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1
Fifty People One Question: Hong Kong (Your dream in life?)
Fifty People One Question: Hong Kong (Your dream in life?)
::2011/11/02::
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2
香港故事 - Indian Hong Kong People (Cantonese speaking Vivek Ashok) - PART 2
香港故事 - Indian Hong Kong People (Cantonese speaking Vivek Ashok) - PART 2
::2009/05/16::
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3
Chinese in Hong Kong are very RUDE!
Chinese in Hong Kong are very RUDE!
::2011/11/10::
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4
My top 5 impressions of Hong Kong people
My top 5 impressions of Hong Kong people
::2012/11/13::
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5
Rude Mainland Chinese lady on Hong Kong MTR 強國潑婦西鐵車廂内爆粗罵人!
Rude Mainland Chinese lady on Hong Kong MTR 強國潑婦西鐵車廂内爆粗罵人!
::2013/09/20::
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6
How To Speak In A Hong Kong Accent
How To Speak In A Hong Kong Accent
::2013/11/24::
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7
What
What's the difference between Hong Kong and mainland China?
::2012/06/28::
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8
Peking University Professor Calls Hong Kong People Bastards and Dogs
Peking University Professor Calls Hong Kong People Bastards and Dogs
::2013/08/14::
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9
Do You Hear The People Sing In Hong Kong 香港人試問誰還未覺醒
Do You Hear The People Sing In Hong Kong 香港人試問誰還未覺醒
::2014/05/30::
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10
Hong Kong Policeman Denies Mainland Chinese Tourist | China Uncensored
Hong Kong Policeman Denies Mainland Chinese Tourist | China Uncensored
::2013/09/10::
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11
Rude People in Hong Kong
Rude People in Hong Kong
::2011/01/12::
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12
conflit between Hong Kong people and Chinese Mainlander
conflit between Hong Kong people and Chinese Mainlander
::2012/11/29::
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13
Verbally Bullied in Hong Kong,
Verbally Bullied in Hong Kong,
::2008/08/03::
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14
Crazy Party People @ Lan Kwai Fong, Hong Kong - 疯狂的人民党兰桂坊
Crazy Party People @ Lan Kwai Fong, Hong Kong - 疯狂的人民党兰桂坊
::2012/10/16::
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15
香港故事 - Indian Hong Kong People (Cantonese speaking Vivek Ashok) - PART 1
香港故事 - Indian Hong Kong People (Cantonese speaking Vivek Ashok) - PART 1
::2009/05/16::
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16
Hong Kong Refuses to Back Down | China Uncensored
Hong Kong Refuses to Back Down | China Uncensored
::2014/07/03::
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17
Kong Qingdong Insulted Hong Kong People
Kong Qingdong Insulted Hong Kong People
::2012/01/23::
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18
Chinese tourists behaving badly: Mainland sightseers throw hissy fit at Hong Kong hotel
Chinese tourists behaving badly: Mainland sightseers throw hissy fit at Hong Kong hotel
::2014/04/15::
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19
15/4/2011 The Pulse : Hong Kong People
15/4/2011 The Pulse : Hong Kong People's Resentment of Mainlanders
::2011/05/11::
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20
FIVE misconceptions Hong Kong people have about the UK!
FIVE misconceptions Hong Kong people have about the UK!
::2013/06/20::
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21
Struggle of Nepalese people in Hong Kong
Struggle of Nepalese people in Hong Kong
::2013/04/02::
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22
Could You Live In A Zoo? Hong Kong
Could You Live In A Zoo? Hong Kong's Cage Dwellers
::2010/02/01::
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23
People of old Hong Kong 1950 舊日啲香港人
People of old Hong Kong 1950 舊日啲香港人
::2008/11/17::
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24
Happy (in Hong Kong) - Pharrell Williams #HAPPYDAY
Happy (in Hong Kong) - Pharrell Williams #HAPPYDAY
::2014/01/10::
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25
The Horrible Plight of Hong Kong
The Horrible Plight of Hong Kong's Poor
::2007/09/06::
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26
CNN News Story about cage homes in Hong Kong
CNN News Story about cage homes in Hong Kong
::2009/10/30::
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27
60% of Hong Kong People Vote for Redress of June 4th
60% of Hong Kong People Vote for Redress of June 4th
::2013/06/01::
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28
Leben im Käfig: Misereor zeigt Ausstellung über Cage People in Hongkong
Leben im Käfig: Misereor zeigt Ausstellung über Cage People in Hongkong
::2012/03/06::
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29
From the Hong Kong People to the Chinese Government, October 1, 2013
From the Hong Kong People to the Chinese Government, October 1, 2013
::2013/10/12::
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30
More Than One Million Living in Poverty in Hong Kong
More Than One Million Living in Poverty in Hong Kong
::2012/11/07::
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31
CFME - Weird Island in Hong Kong with Homeless White People (Cheung Chau 長洲)
CFME - Weird Island in Hong Kong with Homeless White People (Cheung Chau 長洲)
::2013/05/27::
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32
20140301 Do you hear the people Sing @Mong Kok Hong Kong
20140301 Do you hear the people Sing @Mong Kok Hong Kong
::2014/03/02::
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33
(21, Jan) Henry Tang: Hong Kong people aren
(21, Jan) Henry Tang: Hong Kong people aren't dogs
::2012/01/22::
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34
Hong Kong people a century ago (5)
Hong Kong people a century ago (5)
::2010/03/16::
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35
Do you hear theatre people (Hong Kong) sing?
Do you hear theatre people (Hong Kong) sing?
::2014/06/02::
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36
People of old Hong Kong 2 (colour) 舊香港
People of old Hong Kong 2 (colour) 舊香港
::2008/12/02::
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37
Chinese People Care About Hong Kong
Chinese People Care About Hong Kong's July 1 March
::2014/07/02::
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38
Meeting with more than 100 people from Taiwan, Hong Kong and China
Meeting with more than 100 people from Taiwan, Hong Kong and China
::2014/04/18::
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39
Black People enjoying on the Streets of Hong Kong By Riyaz
Black People enjoying on the Streets of Hong Kong By Riyaz
::2009/01/27::
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40
Hong Kong Government "local people interest first"
Hong Kong Government "local people interest first"
::2013/02/02::
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41
Pharrell Williams - HAPPY FROM HONG KONG (Hong Kong Nepalese People)
Pharrell Williams - HAPPY FROM HONG KONG (Hong Kong Nepalese People)
::2014/06/04::
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42
New Home For People In Hong Kong AKA Hong Kong - New Homes (1960-1969)
New Home For People In Hong Kong AKA Hong Kong - New Homes (1960-1969)
::2014/04/13::
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43
"Hong Kong Connection - Pathetic Hongkies" 1989, Documentary from RTHK. (English Subtitle)
"Hong Kong Connection - Pathetic Hongkies" 1989, Documentary from RTHK. (English Subtitle)
::2011/03/15::
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44
Protest by Hong Kong People against USA at Charger Garden, Hong Kong. Speech by Mufti Shoaib Sahib.
Protest by Hong Kong People against USA at Charger Garden, Hong Kong. Speech by Mufti Shoaib Sahib.
::2012/09/26::
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45
Hong Kong People Participate in Referendum of Occupy Central With Love and Peace
Hong Kong People Participate in Referendum of Occupy Central With Love and Peace
::2014/06/23::
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46
Hong Kong boat people
Hong Kong boat people
::2013/07/11::
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47
7.1  佔中只會徒勞無功, Hong Kong people is not ready. Do you understand?
7.1 佔中只會徒勞無功, Hong Kong people is not ready. Do you understand?
::2014/07/03::
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48
Hong Kong people dance in Central-HongKong MTR
Hong Kong people dance in Central-HongKong MTR's Atrium 1/2
::2009/12/15::
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49
Hong Kong International Airport - Automated People Mover - APM
Hong Kong International Airport - Automated People Mover - APM
::2013/03/20::
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50
Hong Kong Guide part 1 food,vendors(6:48) amazing people on the street
Hong Kong Guide part 1 food,vendors(6:48) amazing people on the street
::2010/01/08::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Hongkonger)
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Further information: Demographics of Hong Kong
Hongkonger / Hong Kongese
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Regions with significant populations
 Hong Kong 7,184,000 in mid-2013[1]
 Canada 615,152[2]
 United States 329,888[3]
 United Kingdom 145,000
 Australia 67,122[4]
 New Zealand 7,682 (2006)[1]
 Japan 4,196(2010)[5]
 Taiwan 2,995(2011)[6]
Languages
Hong Kong Cantonese, English, Hakka, Chiuchowese, Fukienese
Religion
Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity and other faiths
Hong Kong people
Chinese 香港人

Hongkongers or People of Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港人) are people who are from Hong Kong or live in Hong Kong and considered Hong Kong is their hometown. These terms (and the similar but less commonly used terms Hong Kongese) have no legal definition by the Hong Kongese Government; more precise terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident (香港永久性居民) and Hong Kong Resident (香港居民) are used in legal contexts. Besides being used to refer to a Hong Kong resident, Hongkonger might also be used more loosely to refer to someone who may not have legal residence status in Hong Kong, but has spent an extensive period of time in the city or has a strong cultural connection with Hong Kong.

In March 2014, Hongkonger and Hong Kongese were both officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary.[2] According to the Dictionary, the first time that the term Hong Kongese appeared was in 1878, while the term Hongkonger appeared even earlier in an edition of a US newspaper The Daily Independent in 1870.[3]

The term Hongkonger does not make reference to the ethnicity of a person, and is also independent of Chinese citizenship or residency status. Over 90% of Hong Kongers are of Chinese descent or considered themselves as ethnic Chinese (and most have ancestral roots in the province of Guangdong), but there are also HongKongers of, e.g., Indian, Filipino, Nepalese, Indonesian, Pakistani, Vietnamese or British descent, and expatriates from many other countries live and work in the city.

Hong Kong experienced an exodus of people in the years leading up to the handover of sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997, as a result of which there are now many ethnic Chinese in other parts of the world who regard themselves as Hongkonger. However, some who emigrated during that period have since returned. Migration from mainland China in recent years has brought more Chinese people to Hong Kong. Hong Kongers did not acknowledge Hong Kong is part of China.

Due to the one country two systems policy, Hong Kong is a highly autonomous region and has a different political system than that of China, including a different passport, flag and official language.

Terminology[edit]

The terms Hongkonger, Hong Kongese and Hong Kong people translate to the same Cantonese term Hèung Góng Yàhn (Chinese: 香港人; Cantonese Yale: Hèung Góng Yàhn).

  • Hongkonger is used more often [3] but Hong Kong people, a more direct translation of the term Hèung Góng Yàhn (香港人), which is more frequently used by Cantonese native speakers in Hong Kong when writing or speaking in English. In March 2014, Hongkonger and Hong Kongese both terms are officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary, giving a legitimacy of using both term to represent people from Hong Kong.[2]
  • People from Hong Kong in Western countries are sometimes referred to colloquially as Hongkies (singular: Hongkie), though this term is not always well received, and could be seen as Racist.[citation needed]. Also, the term has close pronunciation to "Honky", of which, adds to the negativity of the word "Hongkies"[citation needed].

The above terms embody a civic identity as opposed to one based upon race or ethnicity.

  • Hong Kong Chinese was often used when Hong Kong was a British colony[citation needed] and the British residing in Hong Kong made up a higher percentage of the population than they do now. (It was common to refer to an individual as Hong Kong Chinese in order to differentiate that person from a Hong Kong Briton.) The term is still used today to refer to Hongkonger of Chinese ancestry rather than all Hongkonger, excluding ethnic minorities in the city.

Legal definition of Hong Kong residents[edit]

The Hong Kong Basic Law gives a precise legal definition of a Hong Kong resident. Under Article 24 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong residents can be further classified as non-permanent or permanent residents. Non-permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Identity Card but have no right of abode in Hong Kong. Permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card and the right of abode in Hong Kong.

Article 24 of the Basic Law provides that:

Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ("Hong Kong residents") shall include permanent residents and non-permanent residents.

The permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be:

  1. Chinese citizens born in Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  2. Chinese citizens who have ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  3. Persons of Chinese nationality born outside Hong Kong of those residents listed in categories (1) and (2);
  4. Persons not of Chinese nationality who have entered Hong Kong with valid travel documents, have ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years and have taken Hong Kong as their place of permanent residence before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region;
  5. Persons under 21 years of age born in Hong Kong of those residents listed in category (4) before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; and
  6. Persons other than those residents listed in categories (1) to (5), who, before the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, had the right of abode in Hong Kong only.

The above-mentioned residents shall have the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall be qualified to obtain, in accordance with the laws of the Region, permanent identity cards which state their right of abode.

The non-permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be persons who are qualified to obtain Hong Kong identity cards in accordance with the laws of the Region but have no right of abode.

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong[edit]

Hong Kongers[edit]

As of 2011, the government claimed a distribution of 93.6% of the residents to be ethnically Chinese,[4] while 32.1% of the whole population were collectively born in the mainland of China, Taiwan or Macau.[5]

Many migrants and refugees came to Hong Kong from the Canton (Guangzhou) area and other parts of Guangdong province in the 20th century: a substantial number arrived in the mid to late 1940s before the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and many more in the decades followed. Those immigrants from Guangdong and their descendants have long constituted the majority of the ethnically Chinese residents. There is also a large number of the residents to be with ancestral roots in more distant parts of China, such as Shanghai and Shandong. There are also Cantonese people originating from Hakka-speaking villages in the New Territories.[4][6][7][8]

The Cantonese are the largest group[clarification needed] in Hong Kong. As a result, Hongkonger culture is highly Cantonese-influenced. Cantonese is the most popular language in both everyday and formal conversations, as well as in the media and education[citation needed]. Members of other Han Chinese groups in Hong Kong (such as the Hakka People, the Hoklo (Hokkien), the Shanghainese, and the Teochew) who are Hong-Kong-born or raised often assimilate into the mainstream Cantonese identity[clarification needed] of Hong Kong. For example, the children of immigrants typically adopt Cantonese to be their first language even if their parents' is not.

Ethnic minorities[edit]

Hong Kong has many minority ethnic and national groups. Numerically, the largest groups are the Filipinos (1.9% of Hong Kong's population in 2011) and the Indonesians (also 1.9%).[4] There are long-established South Asian communities, which comprise both descendants of 19th and early 20th-century migrants as well as more recent short-term expatriates. South Asian Hongkonger including people of Indian, Pakistani, and Nepalese ethnicities, who respectively made up 0.4%, 0.3%, and 0.2% of Hong Kong's population in 2011.[4] Other groups include Americans, Britons, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, Japanese, Koreans, Russians, Vietnamese and Thais.[4][9] In 2011 0.8% of Hong Kong's population were white people, many (53.5%) of whom resided on Hong Kong Island where they constituted 2.3% of the population.[10]

Citizenship[edit]

Jus soli allows people whose parents are Chinese or are permanent residents of Hong Kong to acquire right of abode by birth in Hong Kong. Residency rights can also be acquired in some other ways. For example, residents of China may settle in Hong Kong for family reunification purposes if they obtain a One-way Permit (for which there may be a waiting time of several years).

Unlike many countries, Hong Kong does not require applicants for naturalisation to take a citizenship or language test to become citizens.[11] However, Hong Kong migrants and residents are assumed to understand their obligation under Article 42 of the Hong Kong Basic Law to abide by the laws of Hong Kong.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://sites.otago.ac.nz/index.php/Sites/article/download/100/82
  2. ^ a b http://public.oed.com/the-oed-today/recent-updates-to-the-oed/march-2014-update/new-words-list-march-2014/
  3. ^ a b http://www.passiontimes.hk/article/03-17-2014/11334
  4. ^ a b c d e (PDF) 2011 Population Census – Summary Results (Report). Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. p. 37. http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/summary-results.pdf. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Place of Birth of Overall Population - 2011". Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world. Diaspora communities 2. Springer. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. 
  7. ^ "Immigration Autonomy". Immigration Department Annual Report 2009-2010. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  8. ^ Ng Sek Hong (2010). Labour Law in Hong Kong. Kluwer Law International. p. 19. ISBN 978-90-411-3307-6. 
  9. ^ Odine de Guzman (October 2003). "Overseas Filipino Workers, Labor Circulation in Southeast Asia, and the (Mis)management of Overseas Migration Programs". Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia (4). Retrieved 18 March 2007. 
  10. ^ "Population by Ethnicity and District Council District, 2011 (A205)". Census and Statistics Department. May 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  11. ^ Lai Tung-kwok (2013-05-22). "Application for naturalisation as a Chinese national". Legislative Council of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2013-12-07. ; quote: "However, it has to be pointed out that the knowledge of the Chinese language is only one of the factors to be considered. This does not imply that applicants who do not know Chinese will be refused, nor will those who know Chinese necessarily be eligible for naturalisation as Chinese nationals. ... At this stage, we have no plan to institute examinations similar to those used by some foreign countries in handling naturalisation applications."

External links[edit]

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