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|Regions with significant populations|
|Hong Kong||7,184,000 in mid-2013|
|New Zealand||7,682 (2006)|
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Hongkongers or People of Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港人) are people who are from Hong Kong or live in Hong Kong and considered Hong Kong is their hometown. These terms (and the similar but less commonly used terms Hong Kongese) have no legal definition by the Hong Kongese Government; more precise terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident (香港永久性居民) and Hong Kong Resident (香港居民) are used in legal contexts. Besides being used to refer to a Hong Kong resident, Hongkonger might also be used more loosely to refer to someone who may not have legal residence status in Hong Kong, but has spent an extensive period of time in the city or has a strong cultural connection with Hong Kong.
In March 2014, Hongkonger and Hong Kongese were both officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary. According to the Dictionary, the first time that the term Hong Kongese appeared was in 1878, while the term Hongkonger appeared even earlier in an edition of a US newspaper The Daily Independent in 1870.
The term Hongkonger does not make reference to the ethnicity of a person, and is also independent of Chinese citizenship or residency status. Over 90% of Hong Kongers are of Chinese descent or considered themselves as ethnic Chinese (and most have ancestral roots in the province of Guangdong), but there are also HongKongers of, e.g., Indian, Filipino, Nepalese, Indonesian, Pakistani, Vietnamese or British descent, and expatriates from many other countries live and work in the city.
Hong Kong experienced an exodus of people in the years leading up to the handover of sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997, as a result of which there are now many ethnic Chinese in other parts of the world who regard themselves as Hongkonger. However, some who emigrated during that period have since returned. Migration from mainland China in recent years has brought more Chinese people to Hong Kong. Hong Kongers did not acknowledge Hong Kong is part of China.
Due to the one country two systems policy, Hong Kong is a highly autonomous region and has a different political system than that of China, including a different passport, flag and official language.
The above terms embody a civic identity as opposed to one based upon race or ethnicity.
The Hong Kong Basic Law gives a precise legal definition of a Hong Kong resident. Under Article 24 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong residents can be further classified as non-permanent or permanent residents. Non-permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Identity Card but have no right of abode in Hong Kong. Permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card and the right of abode in Hong Kong.
Article 24 of the Basic Law provides that:
|“||Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ("Hong Kong residents") shall include permanent residents and non-permanent residents.
The permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be:
The above-mentioned residents shall have the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall be qualified to obtain, in accordance with the laws of the Region, permanent identity cards which state their right of abode.
The non-permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be persons who are qualified to obtain Hong Kong identity cards in accordance with the laws of the Region but have no right of abode.
As of 2011, the government claimed a distribution of 93.6% of the residents to be ethnically Chinese, while 32.1% of the whole population were collectively born in the mainland of China, Taiwan or Macau.
Many migrants and refugees came to Hong Kong from the Canton (Guangzhou) area and other parts of Guangdong province in the 20th century: a substantial number arrived in the mid to late 1940s before the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and many more in the decades followed. Those immigrants from Guangdong and their descendants have long constituted the majority of the ethnically Chinese residents. There is also a large number of the residents to be with ancestral roots in more distant parts of China, such as Shanghai and Shandong. There are also Cantonese people originating from Hakka-speaking villages in the New Territories.
The Cantonese are the largest group[clarification needed] in Hong Kong. As a result, Hongkonger culture is highly Cantonese-influenced. Cantonese is the most popular language in both everyday and formal conversations, as well as in the media and education. Members of other Han Chinese groups in Hong Kong (such as the Hakka People, the Hoklo (Hokkien), the Shanghainese, and the Teochew) who are Hong-Kong-born or raised often assimilate into the mainstream Cantonese identity[clarification needed] of Hong Kong. For example, the children of immigrants typically adopt Cantonese to be their first language even if their parents' is not.
Hong Kong has many minority ethnic and national groups. Numerically, the largest groups are the Filipinos (1.9% of Hong Kong's population in 2011) and the Indonesians (also 1.9%). There are long-established South Asian communities, which comprise both descendants of 19th and early 20th-century migrants as well as more recent short-term expatriates. South Asian Hongkonger including people of Indian, Pakistani, and Nepalese ethnicities, who respectively made up 0.4%, 0.3%, and 0.2% of Hong Kong's population in 2011. Other groups include Americans, Britons, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, Japanese, Koreans, Russians, Vietnamese and Thais. In 2011 0.8% of Hong Kong's population were white people, many (53.5%) of whom resided on Hong Kong Island where they constituted 2.3% of the population.
Jus soli allows people whose parents are Chinese or are permanent residents of Hong Kong to acquire right of abode by birth in Hong Kong. Residency rights can also be acquired in some other ways. For example, residents of China may settle in Hong Kong for family reunification purposes if they obtain a One-way Permit (for which there may be a waiting time of several years).
Unlike many countries, Hong Kong does not require applicants for naturalisation to take a citizenship or language test to become citizens. However, Hong Kong migrants and residents are assumed to understand their obligation under Article 42 of the Hong Kong Basic Law to abide by the laws of Hong Kong.