Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Hudson Hawk - Swinging On A Star
Hudson Hawk - Swinging On A Star
Published: 2011/02/18
Channel: infinitusvox
Hudson Hawk 1991  Full Movie
Hudson Hawk 1991 Full Movie
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Samuel Chehebar
Hudson Hawk (Ambulance Ride)
Hudson Hawk (Ambulance Ride)
Published: 2010/08/14
Channel: plastichasmemory
Hudson Hawk (1991) (VHS Trailer)
Hudson Hawk (1991) (VHS Trailer)
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: plainsvideo
Hudson Hawk - Trailer
Hudson Hawk - Trailer
Published: 2013/12/12
Channel: SonyPicsHomeEntWorld
๐–๐š๐ญ๐œ๐ก ๐‡๐ฎ๐๐ฌ๐จ๐ง ๐‡๐š๐ฐ๐ค ๐–๐š๐ญ๐œ๐ก ๐Œ๐จ๐ฏ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ ๐Ž๐ง๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐…๐ซ๐ž๐ž
๐–๐š๐ญ๐œ๐ก ๐‡๐ฎ๐๐ฌ๐จ๐ง ๐‡๐š๐ฐ๐ค ๐–๐š๐ญ๐œ๐ก ๐Œ๐จ๐ฏ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ ๐Ž๐ง๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐…๐ซ๐ž๐ž
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: Daniel Compton
Hudson Hawk (Bruce Willis) meets George Kaplan (James Coburn)
Hudson Hawk (Bruce Willis) meets George Kaplan (James Coburn)
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Andre GNS
Siskel & Ebert: Hudson Hawk
Siskel & Ebert: Hudson Hawk
Published: 2009/07/19
Channel: Zack F
Hudson Hawk Dog gets his balls
Hudson Hawk Dog gets his balls
Published: 2013/11/03
Channel: becka martinez
Hudson Hawk clip (1991)
Hudson Hawk clip (1991)
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: SaneelGB
The Story of Hudson Hawk, part 1
The Story of Hudson Hawk, part 1
Published: 2008/02/05
Channel: jamesatfox1
Hudson Hawk - Side By Side.wmv
Hudson Hawk - Side By Side.wmv
Published: 2010/01/18
Channel: PrEzIdEnTe90
Hudson Hawk   Il mago del furto-Film Completo in Italiano
Hudson Hawk Il mago del furto-Film Completo in Italiano
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Eric Rivera
Hudson Hawk - Supervillian Speech
Hudson Hawk - Supervillian Speech
Published: 2012/03/30
Channel: m1k3y
"Play Nintendo? 8one some chicks?" (Hudson Hawk, 1991)
"Play Nintendo? 8one some chicks?" (Hudson Hawk, 1991)
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Cralfer
Hudson Hawk   Der Meisterdieb kompletter film
Hudson Hawk Der Meisterdieb kompletter film
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: Aldea Archimba
gold  lead  alchemy   hudson hawk
gold lead alchemy hudson hawk
Published: 2014/02/16
Channel: fatdog14
Hudson Hawk Trailer [HQ]
Hudson Hawk Trailer [HQ]
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: MoviemanTrailers
Hudson Hawk - Kit Kat scรจne
Hudson Hawk - Kit Kat scรจne
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: FitzChevalery
Hudson Hawk 1991 Commentary (Podcast Special)
Hudson Hawk 1991 Commentary (Podcast Special)
Published: 2016/09/19
Channel: Oliver Harper
Undercover Nun In Hudson Hawk - How Did This Get Made?
Undercover Nun In Hudson Hawk - How Did This Get Made?
Published: 2015/10/10
Channel: moondyne
Shave and a Haircut: Hudson Hawk | The Art of Manliness
Shave and a Haircut: Hudson Hawk | The Art of Manliness
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: Art of Manliness
Hudson Hawk - Okay
Hudson Hawk - Okay
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: Alan Schlosser
Hudson Hawk: What Does the Color Blue Taste Like - Andie MacDowell
Hudson Hawk: What Does the Color Blue Taste Like - Andie MacDowell
Published: 2011/05/23
Channel: the agony booth
Hudson Hawk (NES) - Continue?
Hudson Hawk (NES) - Continue?
Published: 2012/05/09
Channel: Continue?
Hudson Hawk - Swinging on a Star
Hudson Hawk - Swinging on a Star
Published: 2011/06/18
Channel: ะœะธั…ะฐะธะป ะšะพะฒะฐะปัŒั‡ัƒะบ
Hudson Hawk: Gentleman Cambrioleur (VF) - Bande Annonce
Hudson Hawk: Gentleman Cambrioleur (VF) - Bande Annonce
Published: 2012/03/26
Channel: Sony Pictures At Home FR
NES Longplay [371] Hudson Hawk
NES Longplay [371] Hudson Hawk
Published: 2012/12/09
Channel: World of Longplays
Hudson Hawk - Der Meisterdieb (Trailer-1991)
Hudson Hawk - Der Meisterdieb (Trailer-1991)
Published: 2011/01/02
Channel: BruceWillisTRAILER
Hudson Hawk (Will you play Nintendo with me?)
Hudson Hawk (Will you play Nintendo with me?)
Published: 2010/08/14
Channel: plastichasmemory
Hudson Hawk
Hudson Hawk
Published: 2013/12/22
Channel: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Drink Your Coffee by Hudson Hawk
Drink Your Coffee by Hudson Hawk
Published: 2014/02/16
Channel: fatdog14
The Story of Hudson Hawk, part 2
The Story of Hudson Hawk, part 2
Published: 2008/02/05
Channel: jamesatfox1
Play it Through - Hudson Hawk Part 1
Play it Through - Hudson Hawk Part 1
Published: 2009/06/13
Channel: CornshaqGaming
Hudson Hawk (1991) Review - TMG Movie Review
Hudson Hawk (1991) Review - TMG Movie Review
Published: 2015/03/18
Channel: TMG Review
Hudson Hawk (O Falcรฃo Estรก ร€ Solta ).
Hudson Hawk (O Falcรฃo Estรก ร€ Solta ).
Published: 2011/08/28
Channel: Almir Risso
Hudson Hawk- Bruce Willis & Danny Aiello-Side by Side
Hudson Hawk- Bruce Willis & Danny Aiello-Side by Side
Published: 2011/06/18
Channel: ะœะธั…ะฐะธะป ะšะพะฒะฐะปัŒั‡ัƒะบ
Hudson Hawk worlddomination
Hudson Hawk worlddomination
Published: 2009/02/05
Channel: fangrrl
Aeph - Hudson Hawk
Aeph - Hudson Hawk
Published: 2011/04/14
Channel: EssentialDnB
Hudson Hawk (NES) Soundtrack - 8BitStereo
Hudson Hawk (NES) Soundtrack - 8BitStereo
Published: 2014/06/23
Channel: WiiGuys 8BitStereo
[TAS] NES Hudson Hawk by Alyosha in 07:03.88
[TAS] NES Hudson Hawk by Alyosha in 07:03.88
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: TASVideosChannel
Hudson Hawk NES Review (Five Turnips)
Hudson Hawk NES Review (Five Turnips)
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: Digital JCW
Yannick Dahan parle de Hudson Hawk
Yannick Dahan parle de Hudson Hawk
Published: 2012/04/20
Channel: gansfan
Hudson Hawk (1991) "..Happiness is to steal singing.."
Hudson Hawk (1991) "..Happiness is to steal singing.."
Published: 2009/11/08
Channel: DYLAND27
Hudson Hawk - Side by Side
Hudson Hawk - Side by Side
Published: 2015/08/18
Channel: Olivier Baghdadi
Hudson Hawk castration threat
Hudson Hawk castration threat
Published: 2013/11/10
Channel: becka martinez
Hudson Hawk Der Meisterdieb Songs  mit Bruce Willis
Hudson Hawk Der Meisterdieb Songs mit Bruce Willis
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: Filme Serien & Co.
Hudson Hawk on a Commodore 64
Hudson Hawk on a Commodore 64
Published: 2012/05/18
Channel: Polaventris
ZX Spectrum - Hudson Hawk 128k gameplay, cracktro, music
ZX Spectrum - Hudson Hawk 128k gameplay, cracktro, music
Published: 2010/05/27
Channel: bormisha
Hudson Hawk - Mona Lisa Scene
Hudson Hawk - Mona Lisa Scene
Published: 2013/11/06
Channel: darkcub
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hudson Hawk
Hudson hawk ver2.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Michael Lehmann
Produced by Joel Silver
Screenplay by Steven E. de Souza
Daniel Waters
Story by Bruce Willis
Robert Kraft
Starring
Narrated by William Conrad
Music by Michael Kamen
Robert Kraft
Cinematography Dante Spinotti
Edited by Chris Lebenzon
Michael Tronick
Production
company
Distributed by TriStar Pictures
Release date
  • May 24, 1991 (1991-05-24)
Running time
100 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Italian
Budget $65 million[1]
Box office $17.2 million[2]

Hudson Hawk is a 1991 American action comedy film directed by Michael Lehmann.[3] Bruce Willis stars in the title role and also co-wrote both the story and the theme song. Danny Aiello, Andie MacDowell, James Coburn, David Caruso, Lorraine Toussaint, Frank Stallone, Sandra Bernhard, and Richard E. Grant are also featured.[4]

The live action film employs cartoon-style slapstick heavily, including sound effects, which enhances the movie's signature surreal humour. The plot combines material based on conspiracy theories, secret societies, and historic mysteries, as well as outlandish "clockpunk" technology ร  la Coburn's Our Man Flint movies of the 1960s.[5]

A recurring plot device in the film has Hudson and his partner Tommy "Five-Tone" (Aiello) singing songs concurrently but separately, to time and synchronize their exploits. Willis-Aiello duets of Bing Crosby's "Swinging on a Star" and Paul Anka's "Side by Side" are featured on the film's soundtrack.

Plot[edit]

Eddie "Hudson Hawk" Hawkins (Bruce Willis)โ€”"Hudson Hawk" is a nickname for the bracing winds off the Hudson Riverโ€”is a master burglar and safe-cracker, attempting to celebrate his first day of parole from prison with a cappuccino. Before he can get it, he is blackmailed by various entities, including his own parole officer, a minor Mafia family headed by the Mario Brothers, and the CIA into doing several dangerous art heists with his singing partner in crime, Tommy "Five-Tone" Messina (Danny Aiello).

The holders of the puppet strings turn out to be a "psychotic American corporation", Mayflower Industries, run by husband and wife Darwin (Richard E. Grant) and Minerva Mayflower (Sandra Bernhard) and their blade-slinging butler, Alfred (Donald Burton). The company, headquartered in the Esposizione Universale Roma, seeks to take over the world by reconstructing La Macchina dell'Oro, a machine purportedly invented by Leonardo da Vinci (Stefano Molinari) that converts lead into gold. A special assembly of crystals needed for the machine to function are hidden in a variety of Leonardo's artworks: the maquette of the Sforza, the Da Vinci Codex, and a scale model of DaVinci's helicopter design. Sister Anna Baragli (Andie MacDowell) is an operative for a secretive Vatican counter-espionage agency, which has arranged with the CIA to assist in the Roman portion of Hawk's mission, though apparently intending all along to foil the robbery at St. Peter's Basilica.

Throughout the adventure, Hudson is foiled in attempts to drink a cappuccino. After blowing up an auctioneer to cover up the theft of the Sforza, the Mario Bros. take Hawk away in an ambulance. Hawk sticks syringes into Antony Mario's face and falls out of the ambulance on a gurney, and the Marios try to run him down with the ambulance as his gurney speeds along the highway. The brothers are killed when their driver, startled by the array of syringes in Antony's face, crashes the ambulance. Immediately afterwards, Hawk meets CIA head George Kaplan (James Coburn) and his CIA agentsโ€“Snickers (Don Harvey), Kit Kat (David Caruso), Almond Joy (Lorraine Toussaint), and Butterfinger (Andrew Bryniarski)โ€“who take him to Darwin and Minerva Mayflower. Hawk successfully steals the Da Vinci Codex from another museum, but later refuses to steal the helicopter design. Tommy Five-Tone fakes his death so they can escape. They are discovered and attacked by the CIA Agents, and Kaplan reveals that he and his agents stole the piece, and unlike Tommy and Hudson, had no problem killing the guards. Hawk and Tommy escape when Snickers and Almond Joy are killed -Snickers by a misfired explosive, Almond Joy in the ensuing blast after being incapacitated by a backfired paralysis dart- and pursue the remaining agents. Kit Kat and Butterfinger take Anna to the castle where the Macchina dell'Oro is being reconstructed.

A showdown takes place at the castle between the remaining CIA agents, the Mayflowers, and the team of Hudson, Five-Tone, and Baragli. Kit Kat and Butterfinger are betrayed and killed by Minerva, although Kit Kat frees Baragli before he dies. Tommy fights Darwin and Alfred inside Darwin's speeding limo, and Hudson fights George Kaplan on the roof of the castle. Kaplan topples from the castle and lands of the roof of the limo. Alfred plants a bomb in the limo and escapes with Darwin; Tommy is trapped inside and Kaplan is hanging onto the hood. The bomb detonates as the limo speeds over a cliff. Darwin and Minerva force Hawk to put together the crystal powering the machine, but Hawk intentionally leaves out one small piece. When the Mayflowers activate the machine, it malfunctions and explodes, killing Minerva and Darwin. Hawk battles Alfred, using Alfred's own blades to decapitate him. Hawk and Baragli escape the castle using a da Vinci flying machine and discover Tommy waiting for them at a cafe, having miraculously escaped death through an improbable combination of airbags and a sprinkler system in the limo. Hawk finally gets to enjoy a cappuccino.

Cast[edit]

Soundtrack[edit]

The soundtrack album was released by Varรจse Sarabande in 1991, there are eleven tracks in all. The film's score (represented by tracks 4-9) was composed and conducted by Michael Kamen with Robert Kraft; Kraft also wrote "Hawk Swing" and co-wrote the film's theme with star Bruce Willis.

  1. "Hudson Hawk Theme" - Dr. John (05:38)
  2. "Swinging on a Star" - Bruce Willis and Danny Aiello (02:53) - Sung in incorrect order of verses (the plot device in the movie refers to the original track length as 5:32)
  3. "Side by Side" - Bruce Willis and Danny Aiello (02:18) (the plot device in the film refers to the original track length as 6:00)
  4. "Leonardo" (04:55)
  5. "Welcome to Rome" (01:46)
  6. "Stealing the Codex" (01:58)
  7. "Igg and Ook" (02:22)
  8. "Cartoon Fight" (02:54)
  9. "The Gold Room" (05:57)
  10. "Hawk Swing" (03:41)
  11. "Hudson Hawk Theme" (instrumental) (05:18)

The song "The Power" by Snap! is featured, although not included on the soundtrack, when Hudson Hawk is taken for the first time to the headquarters of the Mayflowers. Minerva Mayflower, played by Sandra Bernhard, is sitting on a desk singing the song while it plays on her headphones.

Reception[edit]

On Rotten Tomatoes, the film had a rating of 26%, based on 34 reviews, as of August, 2016.[7] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 17 out of 100, based on 15 critics, indicating "overwhelming dislike".[8] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "C+" on an A+ to F scale.[9]

In the Chicago Tribune, Terry Clifford observed that "the end result is being thrown up on selected screens this weekend, and the suspicion that this was a pooch turns out to be undeniably correct. Boring and banal, overwrought and undercooked, Hudson Hawk is beyond bad."[10]

As Kenneth Turan wrote in the Los Angeles Times:

The saddest thing about Hudson Hawk is that director Lehmann and co-screenwriter Waters were previously responsible for the clever, audacious "Heathers," a film that represented all that is most promising about American film, while this one represents all that is most moribund and retrograde. Perhaps they both earned enough money here so that they won't be tempted to indulge themselves in similar big-budget fiascoes. Here's hoping.[11]

As Jack Mathews observed in Film Comment:

Hudson Hawk is a terrible movie, and deserves the cold shoulder it has received at the box office. But being bad doesn't always explain the failure of big, star-driven pictures. In the vernacular of Hollywood marketing, these movies tend to be "review-proof," meaning that critics can carpet-bomb them with all the armor-piercing adjectives they can muster and the beasts will not fall. Think of the Rambo and Rocky sequels, all those Chuck Norris and Steven Seagal movies . . . the reviews ricocheted off their thick hides.[12]

Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel gave the film a "two thumbs down" review on their At the Movies TV show. Ebert described the movie as a complete disaster: "every line starts from zero and gets nowhere". Siskel's review was marginally more positive saying that Willis had a few funny moments and furthermore that the film may have been salvaged if Willis and Aello were the only zany characters against a cast of straight men as opposed to a cast full of overacting where everyone tried too hard to make each line funny.[13]

Variety called the film "a relentlessly annoying clay duck that crash-lands in a sea of wretched excess and silliness. Those willing to check their brains at the door may find sparse amusement."[14] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone said of the film, "A movie this unspeakably awful can make an audience a little crazy. You want to throw things, yell at the actors, beg them to stop."[15] James Brundage of AMC filmcritic said the film was "so implausible and so over the top that it lets inconsistency roll off like water on a duck's back."[16] Janet Maslin in the New York Times called the film "a colossally sour and ill-conceived misfire" and denounced the film for "smirky, mean-spirited cynicism."[17] Writing in The Washington Post, Joe Brown said, "To say this megamillion Bruce Willis vehicle doesn't fly is understatement in the extreme... Hudson Hawk offers a klutzy, charmless hero, and wallows dully in limp slapstick and lowest common denominator crudeness."[18] Chris Hicks wrote in the Salt Lake City Deseret News, "What is most amazing is the pervasive silliness that has the cast acting like fools without ever getting a laugh from the audience. It's hard to imagine a major, big-budget movie that could come along this year and be worse than Hudson Hawk, a solid contender for the longest 95 minutes in movie history.[19] Owen Gleiberman in Entertainment Weekly called the film "a fiasco sealed with a smirk."[20]

It received three Razzie Awards for Worst Director (Michael Lehmann), Worst Screenplay and Worst Picture with additional nominations for Worst Actor (Bruce Willis), Worst Supporting Actor (Richard E. Grant) and Worst Supporting Actress (Sandra Bernhard). In his autobiography, With Nails, Richard E. Grant diarises the production of the film in detail, noting the ad hoc nature of the production and extensive rewriting and replotting during the actual filming. Willis went on to become one of the leading box-office stars of the 1990s, but has not made any further forays into scriptwriting.

The film was also a box office bomb, partly because the film was intended as an absurd comedy, yet was marketed as an action film one year after the success of Die Hard 2.[21] When the film came to home video the tag line "Catch The Excitement, Catch The Adventure, Catch The Hawk" was changed to "Catch The Adventure, Catch The Laughter, Catch The Hawk".[22] Hudson Hawk has since been regarded as a cult film.[citation needed]

Home media[edit]

The film was released on VHS videocassette in late 1991. It was released twice on DVD, first in 1999 and again in 2007 with new extras. In 2013 Mill Creek Entertainment released Hudson Hawk on Blu-ray for the first time; it was included in as a set with Hollywood Homicide. All extras were dropped for the Blu-ray release.[23]

Video game[edit]

A video game based on the film was released in 1991 under the title "Hudson Hawk" for various home computers and game consoles. Sony Imagesoft released versions of the game for the NES and Game Boy, while Ocean Software released it for the Commodore 64, Amiga, ZX Spectrum, and Atari ST. It is a side-scrolling game where the player, as the Hawk, must steal the Sforza and the Codex from the auction house and the Vatican, respectively. Then Castle Da Vinci has to be infiltrated in order to steal the mirrored crystal needed to power the gold machine. On his journey, Hawk must face many oddball adversaries, including dachshunds that try to throw him off the roof of the auction house, janitors, photographers, killer nuns, and a tennis player (presumably Darwin Mayflower).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Greenberg, James (1991-05-26). "FILM; Why the 'Hudson Hawk' Budget Soared So High". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  2. ^ "Hudson Hawk". Box Office Mojo. 
  3. ^ "Hudson Hawk". Washington Post. 1991-05-24. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  4. ^ "`Hawk` Better Fly". Chicago Tribune. 1991-06-02. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  5. ^ Plaskin, Glenn (1991-05-19). "Real 'Hudson Hawk'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  6. ^ Easton, Nina J. (1991-05-19). "Summer Movie Special : Bruce & Joel's Q & A Adventure : Partners-in-action Bruce Willis and producer Joel Silver fire away on everything from 'Hudson Hawk' to the press". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  7. ^ "Hudson Hawk". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Hudson Hawk". Metacritic. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  9. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. 
  10. ^ Terry, Clifford (1991-05-24). "Smug `Hudson Hawk` Looks Like A Turkey". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  11. ^ Turan, Kenneth (1991-05-24). "Bruce Willis' 'Hudson Hawk' Fails to Fly as Comedy Caper". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  12. ^ Mathews, Jack (1991-06-09). "FILM COMMENT : Who Was That 'Moonlighting' Detective? Maybe He Can Piece It Together for Us". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  13. ^ < Siskel and Ebert review Hudson Hawk
  14. ^ "Hudson Hawk". Variety.com. December 31, 1990. 
  15. ^ Travers, Peter. "Hudson Hawk". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 2008-06-16. 
  16. ^ Brundage, James. "Hudson Hawk". Filmcritic. Archived from the original on 2007-11-06. 
  17. ^ Maslin, Janet (May 24, 1991). "Review/Film Bruce Willis as a Hip Cat Burglar". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  18. ^ Brown, Joe (May 24, 1991). "Hudson Hawk". Washington Post. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  19. ^ Hicks, Chris (May 27, 1991). "Film review: Hudson Hawk". Deseret News. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Hudson Hawk". Entertainment Weekly. May 31, 1991. Retrieved August 30, 2016. 
  21. ^ Fox, David J. (1991-05-28). "No Blockbusters Among This Crop of Memorial Day Movies". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  22. ^ Fox, David J. (1991-05-29). "'Backdraft' Burns 'Hawk's' Wings at the Box Office". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  23. ^ "Double Feature - Blu-ray: Hollywood Homicide, Hudson Hawk". millcreekent.com. Mill Creek Entertainment. Retrieved August 8, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Awards
Preceded by
Ghosts Can't Do It and The Adventures of Ford Fairlane
Razzie Award for Worst Picture
12th Golden Raspberry Awards
Succeeded by
Shining Through

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license