- This article is about the human jawbone. For the other mandibles, see Mandible.
The mandible  pronunciation (from Latin mandibula, "jawbone") or inferior maxillary bone forms the lower jaw and holds the lower teeth in place. The term "mandible" also refers to both the upper and lower sections of the beaks of birds; in this case the "lower mandible" corresponds to the mandible of humans, while the "upper mandible" is functionally equivalent to the human maxilla but mainly consists of the premaxillary bones. Conversely, in bony fish for example, the lower jaw may be termed "lower maxilla".
The mandible consists of:
- a curved, horizontal portion, the body. (See body of mandible).
- two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles. (See ramus mandibulae). The angle formed at this junction is called gonial angle.
- Alveolar process, the tooth bearing area of the mandible (upper part of the body of the mandible)
- Condyle, superior (upper) and posterior projection from the ramus, which makes the temporomandibular joint with the temporal bone
- Coronoid process, superior and anterior projection from the ramus. This provides attachment to the temporalis muscle
Foramina (singular = foramen) 
- Mandibular foramen, paired, in the inner (medial) aspect of the mandible, superior to the mandibular angle in the middle of the ramus.
- Mental foramen, paired, lateral to the mental protuberance on the body of mandible.
Inferior alveolar nerve, branch of the mandibular division of Trigeminal (V) nerve, enters the mandibular foramen and runs forward in the mandibular canal, supplying sensation to the teeth. At the mental foramen the nerve divides into two terminal branches: incisive and mental nerves. The incisive nerve runs forward in the mandible and supplies the anterior teeth. The mental nerve exits the mental foramen and supplies sensation to the lower lip.
Sexual dimorphism 
Males generally have squarer, stronger, and larger mandibles than females.
The mandible articulates with the two temporal bones at the temporomandibular joints.
One fifth of facial injuries involve mandibular fracture. Mandibular fractures are often accompanied by a 'twin fracture' on the contralateral (opposite) side. There is no universally accepted treatment protocol, as there is no consensus on the choice of techniques in a particular anatomical shape of mandibular fracture clinic.
- Motor vehicle accident (MVA) – 40%
- Assault – 40%
- Fall – 10%
- Sport – 5%
- Other – 5%
- Condyle – 30%
- Angle – 25%
- Body – 25%
- Symphesis – 15%
- Ramus – 3%
- Coronoid process – 2%
The mandible may be dislocated anteriorly (to the front) and inferiorly (downwards) but very rarely posteriorly (backwards).
Additional images 
The skull from the front.
The veins of the neck, viewed from in front.
Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
Infratemporal fossa. Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve. Deep dissection. Anterolateral view
See also 
- ^ hednk-023 — Embryo Images at University of North Carolina
- ^ Mandible on www.merriam-webster.com
- ^ Levin L, Zadik Y, Peleg K, Bigman G, Givon A, Lin S (August 2008). "Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians". J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66 (8): 1630–3. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2007.11.028. PMID 18634951. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- ^ Tiberiu Niță, Vasilios Panagopoulos, Laurențiu Munteanu, Alexandru Roman (Mar 2012). "Customised osteosynthesis with miniplates in anatomo-clinical forms of mandible fractures" (HTML). Rev. chir. oro-maxilo-fac. implantol. (in (Romanian)) 3 (1): 5–15. ISSN 2069-3850. 59. Retrieved 2012-08-19.(webpage has a translation button)
- ^ Marius Pricop, Horațiu Urechescu, Adrian Sîrbu (Mar 2012). "Fracture of the mandibular coronoid process — case report and review of the literature" (HTML). Rev. chir. oro-maxilo-fac. implantol. (in (Romanian)) 3 (1): 1–4. ISSN 2069-3850. 58. Retrieved 2012-08-19.(webpage has a translation button)
External links 
This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.