Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
SIX MILLION JEWS   PREDICTIVE PROGRAMMING 1915 1938 HD
SIX MILLION JEWS PREDICTIVE PROGRAMMING 1915 1938 HD
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: John Bell
What Is Zionism?
What Is Zionism?
Published: 2015/03/03
Channel: NowThis World
What Is The Main Religion In Luxembourg?
What Is The Main Religion In Luxembourg?
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: new sparky
The Path to Nazi Genocide
The Path to Nazi Genocide
Published: 2014/01/13
Channel: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Who Laid The Barbed Wire In No Man
Who Laid The Barbed Wire In No Man's Land? I OUT OF THE TRENCHES
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: The Great War
"Harry
"Harry's Story" - Memories of Hiding Jews and Nazi Brutality during WWII
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: Ken Hook
SIX MILLION JEWS, HOLOCAUST 1915 1938
SIX MILLION JEWS, HOLOCAUST 1915 1938
Published: 2014/01/18
Channel: Truth Seaker
Who Rules The World, The Psychopaths Behind The Scenes
Who Rules The World, The Psychopaths Behind The Scenes
Published: 2014/09/20
Channel: Truth Seaker
Why does Israel Exist? And How was it formed?
Why does Israel Exist? And How was it formed?
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: The Spiffing Brit
Who are the Rothschilds? + Jewish Evictions & Bank of England 1694 by Phil Young
Who are the Rothschilds? + Jewish Evictions & Bank of England 1694 by Phil Young
Published: 2014/02/01
Channel: NewsNotShownonTV
Eisenhower Visits Patton
Eisenhower Visits Patton's Grave, Luxembourg, 09/28/1946 (full)
Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: WWIIPublicDomain
Why jews murdered George  Patton
Why jews murdered George Patton
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Neuschwabisch
Al-Quran - The Original Syriac Manuscript & Interpretation
Al-Quran - The Original Syriac Manuscript & Interpretation
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: ibnyakub777
The Tactics of General Patton
The Tactics of General Patton
Published: 2014/12/20
Channel: American Heroes Channel
Did 6 million Jews die in the Holocaust?
Did 6 million Jews die in the Holocaust?
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Veritas Vincit Omnia
GERMAN HISTORY ARCHIVE ▶ Unpublished Footage 1927-45 Germany & WWII
GERMAN HISTORY ARCHIVE ▶ Unpublished Footage 1927-45 Germany & WWII
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: GERMAN HISTORY ARCHIVE
International Jewish High School, Milan
International Jewish High School, Milan
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: International Jewish High School תיכון חיה מושקא
countryballs :: Important Belgium
countryballs :: Important Belgium
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: countryballs
countryballs :: Jews behind everything
countryballs :: Jews behind everything
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: countryballs
Sevilla
Sevilla
Published: 2014/05/14
Channel: Rick Steves' Europe
Bill O
Bill O'Reilly investigates WWII Gen. Patton's life and death
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: CBS This Morning
lies lies lies WHY DO JEWS FALL IN LOVE WITH DEATH CAMP lies. part 1
lies lies lies WHY DO JEWS FALL IN LOVE WITH DEATH CAMP lies. part 1
Published: 2013/03/19
Channel: nelly yllen
Holocaust: Roman Catholicism
Holocaust: Roman Catholicism's Nazi History Exposed!
Published: 2011/07/01
Channel: okcSDRmedia
من هم الساميون وما هي علاقتهم بالنورانيين والصهيونيين والماسونيين..!! الاستاذ جهاد العايش 2017  EB
من هم الساميون وما هي علاقتهم بالنورانيين والصهيونيين والماسونيين..!! الاستاذ جهاد العايش 2017 EB
Published: 2017/11/27
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار - كن متيقظا..!! للشيخ الدكتور محمد راتب النابلسي  2017 HD EB
أسرار - كن متيقظا..!! للشيخ الدكتور محمد راتب النابلسي 2017 HD EB
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
Former head of Nazi Gestapo Heinrich Mueller buried in Jewish cemetery
Former head of Nazi Gestapo Heinrich Mueller buried in Jewish cemetery
Published: 2013/11/02
Channel: JewsOnTelevision
مهم جدا !! أسرار التغييرعند الانسان !! - د. عمر عبد الكافي  .. EB 2017 HD
مهم جدا !! أسرار التغييرعند الانسان !! - د. عمر عبد الكافي .. EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار و حقائق في التاريخ..!! الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي EB HD  2017
أسرار و حقائق في التاريخ..!! الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/12/05
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
Geography Now! Germany
Geography Now! Germany
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Geography Now
شيق جدا !! أسرار الدنيا الخفية.. !! الدكتور الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي   EB 2017 HD
شيق جدا !! أسرار الدنيا الخفية.. !! الدكتور الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
هل تريد قلبا مثل قلوب العارفين..!! لها عيون ترى مالا يراه الناظرون..!! عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
هل تريد قلبا مثل قلوب العارفين..!! لها عيون ترى مالا يراه الناظرون..!! عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
روعة !! كيف تعالج ضيق الصدر ..!! الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي EB 2017 HD
روعة !! كيف تعالج ضيق الصدر ..!! الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار-   الى أين الفرار في زمن الفتن..!! د. محمد راتب النابلسي  EB HD 2017
أسرار- الى أين الفرار في زمن الفتن..!! د. محمد راتب النابلسي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
Made in Russia: The Holocaust - Revisionist Carlos Porter - Must Watch!
Made in Russia: The Holocaust - Revisionist Carlos Porter - Must Watch!
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Zionist Report
Where are the children of the people in the bible today???
Where are the children of the people in the bible today???
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: ALEF ZAYIN
Rosa Luxemburg (In Our Time)
Rosa Luxemburg (In Our Time)
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: Podcast Zone
أسرار وحلول - كيف تتعامل مع الباطل..!! الشيخ الدكتور محمد راتب النابلسي   2017  EB HD
أسرار وحلول - كيف تتعامل مع الباطل..!! الشيخ الدكتور محمد راتب النابلسي 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
Monument commemorating non-Soviet Jews deported to Litin and murdered there
Monument commemorating non-Soviet Jews deported to Litin and murdered there
Published: 2014/04/09
Channel: Yad Vashem
The Jewish Museum Berlin
The Jewish Museum Berlin
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Arquitectura Paisaje y Patrimonio
التوكل على الله , سر الاسرار في الاسلام !!!.. الدكتور عمر عبد  الكافي  EB 2017 HD
التوكل على الله , سر الاسرار في الاسلام !!!.. الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي EB 2017 HD
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار - القلوب أربعة..!!  الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي 2017 HD EB
أسرار - القلوب أربعة..!! الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي 2017 HD EB
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي ينفي شائعة وفاته ومرضه ..!! مازلت حيا أرزق معافى..!!  EB HD 2017
الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي ينفي شائعة وفاته ومرضه ..!! مازلت حيا أرزق معافى..!! EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
بعض أسرار الاسلام - كيف نعالج  اللامسؤولية عند بعض المسلمين .!! - د. عمر عبد الكافي  2017 EB HD
بعض أسرار الاسلام - كيف نعالج اللامسؤولية عند بعض المسلمين .!! - د. عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
جديد - دور المطابخ الفكرية اليهودية في العالم !!.. الاستاذ جهاد العايش  2017 HD EB
جديد - دور المطابخ الفكرية اليهودية في العالم !!.. الاستاذ جهاد العايش 2017 HD EB
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
الاسلام هو القوة الوحيدة التي تستطيع مواجهة النظام الدولي ..!! الدكتور اكرم حجازي EB HD 2017
الاسلام هو القوة الوحيدة التي تستطيع مواجهة النظام الدولي ..!! الدكتور اكرم حجازي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
اشراقات نور الله لا يطفأها أحد..!!  الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي EB HD 2017
اشراقات نور الله لا يطفأها أحد..!! الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/12/11
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
رائع جدا - سر التغلب على مشاكل الحياة ...!!  الشيخ عائض القرني - EB 2017 HD
رائع جدا - سر التغلب على مشاكل الحياة ...!! الشيخ عائض القرني - EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار - متى يسترجع المسلمون أمجادهم ..!! د. عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
أسرار - متى يسترجع المسلمون أمجادهم ..!! د. عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
[HLHW] Exile in Ecuador with Moselio Schaechter
[HLHW] Exile in Ecuador with Moselio Schaechter
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: UC San Diego Library
أشجع وأسرع قرار تاريخي - اسماعيل هنية يعطي انطلاقة انتفاضة تحرير القدس والضفة..!! 2017 EB HD
أشجع وأسرع قرار تاريخي - اسماعيل هنية يعطي انطلاقة انتفاضة تحرير القدس والضفة..!! 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/12/08
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Luxembourgish Jews
Lëtzebuergesch Judden
יהודים לוקסמבורגים
Total population
(1,200[1])
Languages
Luxembourgish, German, French, Hebrew, Yiddish
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
other Ashkenazi Jews

There are roughly 1,200 Jews in Luxembourg,[1] and Jews form one of the largest and most important religious and ethnic minority communities in Luxembourg historically.

Judaism is the fifth-largest religious denomination in Luxembourg, behind Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Orthodox Christianity, and Islam. By absolute size, Luxembourg's community is one of the smallest in the European Union; relative to total population, it is the sixth largest.[2] However, Luxembourg is one of the few European countries to have a larger Jewish population today than it had before the Nazi era (others include France and Spain)[citation needed]. Judaism is recognised and supported by the government as one of the major state-mandated religions (see: Religion in Luxembourg).

History[edit]

The first record of a Jewish community in Luxembourg was made in 1276,[3] and, over the next fifty years, the population grew as a result of immigration from Trier. During the Black Death, the Jews were made scapegoats, and were murdered or expelled from the towns of Luxembourg City and Echternach. A few remained, protected by the intervention of Emperor Charles IV. After the death of Charles, the new Emperor, Wenceslaus, took little interest in affairs in Luxembourg. Deprived of Imperial protection, in 1391, Luxembourg's Jewish population was expelled.

After the initial expulsion, the ban was not thoroughly enforced, and a few Jewish families began to return to Luxembourg from 1405 onwards. During an uprising in 1478, Jewish homes were torched. Only two families remained, but this number had grown to fifteen by 1515.[4] In 1530, Jews were again expelled. This ban was enforced stringently, and Jews did not return to Luxembourg until the late 18th century.

After the Napoleonic conquest of the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, Jews were allowed back into Luxembourg, and the community flourished. By 1810, the number of Jewish families had reached 20. The first synagogue was opened in Luxembourg City in 1823, and Samuel Hirsch was appointed the first chief rabbi in 1843. By 1880, there were 150 Jewish families in Luxembourg, mostly in the Gutland. The first Great Synagogue was built in Luxembourg City in 1894, and the first provincial synagogue in Luxembourg was opened in Ettelbruck in 1870, the second one in Echternach in 1899. By 1927, the Jewish community had grown to 1,171, most of whom had fled the Russian pogroms, and, by the outbreak of the Second World War, the population had grown to about 4,200, fuelled by the arrival of 3,200 refugees from Nazi Germany and Central Europe.[5]

Luxembourg and the Holocaust[edit]

The current synagogue in Luxembourg City is the centre of Jewish worship in Luxembourg, having been rebuilt after the Second World War.

Luxembourg was invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940; before and during the invasion, 50,000 Luxembourgers managed to flee the country, amongst which were 1,650 Jews, who escaped into France and Belgium.[5] Other Jews managed to escape thanks to clandestine rescues, carried out by both the resistance and individuals; the most famous of these individuals was Victor Bodson, a cabinet minister and Righteous Among the Nations. On 5 September, Gustav Simon announced the extension of the Nuremberg Laws to Luxembourg.[5] From October 1940, the Gestapo adopted a policy of encouraging Jews to emigrate westwards; in the following year, nearly, 1,000 took this opportunity, although it would not be enough to escape the Nazis' persecution.[5]

On 22 October 1940 the synagogue of Esch was destroyed. In May 1941 the synagogue of Luxembourg City was closed by the Gestapo, vandalised and then razed, which took until autumn of 1943. On 3 June 1941 the synagogue in Esch was also destroyed.

From 7 February 1941 a law mandated the confiscation of all property of those who had emigrated up until 1940. From 18 April 1941 this was extended to Jews remaining in Luxembourg. The confiscated property was either sold off or used by various Nazi organisations. The money was intended to be used towards funding the germanisation policy in Luxembourg, the so-called Aufbaufonds Moselland. In November 1941 all Jewish organisations were dissolved and more than 35,000 Reichsmark were confiscated.

Most Jews that remained in the Grand Duchy were interned at Fünfbrunnen, an internment camp near Troisvierges. From here, 696 Jewish prisoners were deported to ghettos, labour camps, and extermination camps, of whom, 56 survived. More than 500 Luxembourgian Jews that had fled to France or Belgium were also deported to camps, of whom 16 survived.[5] Altogether, 1,945 of the 3,500 pre-war Luxembourgian Jews died, whilst 1,555 survived the Holocaust by fleeing, hiding, or surviving in detention.[3]

At the end of the war, out of six Jewish congregations (Luxembourg City, Esch-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Mondorf, Medernach and Grevenmacher) only two remained, in Luxembourg and in Esch.

Luxembourgian Jewry today[edit]

After the war, some of those that had fled Luxembourg returned. Communities were re-established across Luxembourg, particularly in Luxembourg City and Esch-sur-Alzette. Synagogues were built in both of these cities; whilst the capital's Great Synagogue had been demolished by the Nazis. Over the second half of the twentieth century, Luxembourg's Jewish population gradually shrank, as families emigrated to other countries. In recent years, a wave of immigration by young Jews, mainly from France, attracted by good working conditions, has compensated somewhat the shrinking of the Jewish population.

On West 110th Street in Manhattan, New York City, there is an active congregation, Ramath Orah, founded by Jews who fled Luxembourg in the Nazi period led by Rabbi Dr. Robert Serebrenik, chief Rabbi of Luxembourg. Rabbi Serebrenik and his congregation gave their new synagogue the name Ramath Orah (Hebrew for 'mountain of light', i.e. 'Luxembourg'[citation needed]).

Anti-Semitism[edit]

Unlike many other countries in Europe, including some of Luxembourg's closest neighbours, there is a very low level of anti-Semitic behaviour and attitude in Luxembourg. In the first half of 2002, there were no reports of anti-Semitic attacks in the Grand Duchy.[1] Hate speech and verbal aggression towards Jews are also almost unheard of.

No anti-Semitic political parties exist in Luxembourg. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the National Movement, a far-right and openly xenophobic political party, achieved moderate success by the ballot box. Despite its attraction to neo-Nazis and its opposition to ethnic and religious minorities, most of its rhetoric was aimed at guest workers from southern Europe, and not at the Jewish population. The National Movement folded in the mid-1990s, and no far-right organisation has taken its place.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Manifestations of Anti-Semitism in the European Union - Luxembourg". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  2. ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (2002). "Population Tables". World Jewish Population 2002. Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  3. ^ a b Sloane, Joanna. "Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  4. ^ "Embassy of Israel - Belgium & Luxembourg" (in French). Israeli Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Commémoration de la Shoah au Luxembourg" (in French). Service Information et Presse. 3 July 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 

External links and further reading[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license