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Who Laid The Barbed Wire In No Man
Who Laid The Barbed Wire In No Man's Land? I OUT OF THE TRENCHES
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: The Great War
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What Is Zionism?
Published: 2015/03/03
Channel: NowThis
Al-Quran - The Original Syriac Manuscript & Interpretation
Al-Quran - The Original Syriac Manuscript & Interpretation
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: ibnyakub777
Why jews murdered George  Patton
Why jews murdered George Patton
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Neuschwabisch
The Path to Nazi Genocide
The Path to Nazi Genocide
Published: 2014/01/13
Channel: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
SIX MILLION JEWS, HOLOCAUST 1915 1938
SIX MILLION JEWS, HOLOCAUST 1915 1938
Published: 2014/01/18
Channel: Truth Seaker
What Is The Main Religion In Luxembourg?
What Is The Main Religion In Luxembourg?
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: new sparky
Who are the Rothschilds? + Jewish Evictions & Bank of England 1694 by Phil Young
Who are the Rothschilds? + Jewish Evictions & Bank of England 1694 by Phil Young
Published: 2014/02/01
Channel: NewsNotShownonTV
Brighton Beach Synagogue Gets New Glass Dome
Brighton Beach Synagogue Gets New Glass Dome
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: JewsOnTelevision
MARRAKECH, the 500 year old historic Jewish Cemetery (MOROCCO)
MARRAKECH, the 500 year old historic Jewish Cemetery (MOROCCO)
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Vic Stefanu - World Travels and Adventures
General George Patton grave. Luxembourg.
General George Patton grave. Luxembourg.
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Jack McClendon
Western European Flags Explained
Western European Flags Explained
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Well... Actually
The Oldest DNA reveals that the first Europeans identical to today
The Oldest DNA reveals that the first Europeans identical to today's modern Europeans
Published: 2015/12/19
Channel: SLAVIC WORLD
Eisenhower & Patton Visit The Nazi Death Camps
Eisenhower & Patton Visit The Nazi Death Camps
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: ChiTownView
Eisenhower Visits Patton
Eisenhower Visits Patton's Grave, Luxembourg, 09/28/1946 (full)
Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: WWIIPublicDomain
George Patton
George Patton's grave in Ham, G.D. Luxemburg (also on blog American Patrol)
Published: 2008/08/20
Channel: JV022925
Jewish History in Occitania
Jewish History in Occitania
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: Wanda Richards
22 Surprising Facts About: Nazi Germany
22 Surprising Facts About: Nazi Germany
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: Thoughty2
SIX MILLION JEWS   PREDICTIVE PROGRAMMING 1915 1938 HD
SIX MILLION JEWS PREDICTIVE PROGRAMMING 1915 1938 HD
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: John Bell
Secret Origins of Quran 1/2 Quranic Arabic: The Forgotten Language
Secret Origins of Quran 1/2 Quranic Arabic: The Forgotten Language
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: K TENESSY
Walking through Garden of Luxembourg
Walking through Garden of Luxembourg
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Channel: Eat and Travel
Who Rules The World, The Psychopaths Behind The Scenes
Who Rules The World, The Psychopaths Behind The Scenes
Published: 2014/09/20
Channel: Truth Seaker
WWII 10th Armored  Veterans in Luxembourg Part 1
WWII 10th Armored Veterans in Luxembourg Part 1
Published: 2016/05/17
Channel: 10th Armored Division
Patton Assassination -- MyServicePride INTV w Tim Wilcox
Patton Assassination -- MyServicePride INTV w Tim Wilcox
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: Bob Massie
South America in WW1 - Religious Leaders I OUT OF THE TRENCHES
South America in WW1 - Religious Leaders I OUT OF THE TRENCHES
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: The Great War
أسرار - كيف تهزم الشيطان..!! الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
أسرار - كيف تهزم الشيطان..!! الشيخ عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg
The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg
Published: 2013/01/15
Channel: Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung—New York Office
countryballs :: Jews behind everything
countryballs :: Jews behind everything
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: countryballs
جزاء الظالمين..!!  د. عمر عبد الكافي  2017 EB HD
جزاء الظالمين..!! د. عمر عبد الكافي 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار وحكم من حياة النبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم..!! د.عمر عبد الكافي EB HD 2017
أسرار وحكم من حياة النبي محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم..!! د.عمر عبد الكافي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
The Jewish Museum Berlin
The Jewish Museum Berlin
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Arquitectura Paisaje y Patrimonio
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Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أروع درس في الحياء..!! د. محمد راتب النابولسي EB 2017 HD
أروع درس في الحياء..!! د. محمد راتب النابولسي EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار القمة السعودية الامريكية..!! د. عمر عبد الستار  2017 HD EB
أسرار القمة السعودية الامريكية..!! د. عمر عبد الستار 2017 HD EB
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
Putin and Obama by Brother Nathanael
Putin and Obama by Brother Nathanael
Published: 2015/03/25
Channel: LightTheDarknessLor3
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اسرار وحقائق وخبايا مثيرة للانقلاب الابيض في السعودية ..!! أحمد منصور 2017 EB HD
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
ISRAEL: JERUSALEM: RADICAL JEWS AND POLICE INVOLVED IN ANGRY SCENES
ISRAEL: JERUSALEM: RADICAL JEWS AND POLICE INVOLVED IN ANGRY SCENES
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Made in Russia: The Holocaust - Revisionist Carlos Porter - Must Watch!
Made in Russia: The Holocaust - Revisionist Carlos Porter - Must Watch!
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Zionist Report
Bill O
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Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: CBS This Morning
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سر الاسرار !!!.. د. عمر عبد الكافي EB 2017 HD
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
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Published: 2017/04/18
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Channel: Yad Vashem
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أسرار - السيرة الذاتية للشيخ الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي الجزء الثاني EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
countryballs :: Important Belgium
countryballs :: Important Belgium
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: countryballs
جديد - البخل ينقض الايمان نقضا .. !!!  د.  عمر عبد الكافي - EB 2017 HD
جديد - البخل ينقض الايمان نقضا .. !!! د. عمر عبد الكافي - EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
أسرار الاستقامة ..!! د. محمد راتب النابولسي  EB HD 2017
أسرار الاستقامة ..!! د. محمد راتب النابولسي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
درس محوري اكثر من رائع تحتاتجه كل دقيقة..!! - للدكتور  محمد راتب النابولسي  EB 2017 HD
درس محوري اكثر من رائع تحتاتجه كل دقيقة..!! - للدكتور محمد راتب النابولسي EB 2017 HD
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
Patton
Patton's Ghost Corps Documentary
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: AC .R
أسرار عقيدة العمل الصالح ..!! د. عمر عبد الكافي و د. محمد راتب النابلسي EB HD 2017
أسرار عقيدة العمل الصالح ..!! د. عمر عبد الكافي و د. محمد راتب النابلسي EB HD 2017
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
حلقة شيقة -  السيرة الذاتية للشيخ الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي - الجزء 3 - 2017 HD EB
حلقة شيقة - السيرة الذاتية للشيخ الدكتور عمر عبد الكافي - الجزء 3 - 2017 HD EB
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Encyclopedia of The Believer
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Luxembourgish Jews
Lëtzebuergesch Judden
יהודים לוקסמבורגים
Total population
(1,200[1])
Languages
Luxembourgish, German, French, Hebrew, Yiddish
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
other Ashkenazi Jews

There are roughly 1,200 Jews in Luxembourg,[1] and Jews form one of the largest and most important religious and ethnic minority communities in Luxembourg historically.

Judaism is the fifth-largest religious denomination in Luxembourg, behind Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Orthodox Christianity, and Islam. By absolute size, Luxembourg's community is one of the smallest in the European Union; relative to total population, it is the sixth largest.[2] However, Luxembourg is one of the few European countries to have a larger Jewish population today than it had before the Nazi era (others include France and Spain)[citation needed]. Judaism is recognised and supported by the government as one of the major state-mandated religions (see: Religion in Luxembourg).

History[edit]

The first record of a Jewish community in Luxembourg was made in 1276,[3] and, over the next fifty years, the population grew as a result of immigration from Trier. During the Black Death, the Jews were made scapegoats, and were murdered or expelled from the towns of Luxembourg City and Echternach. A few remained, protected by the intervention of Emperor Charles IV. After the death of Charles, the new Emperor, Wenceslaus, took little interest in affairs in Luxembourg. Deprived of Imperial protection, in 1391, Luxembourg's Jewish population was expelled.

After the initial expulsion, the ban was not thoroughly enforced, and a few Jewish families began to return to Luxembourg from 1405 onwards. During an uprising in 1478, Jewish homes were torched. Only two families remained, but this number had grown to fifteen by 1515.[4] In 1530, Jews were again expelled. This ban was enforced stringently, and Jews did not return to Luxembourg until the late 18th century.

After the Napoleonic conquest of the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, Jews were allowed back into Luxembourg, and the community flourished. By 1810, the number of Jewish families had reached 20. The first synagogue was opened in Luxembourg City in 1823, and Samuel Hirsch was appointed the first chief rabbi in 1843. By 1880, there were 150 Jewish families in Luxembourg, mostly in the Gutland. The first Great Synagogue was built in Luxembourg City in 1894, and the first provincial synagogue in Luxembourg was opened in Ettelbruck in 1870, the second one in Echternach in 1899. By 1927, the Jewish community had grown to 1,171, most of whom had fled the Russian pogroms, and, by the outbreak of the Second World War, the population had grown to about 4,200, fuelled by the arrival of 3,200 refugees from Nazi Germany and Central Europe.[5]

Luxembourg and the Holocaust[edit]

The current synagogue in Luxembourg City is the centre of Jewish worship in Luxembourg, having been rebuilt after the Second World War.

Luxembourg was invaded by Germany on 10 May 1940; before and during the invasion, 50,000 Luxembourgers managed to flee the country, amongst which were 1,650 Jews, who escaped into France and Belgium.[5] Other Jews managed to escape thanks to clandestine rescues, carried out by both the resistance and individuals; the most famous of these individuals was Victor Bodson, a cabinet minister and Righteous Among the Nations. On 5 September, Gustav Simon announced the extension of the Nuremberg Laws to Luxembourg.[5] From October 1940, the Gestapo adopted a policy of encouraging Jews to emigrate westwards; in the following year, nearly, 1,000 took this opportunity, although it would not be enough to escape the Nazis' persecution.[5]

On 22 October 1940 the synagogue of Esch was destroyed. In May 1941 the synagogue of Luxembourg City was closed by the Gestapo, vandalised and then razed, which took until autumn of 1943. On 3 June 1941 the synagogue in Esch was also destroyed.

From 7 February 1941 a law mandated the confiscation of all property of those who had emigrated up until 1940. From 18 April 1941 this was extended to Jews remaining in Luxembourg. The confiscated property was either sold off or used by various Nazi organisations. The money was intended to be used towards funding the germanisation policy in Luxembourg, the so-called Aufbaufonds Moselland. In November 1941 all Jewish organisations were dissolved and more than 35,000 Reichsmark were confiscated.

Most Jews that remained in the Grand Duchy were interned at Fünfbrunnen, an internation camp near Troisvierges. From here, 696 Jewish prisoners were deported to ghettos, labour camps, and extermination camps, of whom, 56 survived. More than 500 Luxembourgian Jews that had fled to France or Belgium were also deported to camps, of whom 16 survived.[5] Altogether, 1,945 of the 3,500 pre-war Luxembourgian Jews died, whilst 1,555 survived the Holocaust by fleeing, hiding, or surviving in detention.[3]

At the end of the war, out of six Jewish congregations (Luxembourg City, Esch-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Mondorf, Medernach and Grevenmacher) only two remained, in Luxembourg and in Esch.

Luxembourgian Jewry today[edit]

After the war, some of those that had fled Luxembourg returned. Communities were re-established across Luxembourg, particularly in Luxembourg City and Esch-sur-Alzette. Synagogues were built in both of these cities; whilst the capital's Great Synagogue had been demolished by the Nazis. Over the second half of the twentieth century, Luxembourg's Jewish population gradually shrank, as families emigrated to Israel and other countries. In recent years, a wave of immigration by young Jews, mainly from France, attracted by good working conditions, has compensated somewhat the shrinking of the Jewish population.

On West 110th Street in Manhattan, New York City, there is an active congregation, Ramath Orah, founded by Jews who fled Luxembourg in the Nazi period led by Rabbi Dr. Robert Serebrenik, chief Rabbi of Luxembourg. Rabbi Serebrenik and his congregation gave their new synagogue the name Ramath Orah (Hebrew for 'mountain of light', i.e. 'Luxembourg'[citation needed]).

Anti-Semitism[edit]

Unlike many other countries in Europe, including some of Luxembourg's closest neighbours, there is a very low level of anti-Semitic behaviour and attitude in Luxembourg. In the first half of 2002, there were no reports of anti-Semitic attacks in the Grand Duchy.[1] Hate speech and verbal aggression towards Jews are also almost unheard of.

No anti-Semitic political parties exist in Luxembourg. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the National Movement, a far-right and openly xenophobic political party, achieved moderate success by the ballot box. Despite its attraction to neo-Nazis and its opposition to ethnic and religious minorities, most of its rhetoric was aimed at guest workers from southern Europe, and not at the Jewish population. The National Movement folded in the mid-1990s, and no far-right organisation has taken its place.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Manifestations of Anti-Semitism in the European Union - Luxembourg". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  2. ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (2002). "Population Tables". World Jewish Population 2002. Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  3. ^ a b Sloane, Joanna. "Virtual Jewish History Tour". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  4. ^ "Embassy of Israel - Belgium & Luxembourg" (in French). Israeli Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Commémoration de la Shoah au Luxembourg" (in French). Service Information et Presse. 3 July 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 

External links and further reading[edit]

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