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Klick vs Holotype |BattleFest 27
Klick vs Holotype |BattleFest 27
Published: 2014/08/01
Channel: BattleFestExtreme
HOLOTYPE | FrontRow | World of Dance Dallas 2017 | #WODDALLAS17
HOLOTYPE | FrontRow | World of Dance Dallas 2017 | #WODDALLAS17
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: World of Dance
Holotype | Headbangerz Brawl Judges
Holotype | Headbangerz Brawl Judges' Showcase | World of Dance Houston 2016 | #WODHTOWN16
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: World of Dance
NSidDS vs Holotype | Popping Finals | Bashville Stampede 12: More than a Jam | #SXSTV
NSidDS vs Holotype | Popping Finals | Bashville Stampede 12: More than a Jam | #SXSTV
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Step X Step TV
Battles - Holotype Vs Steps | BattleFest 19
Battles - Holotype Vs Steps | BattleFest 19
Published: 2012/09/09
Channel: BattleFestExtreme
What is a Holotype?
What is a Holotype?
Published: 2014/11/26
Channel: Stefan F. Wirth
"Night Work" | Holotype (AnimatedMindz; Texas)  | Feature 54 | #SXSTV
"Night Work" | Holotype (AnimatedMindz; Texas) | Feature 54 | #SXSTV
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Step X Step TV
"Stepheon Holotype Stewart" Dance Reel 2016
"Stepheon Holotype Stewart" Dance Reel 2016
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: HolotypeTV
MonTahje vs HoloType
MonTahje vs HoloType
Published: 2016/03/21
Channel: PoppingBattlez
holotype at world of dance in Houston
holotype at world of dance in Houston
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: #SNEAKERHEAD4LIFE
Mr. Boom vs Holotype | Popping Top 16 | Bashville Stampede 12: More than a Jam | #SXSTV
Mr. Boom vs Holotype | Popping Top 16 | Bashville Stampede 12: More than a Jam | #SXSTV
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: Step X Step TV
Holotype 1
Holotype 1
Published: 2011/09/20
Channel: debopathak
Holotype(AMK/TX) vs  Apocalypto(BDK/AZ) exhibition at For the Love 10th anniversary
Holotype(AMK/TX) vs Apocalypto(BDK/AZ) exhibition at For the Love 10th anniversary
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: BeatDropKidz
Summer Jam 2k12 Popping Battles: Jedi Vs Holotype
Summer Jam 2k12 Popping Battles: Jedi Vs Holotype
Published: 2012/08/05
Channel: Manny D
Drastic vs Holotype | Popping Semi
Drastic vs Holotype | Popping Semi's | Bashville Stampede 12: More than a Jam | #SXSTV
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: Step X Step TV
HOLOTYPE // "In My Mind" // Kia Soul Contest Entry
HOLOTYPE // "In My Mind" // Kia Soul Contest Entry
Published: 2012/10/03
Channel: khoadratic
Holotype Meaning
Holotype Meaning
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: SDictionary
Pop, Lock, & Flow (Feat HOLOTYPE & Jarell Rochelle)
Pop, Lock, & Flow (Feat HOLOTYPE & Jarell Rochelle)
Published: 2013/10/19
Channel: BeyondSlowMotion
E Bone vs Holotype | Top Status top 32 popping
E Bone vs Holotype | Top Status top 32 popping
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Artefakt TV
Holotype vs O.C Boogie / Top 8 / Save The Scene
Holotype vs O.C Boogie / Top 8 / Save The Scene
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: Tristen Guerrero
AXI tech. (HOLOTYPE / DUBSTEP SOLO / PT 1 / PFA) Director: @ShawnWellingAXI
AXI tech. (HOLOTYPE / DUBSTEP SOLO / PT 1 / PFA) Director: @ShawnWellingAXI
Published: 2012/02/01
Channel: Shawn Welling AXI
Holotype Specimens - Royal Tyrrell Museum
Holotype Specimens - Royal Tyrrell Museum
Published: 2013/01/18
Channel: Royal Tyrrell Museum
Holotype | Houston Poppers
Holotype | Houston Poppers
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: Qweeni3
Holotype Vs Stepz BATTLEFEST 19
Holotype Vs Stepz BATTLEFEST 19
Published: 2012/09/06
Channel: HolotypeTV
Holotype - Shadowbox
Holotype - Shadowbox
Published: 2011/01/29
Channel: conspiracy2terminate
[Who
[Who's Fakin' Da Funk: Vol. 3] D Soul v. Holotype (Animated Mindz)
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Digital Mynd
Sim v Holotype, Final Battle
Sim v Holotype, Final Battle
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: chasrotramel
HOLOTYPE :: Battle For A Cause 2016 :: Final Battle
HOLOTYPE :: Battle For A Cause 2016 :: Final Battle
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Animated Mindz Krew
Bashville 12, All styles , Holotype Judge showcase
Bashville 12, All styles , Holotype Judge showcase
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: charlie mccarty
LIM FREESTYLE AU STUDIO HOLOTYPE AVEC WIRA NIRK RMK ARARAT [KF MUSIC] - MAMS AMG CHATTON
LIM FREESTYLE AU STUDIO HOLOTYPE AVEC WIRA NIRK RMK ARARAT [KF MUSIC] - MAMS AMG CHATTON
Published: 2013/06/29
Channel: KiloFoxtrot Music
My Dance Life TV] Stepheon "Holotype" Stewart (Episode 11)
My Dance Life TV] Stepheon "Holotype" Stewart (Episode 11)
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Digital Mynd
MonTahje (Arcade Junkiez,Pop Patrol,Culture Junkiez) vs Holotype (Animated Mindz) Exhibition Battle
MonTahje (Arcade Junkiez,Pop Patrol,Culture Junkiez) vs Holotype (Animated Mindz) Exhibition Battle
Published: 2016/03/20
Channel: Tahje Gaskin
holotype judge showcase Houston world of dance
holotype judge showcase Houston world of dance
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: #SNEAKERHEAD4LIFE
DSOUL vs HOLOTYPE | Popping Semi | Who
DSOUL vs HOLOTYPE | Popping Semi | Who's Fakin' Da Funk vol.3 | #SXSTV
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Step X Step TV
Holotype|| Chamber Training|| Home we Made pt 2
Holotype|| Chamber Training|| Home we Made pt 2
Published: 2014/08/28
Channel: HolotypeTV
Flo vs Holotype | Top Status (Top 8 Open Styles)
Flo vs Holotype | Top Status (Top 8 Open Styles)
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: Artefakt TV
[Kia Dubstep Contest] Stepheon
[Kia Dubstep Contest] Stepheon 'HoloType' Stewart
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: HolotypeTV
Holotype vs Scarecrow
Holotype vs Scarecrow
Published: 2011/12/17
Channel: 712Battles
Doom Room Popping Exhibition: Boogie Asia vs Holotype
Doom Room Popping Exhibition: Boogie Asia vs Holotype
Published: 2017/10/30
Channel: IsaacAtap
Whose Fakin Da
Whose Fakin Da' Funk Jam: Judge Showcase - Holotype
Published: 2014/02/11
Channel: Diego Torres
Captain PuertoRico vs Holotype All Styles Finals 2016 Battle For A Cause 4
Captain PuertoRico vs Holotype All Styles Finals 2016 Battle For A Cause 4
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: CPR
Omixon Holotype HLA™
Omixon Holotype HLA™
Published: 2014/10/15
Channel: Omixon
What
What's New in Holotype HLA V.2 Protocol?
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Omixon
Holotype v Brainiac
Holotype v Brainiac
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: chasrotramel
Mok - Rufio (Klax & Holotype Remix)
Mok - Rufio (Klax & Holotype Remix)
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Skankandbass
Holotype & D Soul vs NXG
Holotype & D Soul vs NXG
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: nXg2010
How to Make a San Holo Type Drop
How to Make a San Holo Type Drop
Published: 2016/02/13
Channel: Alex Rome
Omixon Academy Webinar Holotype HLA 2014-09-18
Omixon Academy Webinar Holotype HLA 2014-09-18
Published: 2014/10/01
Channel: Omixon
Tew Solid v Holotype & Eskeleto
Tew Solid v Holotype & Eskeleto
Published: 2014/08/29
Channel: chasrotramel
3D rotation video of full body of Z. sarowiwai sp. n. holotype worker
3D rotation video of full body of Z. sarowiwai sp. n. holotype worker
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: PensoftPublishers
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A holotype with red type label affixed

A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described. It is either the single such physical example (or illustration) or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype. Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), a holotype is one of several kinds of name-bearing types. In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and ICZN the definitions of types are similar in intent but not identical in terminology or underlying concept.

For example, the holotype for the butterfly Lycaeides idas longinus is a preserved specimen of that species, held by the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. An isotype is a duplicate of the holotype and is often made for plants, where holotype and isotypes are often pieces from the same individual plant or samples from the same gathering.

A holotype is not necessarily "typical" of that taxon, although ideally it should be. Sometimes just a fragment of an organism is the holotype, particularly in the case of a fossil. For example, the holotype of Pelorosaurus humerocristatus (Duriatitan), a large herbivorous dinosaur from the early Jurassic period, is a fossil leg bone stored at the Natural History Museum in London. Even if a better specimen is subsequently found, the holotype is not superseded.

Replacements for holotypes[edit]

Under the ICN, an additional and clarifying type could be designated an epitype under Article 9.8, where the original material is demonstrably ambiguous or insufficient.

A conserved type (ICN article 14.3) is sometimes used to correct a problem with a name which has been misapplied; this specimen replaces the original holotype.

In the absence of a holotype, another type may be selected, out of a range of different kinds of type, depending on the case, a lectotype or a neotype.

For example, in both the ICN and the ICZN a neotype is a type that was later appointed in the absence of the original holotype. Additionally, under the ICZN the Commission is empowered to replace a holotype with a neotype, when the holotype turns out to lack important diagnostic features needed to distinguish the species from its close relatives. For example, the crocodile-like archosaurian reptile Parasuchus hislopi Lydekker, 1885 was described based on a premaxillary rostrum (part of the snout), but this is no longer sufficient to distinguish Parasuchus from its close relatives. This made the name Parasuchus hislopi a nomen dubium. Texan paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee proposed that a new type specimen, a complete skeleton, be designated.[1] The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature considered the case and agreed to replace the original type specimen with the proposed neotype.[2]

A modern holotype label for Encarsia accenta

The procedures for the designation of a new type specimen when the original is lost come into play for some recent, high-profile species descriptions in which the specimen designated as the holotype was a living individual that was allowed to remain in the wild (e.g. a new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus,[3] Marleyimyia xylocopae, or the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala[4]). In such a case, there is no actual type specimen available for study, and the possibility exists that—should there be any perceived ambiguity in the identity of the species—subsequent authors can invoke various clauses in the ICZN Code that allow for the designation of a neotype. Article 75.3.7 of the ICZN[5] requires that the designation of a neotype must be accompanied by "a statement that the neotype is, or immediately upon publication has become, the property of a recognized scientific or educational institution, cited by name, that maintains a research collection, with proper facilities for preserving name-bearing types, and that makes them accessible for study", but there is no such requirement for a holotype.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Case 3165, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 58:1 Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine., 30 March 2001.
  2. ^ Opinion 2045, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60:2 Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine., 30 June 2003.
  3. ^ Mendes Pontes, A.R., Malta A. and Asfora, P.H. 2006. A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben (Cebidae, Primates): found at the very brink of extinction in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre. Zootaxa 1200: 1-12.
  4. ^ Sinha, A.,Datta, A., Madhusudan, M. D. and Mishra, C. (2004). "The Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala: a new species from western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India". International Journal of Primatology volume: 26 issue: 977 pages: 989.
  5. ^ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Art. 75.3.7

External links[edit]

  • BOA Photographs of type specimens of Neotropical Rhopalocera.

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