrunnen, a concentration camp near Troisvierges. From here, 696 Jewish prisoners were deported to ghettos, labour camps, and extermination camps, of whom, 56 survived. More than 500 Luxembourgian Jews that had fled to France or Belgium were also deported to camps, of whom 16 survived.[5] Altogether, 1,945 of the 3,500 pre-war Luxembourgian Jews died, whilst 1,555 survived the Holocaust by fleeing, hiding, or surviving in detention.[3]

At the end of the war, out of six Jewish congregations (Luxembourg City, Esch-Alzette. Ettelbrück. Mondorf, Medernach and Grevenmacher) only two remained, in Luxembourg and in Esch.

Luxembourgian Jewry today[edit]

After the war, some of those that had fled Luxembourg returned. Communities were re-established across Luxembourg, particularly in Luxembourg City and Esch-sur-Alzette. Synagogues were built in both of these cities; whilst the capital's Great Synagogue had been demolished by the Nazis. Over the second half of the twentieth century, Luxembourg's Jewish population gradually shrank, as families emigrated to Israel and other countries. In recent years, a wave of immigration by young Jews, mainly from France, attracted by good working conditions, has compensated somewhat the shrinking of the Jewish population.

On West 110th Street in Manhattan, New York City, there is an active congregation, Ramath Orah, founded by Jews who fled Luxembourg in the Nazi period led by Rabbi Dr. Robert Serebrenik, chief Rabbi of Luxembourg. Rabbi Serebrenik and his congregation gave their new synagogue the name Ramath Orah (Hebrew for 'mountain of light', i.e. 'Luxembourg'[citation needed]).

Anti-Semitism[edit]

Unlike many other countries in Europe, including some of Luxembourg's closest neighbours, there is a very low level of anti-Semitic behaviour and attitude in Luxembourg. In the first half of 2002, there were no reports of anti-Semitic attacks in the Grand Duchy.[1] Hate speech and verbal aggression towards Jews are also almost unheard of.

No anti-Semitic political parties exist in Luxembourg. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the National Movement, a far-right and openly xenophobic political party, achieved moderate success by the ballot box. Despite its attraction to neo-Nazis and its opposition to ethnic and religious minorities, most of its rhetoric was aimed at guest workers from southern Europe, and not at the Jewish population. The National Movement folded in the mid-1990s, and no far-right organisation has taken its place.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Manifestations of Anti-Semitism in the European Union - Luxembourg". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  2. ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (2002). "Population Tables". World Jewish Population 2002. Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  3. ^ a b Sloane, Joanna. "Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  4. ^ "Embassy of Israel - Belgium & Luxembourg" (in French). Israeli Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Commémoration de la Shoah au Luxembourg" (in French). Service Information et Presse. 3 July 2005. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014