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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Hospital (disambiguation).
Tai Po Hospital in Hong Kong

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialised staff and equipment.

Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organisations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Historically, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders.[1] Today, hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, and nurses, whereas in the past, this work was usually performed by the founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters, which still focus on hospital ministry today, as well as several Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals.[2] In accord with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were originally "places of hospitality", and this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.

Etymology[edit]

During the Middle Ages hospitals served different functions to modern institutions, being almshouses for the poor, hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools. The word hospital comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, that is the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality, friendliness, hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word then came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn.[3] Hospes is thus the root for the English words host (where the p was dropped for convenience of pronunciation) hospitality, hospice, hostel and hotel. The latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was eventually removed from the word, the loss of which is signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word 'Spital' shares similar roots.

Grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. In the U.S., hospital usually requires an article; in Britain and elsewhere, the word normally is used without an article when it is the object of a preposition and when referring to a patient ("in/to the hospital" vs. "in/to hospital"); in Canada, both uses are found.[citation needed]

Types[edit]

Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and then leave ('outpatients') without staying overnight; while others are 'admitted' and stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months ('inpatients'). Hospitals usually are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others often are described as clinics.

General[edit]

The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which is set up to deal with many kinds of disease and injury, and normally has an emergency department to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and facilities. Some hospitals, especially in the United States, have their own ambulance service.

District[edit]

A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care.

In California, "District hospital" refers specifically to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities.[4][5] Even today, District hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties,[4] and are the sole locally-accessible hospital within 9 additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.[4] Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are District hospitals.[5]

California's District hospitals are formed by local municipalities, have Boards that are individually elected by their local communities, and exist to serve local needs.[4][5] They are a particularly important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal (which is California's Medicaid program, serving low-income persons, some senior citizens, persons with disabilities, children in foster care, and pregnant women).[4][5] In 2012, District hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California.[5]

Specialised[edit]

McMaster University Medical Centre, a teaching hospital in Canada

Types of specialised hospitals include trauma centres, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital), certain disease categories such as cardiac, oncology, or orthopedic problems, and so forth. In Germany specialised hospitals are called Fachkrankenhaus; an example is Fachkrankenhaus Coswig (thoracic surgery).

A hospital may be a single building or a number of buildings on a campus. Many hospitals with pre-twentieth-century origins began as one building and evolved into campuses. Some hospitals are affiliated with universities for medical research and the training of medical personnel such as physicians and nurses, often called teaching hospitals. Worldwide, most hospitals are run on a nonprofit basis by governments or charities. There are however a few exceptions, e.g. China, where government funding only constitutes 10% of income of hospitals. (need citation here. Chinese sources seem conflicted about the for-profit/non-profit ratio of hospitals in China)

Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. For example, Narayana Hrudayalaya's Bangalore cardiac unit, which is specialised in cardiac surgery, allows for significantly greater number of patients. It has 3000 beds (more than 20 times the average American hospital) and in pediatric heart surgery alone, it performs 3000 heart operations annually, making it by far the largest such facility in the world.[6][7] Surgeons are paid on a fixed salary instead of per operation, thus the costs to the hospital drops when the number of procedures increases, taking advantage of economies of scale.[6] Additionally, it is argued that costs go down as all its specialists become efficient by working on one "production line" procedure.[7]

Teaching[edit]

A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school, nursing school or university.

Clinics[edit]

Main article: Clinic

The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic, and often is run by a government agency for health services or a private partnership of physicians (in nations where private practise is allowed). Clinics generally provide only outpatient services.

Departments[edit]

Resuscitation room bed after a trauma intervention, showing the highly technical equipment of modern hospitals

Hospitals vary widely in the services they offer and therefore, in the departments (or "wards") they have. Each is usually headed by a Chief Physician. They may have acute services such as an emergency department or specialist trauma centre, burn unit, surgery, or urgent care. These may then be backed up by more specialist units such as:

Some hospitals will have outpatient departments and some will have chronic treatment units such as behavioral health services, dentistry, dermatology, psychiatric ward, rehabilitation services, and physical therapy.

Common support units include a dispensary or pharmacy, pathology, and radiology, and on the non-medical side, there often are medical records departments, release of information departments, Information Management (aka IM, IT or IS), Clinical Engineering (aka Biomed), Facilities Management, Plant Ops (aka Maintenance), Dining Services, and Security departments.

History[edit]

Main article: History of hospitals

Early examples[edit]

View of the Askleipion of Kos, the best preserved instance of an Asklepieion.

The earliest documented institutions aiming to provide cures were ancient Egyptian temples. In ancient Greece, temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius, known as Asclepieia functioned as centres of medical advice, prognosis, and healing.[8] Asclepeia provided carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing.[9] Under his Roman name Æsculapius, he was provided with a temple (291 BC) on an island in the Tiber in Rome, where similar rites were performed.[10]

Institutions created specifically to care for the ill also appeared early in India. Fa Xian, a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled across India ca. 400 CE, recorded in his travelogue that: The heads of the Vaisya [merchant] families in them [all the kingdoms of north India] establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicine. All the poor and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men, maimed people and cripples, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases. They get the food and medicines which their cases require, and are made to feel at ease; and when they are better, they go away of themselves.[11]

The earliest surviving encyclopaedia of medicine in Sanskrit is the Carakasamhita (Compendium of Caraka). This text, which describes the building of a hospital is dated by Dominik Wujastyk of the University College London from the period between 100 BCE and CE150.[12] According to Dr.Wujastyk, the description by Fa Xian is one of the earliest accounts of a civic hospital system anywhere in the world and, coupled with Caraka’s description of how a clinic should be equipped, suggests that India may have been the first part of the world to have evolved an organised cosmopolitan system of institutionally-based medical provision.[12]

According to the Mahavamsa, the ancient chronicle of Sinhalese royalty, written in the sixth century A.D., King Pandukabhaya of Sri Lanka (reigned 437 BC to 367 BC) had lying-in-homes and hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country. This is the earliest documentary evidence we have of institutions specifically dedicated to the care of the sick anywhere in the world.[13][14] Mihintale Hospital is the oldest in the world.[15] Ruins of ancient hospitals in Sri Lanka are still in existence in Mihintale, Anuradhapura, and Medirigiriya.[16]

Roman Empire[edit]

Further information: Byzantine medicine

The Romans constructed buildings called valetudinaria for the care of sick slaves, gladiators, and soldiers around 100 B.C., and many were identified by later archaeology. While their existence is considered proven, there is some doubt as to whether they were as widespread as was once thought, as many were identified only according to the layout of building remains, and not by means of surviving records or finds of medical tools.[17]

Saint Sampson the Hospitable built some of the earliest hospitals in the Roman Empire.

The declaration of Christianity as accepted religion in the Roman Empire drove an expansion of the provision of care. Following the First Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D. construction of a hospital in every cathedral town was begun. Among the earliest were those built by the physician Saint Sampson in Constantinople and by Basil, bishop of Caesarea in modern-day Turkey. Called the "Basilias", the latter resembled a city and included housing for doctors and nurses and separate buildings for various classes of patients.[18] There was a separate section for lepers.[19] Some hospitals maintained libraries and training programmes, and doctors compiled their medical and pharmacological studies in manuscripts. Thus in-patient medical care in the sense of what we today consider a hospital, was an invention driven by Christian mercy and Byzantine innovation.[20] Byzantine hospital staff included the Chief Physician (archiatroi), professional nurses (hypourgoi) and the orderlies (hyperetai). By the twelfth century, Constantinople had two well-organised hospitals, staffed by doctors who were both male and female. Facilities included systematic treatment procedures and specialised wards for various diseases.[21]

A hospital and medical training centre also existed at Gundeshapur. The city of Gundeshapur was founded in 271 CE by the Sasanian king Shapur I. It was one of the major cities in Khuzestan province of the Persian empire in what is today Iran. A large percentage of the population were Syriacs, most of whom were Christians. Under the rule of Khusraw I, refuge was granted to Greek Nestorian Christian philosophers including the scholars of the Persian School of Edessa (Urfa)(also called the Academy of Athens), a Christian theological and medical university. These scholars made their way to Gundeshapur in 529 following the closing of the academy by Emperor Justinian. They were engaged in medical sciences and initiated the first translation projects of medical texts.[22] The arrival of these medical practitioners from Edessa marks the beginning of the hospital and medical centre at Gundeshapur.[23] It included a medical school and hospital (bimaristan), a pharmacology laboratory, a translation house, a library and an observatory.[24] Indian doctors also contributed to the school at Gundeshapur, most notably the medical researcher Mankah. Later after Islamic invasion, the writings of Mankah and of the Indian doctor Sustura were translated into Arabic at Baghdad.[25]

Medieval Islamic world[edit]

The first prominent Islamic hospital was founded in Damascus, Syria in around 707 with assistance from Christians.[26] However most agree that the establishment at Baghdad was the most influential; it opened during the Abbasid Caliphate of Harun al-Rashid in the 8th century.[27] The bimaristan (medical school) and bayt al-hikmah (house of wisdom) were established by professors and graduates from Gundeshapur and was first headed by the Christian physician Jibrael ibn Bukhtishu from Gundeshapur and later by Islamic physicians.[28]

In the ninth and tenth centuries the hospital in Baghdad employed twenty-five staff physicians and had separate wards for different conditions.[29] The Al-Qairawan hospital and mosque, in Tunisia, were built under the Aghlabid rule in 830 and was simple, but adequately equipped with halls organised into waiting rooms, a mosque, and a special bath. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Islamic Spain and the Maghrib to Persia. The first Islamic psychiatric hospital opened in Baghdad in 705. Many other Islamic hospitals also often had their own wards dedicated to mental health.[30]

In contrast to medieval Europe, medical school under Islam did not have faculties and did not develop a system of academic evaluation and certification[31]

Medieval Europe[edit]

The church at Les Invalides in France showing the often close connection between historical hospitals and churches

Medieval hospitals in Europe followed a similar pattern to the Byzantine. They were religious communities, with care provided by monks and nuns. (An old French term for hospital is hôtel-Dieu, "hostel of God.") Some were attached to monasteries; others were independent and had their own endowments, usually of property, which provided income for their support. Some hospitals were multi-functional while others were founded for specific purposes such as leper hospitals, or as refuges for the poor, or for pilgrims: not all cared for the sick. The first Spanish hospital, founded by the Catholic Visigoth bishop Masona in 580AD at Mérida, was a xenodochium designed as an inn for travellers (mostly pilgrims to the shrine of Eulalia of Mérida) as well as a hospital for citizens and local farmers. The hospital's endowment consisted of farms to feed its patients and guests.

Hôtel-Dieu de Paris circa 1500. The comparatively well patients (on the right) were separated from the very ill (on the left).

The Ospedale Maggiore, traditionally named Ca' Granda (i.e. Big House), in Milan, northern Italy, was constructed to house one of the first community hospitals, the largest such undertaking of the fifteenth century. Commissioned by Francesco Sforza in 1456 and designed by Antonio Filarete it is among the first examples of Renaissance architecture in Lombardy.

The Normans brought their hospital system along when they conquered England in 1066. By merging with traditional land-tenure and customs, the new charitable houses became popular and were distinct from both English monasteries and French hospitals. They dispensed alms and some medicine, and were generously endowed by the nobility and gentry who counted on them for spiritual rewards after death.[32]

Early modern and Enlightenment Europe[edit]

In Europe the medieval concept of Christian care evolved during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries into a secular one. After the dissolution of the monasteries in 1540 by King Henry VIII the church abruptly ceased to be the supporter of hospitals, and only by direct petition from the citizens of London, were the hospitals St Bartholomew's, St Thomas's and St Mary of Bethlehem's (Bedlam) endowed directly by the crown; this was the first instance of secular support being provided for medical institutions.

1820 Engraving of Guy's Hospital in London one of the first voluntary hospitals to be established in 1724.

The voluntary hospital movement began in the early 18th century, with hospitals being founded in London by the 1710s and 20s, including Westminster Hospital (1719) promoted by the private bank C. Hoare & Co and Guy's Hospital (1724) funded from the bequest of the wealthy merchant, Thomas Guy. Other hospitals sprang up in London and other British cities over the century, many paid for by private subscriptions. St. Bartholomew's opened in London in 1730, and the London Hospital in 1752.

These hospitals represented a turning point in the function of the institution; they began to evolve from being basic places of care for the sick to becoming centres of medical innovation and discovery and the principle place for the education and training of prospective practitioners. Some of the era's greatest surgeons and doctors worked and passed on their knowledge at the hospitals.[33] They also changed from being mere homes of refuge to being complex institutions for the provision of medicine and care for sick. The Charité was founded in Berlin in 1710 by King Frederick I of Prussia as a response to an outbreak of plague.

The concept of voluntary hospitals also spread to Colonial America; the Pennsylvania Hospital opened in 1752, New York Hospital in 1771, and Massachusetts General Hospital in 1811. When the Vienna General Hospital opened in 1784 (instantly becoming the world's largest hospital), physicians acquired a new facility that gradually developed into one of the most important research centres.[34]

Another Enlightenment era charitable innovation was the dispensary; these would issue the poor with medicines free of charge. The London Dispensary opened its doors in 1696 as the first such clinic in the British Empire. The idea was slow to catch on until the 1770s, when many such organisations began to appear, including the Public Dispensary of Edinburgh (1776), the Metropolitan Dispensary and Charitable Fund (1779) and the Finsbury Dispensary (1780). Dispensaries were also opened in New York 1771, Philadelphia 1786, and Boston 1796.[35]

19th century[edit]

English physician Thomas Percival (1740-1804) wrote a comprehensive system of medical conduct, 'Medical Ethics, or a Code of Institutes and Precepts, Adapted to the Professional Conduct of Physicians and Surgeons (1803) that set the standard for many textbooks.[36]

A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Florence Nightingale worked and helped to restructure the modern hospital.

In the mid 19th century, hospitals and the medical profession became more professionalised, with a reorganisation of hospital management along more bureaucratic and administrative lines. The Apothecaries Act 1815 made it compulsory for medical students to practise for at least half a year at a hospital as part of their training.[37]

Florence Nightingale pioneered the modern profession of nursing during the Crimean War when she set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration. The first official nurses’ training programme, the Nightingale School for Nurses, was opened in 1860, with the mission of training nurses to work in hospitals, to work with the poor and to teach.[38]

Nightingale was instrumental in reforming the nature of the hospital, by improving sanitation standards and changing the image of the hospital from a place the sick would go to die, to an institution devoted to recuperation and healing. She also emphasised the importance of statistical measurement for determining the success rate of a given intervention and pushed for administrative reform at hospitals.[39]

By the late 19th century, the modern hospital was beginning to take shape with a proliferation of a variety of public and private hospital systems. By the 1870s, hospitals had more than trebled their original average intake of 3,000 patients. In continental Europe the new hospitals generally were built and run from public funds. The National Health Service, the principle provider of health care in the United Kingdom, was founded in 1948.

During the nineteenth century, the Second Viennese Medical School emerged with the contributions of physicians such as Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Josef Škoda, Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra, and Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis. Basic medical science expanded and specialisation advanced. Furthermore, the first dermatology, eye, as well as ear, nose, and throat clinics in the world were founded in Vienna, being considered as the birth of specialised medicine.[40]

Criticism[edit]

While hospitals, by concentrating equipment, skilled staff and other resources in one place, clearly provide important help to patients with serious or rare health problems, hospitals also are criticised for a number of faults, some of which are endemic to the system, others which develop from what some consider wrong approaches to health care.

One criticism often voiced is the 'industrialised' nature of care, with constantly shifting treatment staff, which dehumanises the patient and prevents more effective care as doctors and nurses rarely are intimately familiar with the patient. The high working pressures often put on the staff can sometimes exacerbate such rushed and impersonal treatment. The architecture and setup of modern hospitals often is voiced as a contributing factor to the feelings of faceless treatment many people complain about.[41]

Funding[edit]

Clinical Hospital Dubrava Modern Medical centre in Zagreb, Croatia.

In the modern era, hospitals are, broadly, either funded by the government of the country in which they are situated, or survive financially by competing in the private sector (a number of hospitals also are still supported by the historical type of charitable or religious associations).

In the United Kingdom for example, a relatively comprehensive, "free at the point of delivery" health care system exists, funded by the state. Hospital care is thus relatively easily available to all legal residents, although free emergency care is available to anyone, regardless of nationality or status. As hospitals prioritise their limited resources, there is a tendency for 'waiting lists' for non-crucial treatment in countries with such systems, as opposed to letting higher-payers get treated first, so sometimes those who can afford it take out private health care to get treatment more quickly.[42] On the other hand, some countries, including the USA, have in the twentieth century introduced a private-based, for-profit-approach to providing hospital care, with few state-money supported 'charity' hospitals remaining today.[43] Where for-profit hospitals in such countries admit uninsured patients in emergency situations (such as during and after Hurricane Katrina in the USA), they incur direct financial losses,[43] ensuring that there is a clear disincentive to admit such patients. In the United States, laws exist to ensure patients receive care in life-threatening emergency situations regardless of the patient's ability to pay.[44]

As the quality of health care has increasingly become an issue around the world, hospitals have increasingly had to pay serious attention to this matter. Independent external assessment of quality is one of the most powerful ways to assess this aspect of health care, and hospital accreditation is one means by which this is achieved. In many parts of the world such accreditation is sourced from other countries, a phenomenon known as international healthcare accreditation, by groups such as Accreditation Canada from Canada, the Joint Commission from the USA, the Trent Accreditation Scheme from Great Britain, and Haute Authorité de santé (HAS) from France.

Buildings[edit]

Architecture[edit]

The National Health Service Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in the UK, showing the utilitarian architecture of many modern hospitals.

Modern hospital buildings are designed to minimise the effort of medical personnel and the possibility of contamination while maximising the efficiency of the whole system. Travel time for personnel within the hospital and the transportation of patients between units is facilitated and minimised. The building also should be built to accommodate heavy departments such as radiology and operating rooms while space for special wiring, plumbing, and waste disposal must be allowed for in the design.[45]

However, the reality is that many hospitals, even those considered 'modern', are the product of continual and often badly managed growth over decades or even centuries, with utilitarian new sections added on as needs and finances dictate. As a result, Dutch architectural historian Cor Wagenaar has called many hospitals:

"... built catastrophes, anonymous institutional complexes run by vast bureaucracies, and totally unfit for the purpose they have been designed for ... They are hardly ever functional, and instead of making patients feel at home, they produce stress and anxiety."[46]

Some newer hospitals now try to re-establish design that takes the patient's psychological needs into account, such as providing more fresh air, better views and more pleasant colour schemes. These ideas harken back to the late eighteenth century, when the concept of providing fresh air and access to the 'healing powers of nature' were first employed by hospital architects in improving their buildings.[46]

The research of British Medical Association is showing that good hospital design can reduce patient's recovery time. Exposure to daylight is effective in reducing depression. Single sex accommodation help ensure that patients are treated in privacy and with dignity. Exposure to nature and hospital gardens is also important – looking out windows improves patients' moods and reduces blood pressure and stress level. Eliminating long corridors can reduce nurses' fatigue and stress.[47]

Another ongoing major development is the change from a ward-based system (where patients are accommodated in communal rooms, separated by movable partitions) to one in which they are accommodated in individual rooms. The ward-based system has been described as very efficient, especially for the medical staff, but is considered to be more stressful for patients and detrimental to their privacy. A major constraint on providing all patients with their own rooms is however found in the higher cost of building and operating such a hospital; this causes some hospitals to charge for private rooms.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hall, Daniel (December 2008). "Altar and Table: A phenomenology of the surgeon-priest". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 81 (4). PMC 2605310. Retrieved 9 July 2013. "Although physicians were available in varying capacities in ancient Rome and Athens, the institution of a hospital dedicated to the care of the sick was a distinctly Christian innovation rooted in the monastic virtue and practise of hospitality. Arranged around the monastery were concentric rings of buildings in which the life and work of the monastic community was ordered. The outer ring of buildings served as a hostel in which travellers were received and boarded. The inner ring served as a place where the monastic community could care for the sick, the poor, and the infirm. Monks were frequently familiar with the medicine available at that time, growing medicinal plants on the monastery grounds and applying remedies as indicated. As such, many of the practicing physicians of the Middle Ages were also clergy." 
  2. ^ Lovoll, Odd (1998). A Portrait of Norwegian Americans Today. U of Minnesota Press. p. 192. ISBN 0816628327. 
  3. ^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary, revised by Marchant, J & Charles J., 260th. Thousand.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Our Background". District Hospital Leadership Forum. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Knox, Dennis. "District Hospitals’ Important Mission". Payers & Providers. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospitals". fastcompany.com. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "India's 'production line' heart hospital". bbcnews.com. 1 August 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2013. 
  8. ^ Risse, G.B. Mending bodies, saving souls: a history of hospitals. 1990. p. 56
  9. ^ Risse, G.B. Mending bodies, saving souls: a history of hospitals. Oxford University Press, 1990. p. 56 Books.Google.com
  10. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopaedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), pp.134–5.
  11. ^ Legge, James (1965). A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fâ-Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399–414) in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. [publisher missing][page needed]
  12. ^ a b The Nurses should be able to Sing and Play Instruments[dead link] – Wujastyk, Dominik; University College London.
  13. ^ Prof. Arjuna Aluvihare, "Rohal Kramaya Lovata Dhayadha Kale Sri Lankikayo" Vidhusara Science Magazine, Nov. 1993.
  14. ^ Resource Mobilisation in Sri Lanka's Health Sector – Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P. & De Mel, Nishan, Harvard School of Public Health & Health Policy Programme, Institute of Policy Studies, February 1997, Page 19. Accessed 2008-02-22.
  15. ^ Heinz E Müller-Dietz, Historia Hospitalium (1975).
  16. ^ Ayurveda Hospitals in ancient Sri Lanka[dead link] – Siriweera, W. I., Summary of guest lecture, Sixth International Medical Congress, Peradeniya Medical School Alumni Association and the Faculty of Medicine
  17. ^ The Roman military Valetudinaria: fact or fictionBaker, Patricia Anne, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Sunday 20 December 1998
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia[1] (2009) Accessed April 2011.
  19. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), p.135.
  20. ^ James Edward McClellan and Harold Dorn, Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), p.99,101.
  21. ^ Byzantine medicine
  22. ^ The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 22:2 Mehmet Mahfuz Söylemez, The Gundeshapur School: Its History, Structure, and Functions, p.3.
  23. ^ Gail Marlow Taylor, The Physicians of Gundeshapur, (University of California, Irvine), p.7.
  24. ^ Cyril Elgood, A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate, (Cambridge University Press, 1951), p.7.
  25. ^ Cyril Elgood, A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate, (Cambridge University Press, 1951), p.3.
  26. ^ Guenter B. Risse, Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals,(Oxford University Press, 1999), p.125 [2]
  27. ^ Sir Glubb, John Bagot (1969), A Short History of the Arab Peoples, retrieved 2008-01-25 
  28. ^ The Hospital in Islam, [Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Science, An Illustrated Study], (World of Islam Festival Pub. Co., 1976), p.154.
  29. ^ Husain F. Nagamia, [Islamic Medicine History and Current practise], (2003), p.24.
  30. ^ Medicine And Health, "Rise and Spread of Islam 622–1500: Science, Technology, Health", World Eras, Thomson Gale.
  31. ^ Toby E. Huff (2003). The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West. Cambridge University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-521-52994-5. 
  32. ^ Sethina Watson, "The Origins of the English Hospital," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , Sixth Series (2006) 16:75–94 in JSTOR
  33. ^ Reinarz, Jonathan. "Corpus Curricula: Medical Education and the Voluntary Hospital Movement". Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  34. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), p.139.
  35. ^ Michael Marks Davis; Andrew Robert Warner (1918). Dispensaries, Their Management and Development: A Book for Administrators, Public Health Workers, and All Interested in Better Medical Service for the People. MacMillan. pp. 2–3. 
  36. ^ Ivan Waddington, "The Development of Medical Ethics - A Sociological Analysis," Medical History (1975) 19#1 pp 36-51
  37. ^ Porter, Roy (1999) [1997]. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 316–317. ISBN 978-0-393-31980-4. 
  38. ^ Kathy Neeb (2006). Fundamentals of Mental Health Nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. 
  39. ^ Nightingale, Florence (August 1999). Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes. ISBN 0-86688-559-5. Retrieved 13 March 2010. 
  40. ^ Erna Lesky, The Vienna Medical School of the 19th Century (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976)
  41. ^ References provided in this same article.
  42. ^ Johnston, Martin (21 January 2008). "Surgery worries create insurance boom". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  43. ^ a b Hospitals in New Orleans see surge in uninsured patients but not public fundsUSA Today, Wednesday 26 April 2006
  44. ^ "Emergency Medical Treatment & Labor Act (EMTALA)". centres for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Retrieved 2013-05-17. 
  45. ^ Annmarie Adams, Medicine by Design: The Architect and the Modern Hospital, 1893–1943 (2009)
  46. ^ a b Healing by designOde Magazine, July/August 2006 issue. Accessed 2008-02-10.
  47. ^ "The psychological and social needs of patients". British Medical Association. 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  48. ^ Health administrators go shopping for new hospital designsNational Review of Medicine, Monday 15 November 2004, Volume 1 NO. 21

Bibliography[edit]

History of hospitals[edit]

  • Brockliss, Lawrence, and Colin Jones. "The Hospital in the Enlightenment," in The Medical World of Early Modern France (Oxford UP, 1997), pp. 671–729; covers France 1650–1800
  • Chaney, Edward (2000),"'Philanthropy in Italy': English Observations on Italian Hospitals 1545–1789", in: The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the Renaissance, 2nd ed. London, Routledge, 2000. http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/The_evolution_of_the_grand_tour.html?id=rYB_HYPsa8gC
  • Connor, J. T. H. "Hospital History in Canada and the United States," Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 1990, Vol. 7 Issue 1, pp 93–104
  • Crawford, D.S. Bibliography of Histories of Canadian hospitals and schools of nursing.
  • Gorsky, Martin. "The British National Health Service 1948–2008: A Review of the Historiography," Social History of Medicine, Dec 2008, Vol. 21 Issue 3, pp 437–460
  • Harrison, Mar, et al. eds. From Western Medicine to Global Medicine: The Hospital Beyond the West (2008)
  • Horden, Peregrine. Hospitals and Healing From Antiquity to the Later Middle Ages (2008)
  • McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History (1985)
  • Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science 3, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12410-7 
  • Porter, Roy. The Hospital in History, with Lindsay Patricia Granshaw (1989) ISBN 978-0-415-00375-9
  • Risse, Guenter B. Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals (1999), 716pp; world coverage excerpt and text search
  • Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (1995) history to 1920 table of contents and text search
  • Scheutz, Martin et al. eds. Hospitals and Institutional Care in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (2009)
  • Wall, Barbra Mann. American Catholic Hospitals: A Century of Changing Markets and Missions (Rutgers University Press, 2011). 238 pp. ISBN 978-0-8135-4940-8

External links[edit]

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