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Holland Tunnel
Haer hollandtunnel.jpg
Manhattan entrance to tunnel, 1985
Overview
Official name Clifford Milburn Holland Tunnel
Location Jersey City, NJLower Manhattan, New York City, NY, US
Route I‑78 (full span)
Route 139 (NJ side)
Crosses Hudson River
Operation
Opened November 13, 1927; 90 years ago (1927-11-13)
Operator Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Traffic 89,792 (2016)[1]
Toll
  • Eastbound only[2]
  • $15.00 (cash)
  • $12.50 during peak (E-ZPass)
  • $10.50 during off-peak (E-ZPass)
Technical
Length 8,558 feet (2,608.5 m) (westbound)
8,371 feet (2,551.5 m) (eastbound)
No. of lanes 4
Tunnel clearance 12.6 feet (3.84 m)
Depth of tunnel below water level 93 feet (28.3 m) below MHW
Route map
Route map of the Holland Tunnel
Holland Tunnel
An eastbound trip through the tunnel
Location Jersey City, New Jersey and Manhattan, New York City
Built 1920
Architect Clifford Holland
NRHP reference # 93001619
Significant dates
Added to NRHP November 4, 1993[3]
Designated NHL November 4, 1993

The Holland Tunnel is an inter-state vehicular tunnel under the Hudson River, between Manhattan, New York City, New York, and Jersey City, New Jersey. It is an integral conduit within the New York Metropolitan Area, and is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). The entirety of the tunnel carries west–east Interstate 78, while the New Jersey section concurrently carries Route 139.

The tunnel opened in 1927 as the first of two vehicular tunnels under the Hudson River, with the Lincoln Tunnel opening in 1937. It was originally known as the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel or the Canal Street Tunnel. It was renamed the Holland Tunnel in memory of Clifford Milburn Holland, the chief engineer, after his sudden death in October 27, 1924, before the tunnel was opened.[4] The innovative ventilation system was designed by Ole Singstad, who oversaw completion of the tunnel's construction.

Description[edit]

Begun in 1920 and completed in 1927, the tunnel is named after Clifford Milburn Holland, chief engineer on the project, who died before it was completed. Tunnel designer Ole Singstad finished Holland's work. The tunnel was the first mechanically ventilated underwater vehicular tunnel in the world. Eighty-four fans, in four ventilation buildings, create a floor to ceiling air flow across the roadway at regular intervals, via systems of ducts beneath and above the roadway. The fans can completely change the air inside the tunnel every 90 seconds. A forced ventilation system is essential because of the poisonous carbon monoxide component of automobile exhaust, which constituted a far greater percentage of exhaust gases before catalytic converters became prevalent.[5][6]

The tunnel consists of a pair of tubes, each providing two lanes in a 20-foot (6.1 m) roadway width with 12.5 feet (3.81 m) of headroom. The north tube is 8,558 feet (2,608 m) from end to end, while the south tube is slightly shorter at 8,371 feet (2,551 m).[7] Both tubes are situated in the silt beneath the river, with the lowest point of the roadway being about 93 feet (28.3 m) below mean high water.

The amount of traffic going through the Holland Tunnel has remained steady despite tight restrictions on eastbound traffic in response to the September 11 attacks, including a ban on commercial traffic entering New York City put in place after an August 2004 threat.[8][9] The tunnel was used by 34,698,000 vehicles in 2007,[7] according to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the bi-state government agency that owns and operates the Holland Tunnel. That is slightly less than the 34,729,385 vehicles seen in 2006, but up from the 33,964,000 vehicles in 2005.

Panorama of Holland Tunnel entrance in New Jersey
Jersey City entrance during rush hour
1973 aerial view of rotary with parked buses. A fifth exit was added in 2004.

The tunnel was designated a National Historic Civil and Mechanical Engineering Landmark in 1982[10] and a National Historic Landmark in 1993.[11][12][13]

Boyle Plaza[edit]

The approach to the Holland Tunnel in Jersey City begins where the Lower Level of NJ 139 and the Newark Bay Extension meet. On May 6, 1936, the section of what became NJ 139/I-78 between Jersey Avenue and Marin Boulevard was named in memory of John F. Boyle, the former interstate tunnel commissioner.[14] Boyle Plaza is the only segment of I-78 and NJ 139 that has stoplights, as it runs concurrent with 12th Street (the eastbound lanes) and 14th Street (the westbound lanes).

The nine-lane toll plaza is equipped with E-ZPass (first made available in October 1997).[7][15]

Holland Tunnel Rotary[edit]

Soon after construction of the tunnel, a freight depot, the St. John's Park Terminal, was demolished,[16] and a new circular roadway was created in the city block bounded by Laight, Varick, Beach and Hudson Streets for traffic exiting the eastbound tube in Manhattan.[17][18] Renovations to the rotary, which included adding a fifth exit, were completed in 2004.[19][20][21][22]

Freeman Plaza[edit]

Originally used as the toll plazas for New Jersey-bound traffic, the small triangular patches of land at the mouth of the Holland Tunnel entrance had become fenced off by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. In 2013, the Hudson Square Connection, the business improvement district for the area, collaborated with the Port Authority to open Freeman Plaza West to the public.[23] Bounded by Hudson, Broome, and Watts Streets, Freeman Plaza West is named after Milton Freeman, the engineer who took over the Holland Tunnel project after the death of Clifford Milburn Holland. It features umbrellas, bistro tables and chairs, and tree plantings.

In 2014, Freeman Plaza East and Freeman Plaza North were opened on Varick and Broome Streets, containing chaise lounge chairs, bistro tables, and umbrellas.[24] In 2016, the Hudson Square Connection added solar powered charging stations to both plazas, and introduced a summer lunchtime music series, called live@lunch.[25]

History[edit]

Context and planning[edit]

Clifford Milburn Holland, 1919

For centuries, passage across the lower Hudson River was possible only by ferry. The first tunnels to be bored below the Hudson River were the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad's uptown and downtown tunnels, constructed in the first decade of the 20th century to link the major railroad terminals in New Jersey with Manhattan Island (they currently run PATH trains). The Pennsylvania Railroad's twin tunnels, constructed to serve the new Pennsylvania Station, soon followed. Once tunneling had been shown to be feasible, increasing automobile traffic led to interest in a roadway crossing the river as well.

The concept for what would become the Holland Tunnel was developed in 1906 by a joint commission between New York and New Jersey. The commission initially considered building a bridge for cost reasons, but this plan was abandoned in favor of a tunnel in 1913 when it was determined that the cost of land for accessways to a suitably raised bridge would be prohibitive as a height of 200 ft (60 m) was considered the minimum necessary to avoid interfering with shipping.[26]

Over the next several years, a number of design proposals were evaluated for the new tunnel. The first two called for a single tube containing two levels of traffic. One, authored by engineer George Goethals specified that traffic on each level would travel in a different direction. The other, by the firm Jacobs and Davies, called for a slightly different tube diameter, with an "express" level and a level for slower traffic. Both designs were eventually passed over in favor of a new type of design proposed by engineer Clifford Milburn Holland, in which two separate tubes would each contain two lanes both going in the same direction. Holland's proposal was adopted, and he was named Chief Engineer of the project.[27] Promotional materials compared the diameter and capacity of the proposed tunnel with the smaller-diameter railroad tunnels.

In 1920, the New Jersey Interstate Bridge and Tunnel Commission and the New York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission appropriated funds for what was then referred to as the "Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel Project". Construction began on March 31, 1922, with a crew of workers starting digging at the corner of Canal Street and West Street.[28] On October 27, 1924, the day before the two halves of the tunnel were scheduled to be linked, 41-year-old Holland died of a heart attack at the sanatorium in Battle Creek, Michigan, attributed by individuals cited in The New York Times to the stress he endured overseeing the tunnel's construction. "Holing through" ceremonies scheduled for that day, in which President Calvin Coolidge would have remotely set off an explosion to connect the two sides of the tunnel, were canceled out of respect for Holland's death.[29]

The project was renamed the Holland Tunnel in memory of its first chief engineer by the New York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission and the New Jersey Interstate Bridge and Tunnel Commission on November 12, 1924.[10] Holland was succeeded by Milton Harvey Freeman, who died of pneumonia in March 1925, after several months heading the job.[30] After Freeman's death, the position was occupied by Ole Singstad, who oversaw the completion of the tunnel and designed its pioneering ventilation system.[31]

Construction[edit]

Tunnel construction required workers to spend large amounts of time in the caisson under high pressure of up to 47.5 pounds per square inch (328 kPa), which was thought to be necessary to prevent river water from entering prior to completion of the tubes. "Sandhogs", as they were termed, entered the tunnel through a series of airlocks, and could only remain inside of the tunnel for a designated time period. On exiting the tunnel, the workers had to undergo controlled decompression to avoid the bends, a condition in which nitrogen bubbles form in the blood from rapid decompression.[32] No workers died as a result of decompression sickness: the work involved "756,000 decompressions of men coming out of the compressed air workings," which resulted in 528 cases of the bends, none fatal.[33][34] Completion of the tunnel took nearly seven years and claimed the lives of 14 workers.

Designing the ventilation system[edit]

One of four towers, the New York Land Ventilation Building in 1985
Hudson River ventilation tower in Jersey City

The most significant design aspect of the Holland Tunnel is its ventilation system. At the time of its construction, underwater tunnels were a well-established part of civil engineering, but no long vehicular tunnel had been built. The technical hurdle was the ventilation required to evacuate the carbon monoxide emissions, which would otherwise asphyxiate the drivers.[34][35][36]

There are four ventilation towers serving the tunnel, designed by Norwegian architect Erling Owre.[37]

Thomas Edison had contended it was impossible to ventilate a tunnel with the volume of traffic envisioned for the Holland Tunnel.[38] Previously, tunnels had been ventilated longitudinally. Engineer Ole Singstad pioneered a system of ventilating the tunnel transversely.

Working with Yale University and the United States Bureau of Mines, Singstad built a test tunnel in the bureau's experimental mine at Bruceton, Pennsylvania, over 400 feet (122 m) long—where cars were lined up with engines running. Volunteer students were supervised as they breathed the exhaust in order to confirm air flows and tolerable carbon monoxide levels by simulating different traffic conditions, including backups. Singstad concluded that a conventional, longitudinal ventilation system would have to be pressurized to an air flow rate of 27 cubic meters per second (953 cu ft/s) along the tunnel.[38]

Singstad confirmed the feasibility of a tri-level tunnel with the large middle section accommodating vehicles and two plenums, a lower and upper plenum each respectively supplying fresh air and exhausting fumes at regular intervals, solving the ventilation problem.[38]

On opening day the average carbon monoxide content in both tunnels was 0.69 part per 10,000 parts of air. The highest was 1.60 parts per 10,000. The permissible standard was 4 parts per 10,000 parts of air.[39] The public and the press proclaimed air conditions were better in the tube than in some streets of New York City.[39]

Opening and early years[edit]

The tunnel opened at 4:55 pm on November 13, 1927, with President Coolidge ceremonially opening the tunnel from his yacht by turning the same key that had "opened" the Panama Canal in 1915, Time magazine called it "the golden lever of the Presidential telegraphic instrument"—which rang a giant brass bell at the tunnel's entrances that triggered American flags on both sides of the tunnel to separate. Vehicles were allowed to pass through the tunnel at one minute after midnight, with the widows of Chief Engineers Holland and Freeman in the second toll-paying vehicle.[5] The tunnel was an immediate success. On its first day of operation, 51,694 vehicles passed through, paying a 50 cent toll ($7.04 in 2017[40]) per car, with tolls ranging from 25 cents for a motorcycle to two dollars for large trucks, which was intended to defray the tunnel's $48 million price tag ($546 million in 2016[41]).[5][42] Horsedrawn vehicles have always been banned from the tunnel. A few months before the tunnel's opening, there were suggestions that pedestrians would be allowed to cross the tunnel if they paid a toll described as "not encouraging," but the idea was never seriously considered.[43]

Later years[edit]

In 1930, control but not real property title of the tunnel was passed to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which continues to operate it today.[44] Between the 1927 opening and 2005, an additional $536 million has been invested in maintaining the tunnel.

In 1955 a very narrow one-man miniature electric car was developed and installed so policemen could patrol the full length of the tunnel from the catwalk on the side of the tunnel instead of having to walk it. By use of a swivel seat the policemen could drive the car in either direction.[45]

In 1970, the Port Authority stopped collecting tolls for New Jersey-bound drivers through the Holland Tunnel, who used the westbound tube, while doubling tolls for New York-bound drivers, who used the eastbound tube. This was done in an effort to speed up traffic.[46] However, this ultimately had an adverse effect on traffic in the Holland Tunnel. In 1986, the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, between the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Staten Island, stopped collecting tolls for Brooklyn-bound drivers (who were generally headed eastbound) and doubled its tolls for Staten Island-bound drivers (who were generally headed westbound).[47] This had the effect of increasing congestion along the New Jersey-bound tube of the Holland Tunnel, which drivers could use for free. Drivers would go through New Jersey and use the Bayonne Bridge to pay a cheaper toll to enter Staten Island. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge toll pattern also caused traffic gridlock around the Holland Tunnel, and Canal Street saw the most severe congestion because it served as the main entrance to the tunnel.[48] Fatal accidents involving pedestrians in Lower Manhattan also increased greatly as a result.[49] Rush-hour congestion within the Holland Tunnel has persisted for more than thirty years due to the Verrazano-Narrow Bridge's one-way westbound toll.[50]

A renovation of Holland Tunnel's tiled ceilings, which were deteriorating due to water damage, started in 1983.[51] The ceilings were replaced at a total cost of $78 million, and the south tube's ceiling was renovated first. Since the Holland Tunnel had to remain open during the renovation, 4,000 modular concrete ceiling panels were made offsite, and narrow lift trucks parked in one of the tube's two lanes installed the panels while traffic continued to move through the tube's other lane. The panels were each designed to the specifications of a certain section of tube, such that none of the ceiling panels were identical; the Port Authority stated that the ceiling-replacement project was the first one of its kind in the world.[52] In 1988, after the ceiling renovations had been completed, work started on replacing the 8-lane tollbooth, which consisted of six lanes built in the 1950s and two additional lanes built in the 1980s. The new $54 million tollbooth contained 9 lanes and a central control center.[53] The project was completed by 1991.

Between 2003 and 2006, the fire protection system in both tunnels was modernized. Fire extinguishers were located in alcoves along the tunnel walls while the water supply was turned off and remain in place today.[54]

The Holland Tunnel was closed on October 29, 2012 as Hurricane Sandy approached. The tunnel, like many other New York City tunnels, was flooded by the high storm surge. It remained closed for several days, opening for buses only on November 2 and to all traffic on November 7.[55][56]

Accidents and terrorism[edit]

In 1949, a fire aboard a chemical truck caused enormous damage to the south tube of the tunnel.[57] The fire resulted in 69 injuries and nearly $600,000 worth of damage to the structure. In addition, two first responders, a FDNY battalion chief and a Port Authority patrolman, died as a result of injuries sustained in fighting the fire.[58]

The tunnel is considered by some high ranking government officials to be one of the most high-risk terrorist target sites in the United States. Other such sites in New Jersey include the PATH station at Exchange Place, which is also in Jersey City; the Lincoln Tunnel, which connects nearby Weehawken to Manhattan; and the Port of Newark in Elizabeth.[59]

Following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, the tunnel remained closed to all but emergency traffic for over a month. When it reopened on October 15, 2001, strict new regulations were enacted banning single-occupancy vehicles and trucks from entering the tunnel.[60] Single-occupant vehicles were prohibited in the tunnel on weekday mornings between 6:00 am and 10:00 am until November 17, 2003, when the restrictions were lifted.[61]

On July 7, 2006, a plot to detonate explosives in the tunnels of the PATH (initially said to be a plot to bomb the Holland Tunnel) was uncovered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In a later update of the source,[62] the plot was clarified to be aimed not at the Holland Tunnel but at the PATH.

Tolls[edit]

As of December 6, 2015, the cash tolls going from New Jersey to New York are $15 for cars and motorcycles; there is no toll for passenger vehicles going from New York to New Jersey. E-ZPass users are charged $10.50 for cars and $9.50 for motorcycles during off-peak hours, and $12.50 for cars and $11.50 for motorcycles during peak hours.[2]

Tolls are collected at a tollbooth on the New Jersey side. Originally, tolls were collected in both directions. In August 1970, the toll was abolished for westbound drivers, and at the same time, eastbound drivers saw their tolls doubled. The tolls of eleven other New York–New Jersey and Hudson River crossings along a 130-mile (210 km) stretch, from the Outerbridge Crossing in the south to the Rip Van Winkle Bridge in the north, were also changed to eastbound-only at that time.[46]

In fiction[edit]

The tunnel is the setting of the 1996 movie Daylight, which depicts a group of people trapped in the tunnel because of an explosion, trying to escape.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ "New York City Bridge Traffic Volumes" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. 2016. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2018. 
  2. ^ a b "New Toll Fare Rates for the Bridges & Tunnels Effective December 6, 2015 at 3:00 AM". Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved November 23, 2015. 
  3. ^ National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  4. ^ Aronson, Michael (June 15, 1999). "The Digger Clifford Holland". Daily News. New York. Retrieved January 16, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c "Science: Holland Tunnel". Time. November 21, 1927. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  6. ^ "Compressed Air's Greatest Triumph". Popular Science Monthly: 25. January 1928. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c Holland Tunnel Statistics, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed September 25, 2008.
  8. ^ Weekly Traffic Advisory, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed September 25, 2008.
  9. ^ McFadden, Robert D.; Dao, James (August 3, 2004). "THREATS AND RESPONSES: THE OVERVIEW; At 5 Buildings, A Day of Pluck And Patience". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b "Holland Tunnel". ASCE Metropolitan Section. Retrieved November 12, 2016. Resolved, that the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel ... is hereby dedicated to the memory of Clifford Milburn Holland, and that the said Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel is hereby designated and named as The Holland Tunnel 
  11. ^ "Holland Tunnel National Historic Landmark summary listing". National Park Service. September 11, 2007. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. 
  12. ^ Lange, Robie, S. (March 1993). "Holland Tunnel National Historic Landmark Nomination" (PDF). National Park Service. 
  13. ^ "Holland Tunnel National Historic Landmark Nomination—Accompanying 12 photos, from 1927–1992" (PDF). National Park Service. March 1993. 
  14. ^ "Boyle Plaza Dedicated". The New York Times. May 6, 1936. p. 26. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  15. ^ Halbfinger, David M. (October 27, 1997). "E-Z Pass to Start at Hudson River Tunnels". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  16. ^ "Park of the Past". New York Parks Department. October 8, 2005. Retrieved December 23, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Holland Tunnel Rotary" (PDF). Ives Architecture Studio. Retrieved January 3, 2015. 
  18. ^ White, Norval; Elliot Willensky; Fran Leadon (2010). AIA Guide to New York City. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-19-538386-7. 
  19. ^ "REHABILITATION OF HOLLAND TUNNEL NEW YORK EXIT PLAZA TO BEGIN THIS MONTH". PANYNJ. March 20, 2003. Retrieved December 29, 2014. 
  20. ^ "PORT AUTHORITY COMPLETES HOLLAND TUNNEL ROTARY IMPROVEMENTS". PANYNJ. December 29, 2004. Retrieved December 29, 2014. 
  21. ^ "HT-412 Rehabilitation of the NY Exit Plaza and Holland Tunnel Rotary". Amercom. Retrieved January 3, 2015. 
  22. ^ "Holland Tunnel Rotary". Studio 5 Partnership. Retrieved January 3, 2015. 
  23. ^ Karni, Annie. "Pretty plaza sprouts in Hudson Square". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  24. ^ "Small Parks With Chaise Lounges Open Near Holland Tunnel Entrance". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  25. ^ "live@lunch | The Hudson Square Connection a Business Improvement District". Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  26. ^ Holland Tunnel Historical Photos, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Accessed September 25, 2008.
  27. ^ Holland Tunnel Historic Overview, nycroads.com. Accessed September 25, 2008.[self-published source]
  28. ^ "Work Begins Today on Jersey Tunnel". The New York Times. March 31, 1922. p. 18. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  29. ^ "C. M. Holland Dies After Breakdown". The New York Times. October 28, 1924. p. 23. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Another Engineer Dies on Big Tunnel Job; M.H. Freeman Is Victim of Acute Pneumonia". The New York Times. March 26, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  31. ^ Krebs, Albin (December 9, 1969). "Ole Singstad, 87, Master Builder Of Underwater Tunnels, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  32. ^ Kindwall, Eric P (1997). "Compressed air tunneling and caisson work decompression procedures: development, problems, and solutions". Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine Journal. 24 (4): 337–45. PMID 9444066. Retrieved March 11, 2009. 
  33. ^ Singstad, Ole (September 1928). Norwegian-American Technical Journal. 1 (3): 1–3, 10.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  34. ^ a b "Saga in Steel and Concrete, pp. 181–190". Retrieved October 4, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Saga in Steel and Concrete, pp. 191–202". Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved October 4, 2014. 
  36. ^ * "Studies and Methods Adopted for Ventilating the Holland Vehicular Tunnels". Engineering News-Record. 98. June 9, 1927. pp. 934–939. 
    • "Ventilating the Holland Vehicular Tunnel". Heating and Ventilating Magazine. 23 (79). August 1926. 
    • Singstad, Ole. "Ventilation of Vehicular Tunnels". Proceedings of the World Engineering Congress. 9. pp. 381–399. 
    • Davis, A. C. (October 1930). "Development of the ventilation system of the Holland Tunnel". Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning. 2. pp. 866–874. 
    • Fieldner, A.C.; Henderson, Y.; Paul, J.W.; others (February 1927). "Ventilation of vehicular tunnels (Report of U.S. Bureau of Mines to New York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission and New Jersey State Bridge and Tunnel Commission)". American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. 
  37. ^ Gomez, John (April 10, 2012), "Brilliant design in Modernist towers that ventilate the Holland Tunnel: Legends & Landmarks", The Jersey Journal, retrieved August 12, 2012 
  38. ^ a b c "Ingeniør Ole Singstad (1882–1969)" (in Norwegian). Historier.Norway. 
  39. ^ a b "Saga in Steel and Concrete: Norwegian Engineers in America". 1947. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. 
  40. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  41. ^ Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2018). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved January 5, 2018.  United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  42. ^ Barron, James (June 27, 1994). "A Tunnel? Holland Named U.S. Historic Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  43. ^ Walker, Waldo (August 21, 1927). "Holland Tube Roadways Involve a Huge Task". The New York Times. p. XX10. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  44. ^ "History – Holland Tunnel". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Police Car Rides Narrow Gauge Track Catwalk in Tunnel". Popular Mechanics. March 1955. p. 100. 
  46. ^ a b Moran, Nancy (August 13, 1970). "One‐Way Tolls Confusing Some Drivers". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2018. 
  47. ^ Anderson, Susan Heller; Dunlap, David W. (March 21, 1986). "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; One-Way Tolls In Effect on Verrazano". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2018. 
  48. ^ Boorstin, Robert O. (April 2, 1987). "POLLUTION RISE TIED TO ONE-WAY TOLL". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2018. 
  49. ^ Lambert, Bruce (1993-09-12). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: LOWER MANHATTAN; Around Holland Tunnel, a Deadly Jam". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-04-14. 
  50. ^ Hu, Winnie (2018-04-09). "'Outrageous' $17 Toll to Cross the Verrazano Vexes Drivers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-04-21. 
  51. ^ "YEARS OF DELAYS SEEN FOR MOTORISTS AT LINCOLN AND HOLLAND TUNNELS". The New York Times. October 24, 1983. Retrieved April 25, 2018. 
  52. ^ Schneider, Keith (October 28, 1985). "TUNNEL RENOVATION FIRST OF ITS KIND". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2018. 
  53. ^ Hays, Constance L. (October 10, 1988). "Construction Delays Due at Holland Tunnel". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2018. 
  54. ^ "Traffic Advisory – Holland Tunnel Rehabilitation Work to Begin Monday, October 18" (Press release). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. October 14, 2004. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  55. ^ "New York transit, commuter lines turning the corner". Politico. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 
  56. ^ "Holland Tunnel reopens Wednesday after Sandy". WABC TV. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  57. ^ Spiegel, Irving (May 14, 1949). "Chaotic Scenes in Tunnel Described by the Injured; Views Inside the Holland Tunnel Following Chemical Explosion and Series of Fires Yesterday". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  58. ^ Jackson, Robert W. (2011). Highway under the Hudson: A History of the Holland Tunnel. New York: NYU Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-8147-4299-8. 
  59. ^ Pope, Gennarose (February 5, 2012). "Two most dangerous miles in U.S." The Union City Reporter. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. 
  60. ^ Gilbert, Pat R. (October 16, 2001). "Traffic's a Breeze As Holland Tunnel Reopens". The Record. Hackensack, NJ. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  61. ^ "2003 Manhattan River Crossings" (PDF). New York City Department of Transportation. February 2005. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  62. ^ Foreign Plot to Bomb Holland Tunnel Thwarted – Updated, Threat Watch
  63. ^ Maslin, Janet (December 22, 2017). "Movie Review - - Tunnel as Nightmare (Worse Than the Usual)". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Route map: Google
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