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SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the arm- Humerus
SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the arm- Humerus
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: Samuel Chen
Human Anatomy Video: Humerus
Human Anatomy Video: Humerus
Published: 2014/01/06
Channel: Ljubisa Terzic
Humerus AP1
Humerus AP1
Published: 2012/10/01
Channel: Rita Thrasher
humerus - general features
humerus - general features
Published: 2014/10/04
Channel: viren kariya
Features of the Humerus - Anatomy Tutorial
Features of the Humerus - Anatomy Tutorial
Published: 2011/12/12
Channel: AnatomyZone
The Humerus
The Humerus
Published: 2014/08/24
Channel: Simple Anatomy
Humerus Bone - Anatomy, Definition & Function - Human Anatomy | Kenhub
Humerus Bone - Anatomy, Definition & Function - Human Anatomy | Kenhub
Published: 2014/11/17
Channel: Kenhub
HUMERUS - SIDE DETERMINATION
HUMERUS - SIDE DETERMINATION
Published: 2014/07/27
Channel: viren kariya
Humerus.mov
Humerus.mov
Published: 2011/09/15
Channel: Kathy Farnsworth
Humerus Bone Anatomy → Bony Landmarks Of The Humerus || By: Kinesiology Kris
Humerus Bone Anatomy → Bony Landmarks Of The Humerus || By: Kinesiology Kris
Published: 2013/08/18
Channel: KinesiologyKris
Humerus
Humerus
Published: 2013/10/12
Channel: SimplyAandP
Humerus - 3D Anatomy
Humerus - 3D Anatomy
Published: 2012/11/27
Channel: TheSalmonellaPlace
Bones of the Arm The Humerus - The Appendicular skeleton
Bones of the Arm The Humerus - The Appendicular skeleton
Published: 2013/05/07
Channel: Ashish Rai
Humerus Insertion EZ-IO - Official access method
Humerus Insertion EZ-IO - Official access method
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: Larry Miller MD
EZ-IO Humerus Insertion
EZ-IO Humerus Insertion
Published: 2009/08/28
Channel: texasangle8
Humerus and Scapula - Human Anatomy | Kenhub
Humerus and Scapula - Human Anatomy | Kenhub
Published: 2013/07/08
Channel: Kenhub
Humerus bone
Humerus bone
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Ed Krol
Proximal Humerus
Proximal Humerus
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: Lippincott
Humerus Fractures - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Humerus Fractures - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: nabil ebraheim
ANATOMY MADE SIMPLE PART 5 (HUMERUS AND SCAPULA)
ANATOMY MADE SIMPLE PART 5 (HUMERUS AND SCAPULA)
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: Ashiq P
Anatomy of Humerus of Dog - by Dr Banga
Anatomy of Humerus of Dog - by Dr Banga
Published: 2010/10/26
Channel: Raj Banga
Humerus muscle attachment
Humerus muscle attachment
Published: 2012/10/22
Channel: DrKrishna Garg
Open reduction plate fixation spiral fracture shaft humerus
Open reduction plate fixation spiral fracture shaft humerus
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: AIIMS Patna
Humerus Anatomy and Osteology with Clinical Correlations
Humerus Anatomy and Osteology with Clinical Correlations
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: ahMEDacademy
Humerus Bone → Origins and Insertion attachments on the Humerus|| By: Kinesiology Kris
Humerus Bone → Origins and Insertion attachments on the Humerus|| By: Kinesiology Kris
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: KinesiologyKris
Humerus Anterolateral Approach
Humerus Anterolateral Approach
Published: 2009/05/03
Channel: Mojo
Humerus. Нормальная анатомия плечевой кости - meduniver.com
Humerus. Нормальная анатомия плечевой кости - meduniver.com
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: MedUniver.com - Все для изучения медицины
Left or Right? siding a HUMERUS
Left or Right? siding a HUMERUS
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Nik Short
شرح عظمة ال humerus
شرح عظمة ال humerus
Published: 2014/10/25
Channel: Dr_Besoo
Left Humeral Intramedullary Nailing
Left Humeral Intramedullary Nailing
Published: 2015/05/05
Channel: trialfx .com
Humeral EZ-IO insertion, official method
Humeral EZ-IO insertion, official method
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: Larry Miller MD
Humeral Shaft Fracture - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Humeral Shaft Fracture - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: nabil ebraheim
HUMERUS - GENERAL FEATURES & ATTACHMENTS
HUMERUS - GENERAL FEATURES & ATTACHMENTS
Published: 2017/11/05
Channel: viren kariya
L
L'Humérus -Partie 1
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: Tutorat Médecine 2.0
Humerus und Scapula - Anatomie des Menschen | Kenhub
Humerus und Scapula - Anatomie des Menschen | Kenhub
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Kenhub
Humerus – Anatomy | Medical Education Videos
Humerus – Anatomy | Medical Education Videos
Published: 2015/08/24
Channel: Lecturio Medical Videos
Humerus
Humerus
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: Asım kuntay Temren
Arrow® EZ-IO® Insertion Site Identification - Proximal Humerus (MC-000601)
Arrow® EZ-IO® Insertion Site Identification - Proximal Humerus (MC-000601)
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: vidacare
Humerus | Flashcard Anatomy
Humerus | Flashcard Anatomy
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: AnatomyZone
Humerus Attachments
Humerus Attachments
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: Ahmad Jabar
LCP Posterolateral Distal Humerus Plates, with support and LCP Medial Distal Humerus Plate
LCP Posterolateral Distal Humerus Plates, with support and LCP Medial Distal Humerus Plate
Published: 2015/12/03
Channel: SHARMA ORTHOPEDIC
İLKNUR DABANOĞLU ADÜ VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ Humerus.wmv
İLKNUR DABANOĞLU ADÜ VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ Humerus.wmv
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: idabanoglu
100 The Structures On The Distal Humerus
100 The Structures On The Distal Humerus
Published: 2013/03/01
Channel: Interactive Biology
Proximal Humerus Fractures classification - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Proximal Humerus Fractures classification - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2011/12/09
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Humerus - 3D Anatomy
Humerus - 3D Anatomy
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: nitesh pandey
Muscles That Move the Arm   Humerus
Muscles That Move the Arm Humerus
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: SimplyAandP
Humerus Shaft Fracture Antegrade Locked Intramedullary Osteosynthesis.  NMC West Georgia
Humerus Shaft Fracture Antegrade Locked Intramedullary Osteosynthesis. NMC West Georgia
Published: 2013/10/29
Channel: Irakli Khabeishvili
Proximal Humerus ORIF Exposure and Reduction Techniques
Proximal Humerus ORIF Exposure and Reduction Techniques
Published: 2013/05/25
Channel: azabation
Humeral Shaft Fracture- Open Plating Strategies
Humeral Shaft Fracture- Open Plating Strategies
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Matthew Jimenez, MD
Humerus Holstein Lewis Fracture - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Humerus Holstein Lewis Fracture - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2012/06/15
Channel: nabil ebraheim
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Humerus
Humerus - anterior view.png
Position of humerus (shown in red)
from an anterior viewpoint
Details
Identifiers
Latin humerus
MeSH A02.835.232.087.090.400
TA A02.4.04.001
FMA 13303
Anatomical terms of bone

The humerus (/ˈhjmərəs/, Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. The humeral upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities). The body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to fracture, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.

Etymology[edit]

The word "humerus" is derived from Latin: humerus, umerus meaning upper arm, shoulder, and is linguistically related to Gothic ams shoulder and Greek ōmos.[1]

Structure[edit]

Articulations[edit]

At the shoulder, the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. More distally, at the elbow, the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna.

Diagram of the human shoulder joint 
The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula. 
Head of humerus 
The supinator

Nerves[edit]

The axillary nerve is located at the proximal end, against the shoulder girdle. Dislocation of the humerus's glenohumeral joint, has the potential to injure the axillary nerve or the axillary artery. Signs and symptoms of this dislocation include a loss of the normal shoulder contour and a palpable depression under the acromion.

The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to the anterior aspect of the bone in the spiral groove. A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury.

The ulnar nerve lies at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow. When struck, it can cause a distinct tingling sensation, and sometimes a significant amount of pain. It is sometimes popularly referred to as 'the funny bone', possibly due to this sensation (a "funny" feeling), as well as the fact that the bone's name is a homophone of 'humorous'.[2] It lies posterior to the medial epicondyle, and is easily damaged in elbow injuries.[citation needed]

Horizontal section at the middle of upper arm
Horizontal section of upper arm. 
Humerus 

Function[edit]

Muscular attachment[edit]

The deltoid originates on the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion and the crest of the spine of the scapula. It is inserted on the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus and has several actions including abduction, extension, and circumduction of the shoulder. The supraspinatus also originates on the spine of the scapula. It inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus, and assists in abduction of the shoulder.

The pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi insert at the intertubercular groove of the humerus. They work to adduct and medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The infraspinatus and teres minor insert on the greater tubercle, and work to laterally, or externally, rotate the humerus. In contrast, the subscapularis muscle inserts onto the lesser tubercle and works to medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis (which attaches distally) act to flex the elbow. (The biceps do not attach to the humerus.) The triceps brachii and anconeus extend the elbow, and attach to the posterior side of the humerus.

The four muscles of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis form a musculo-ligamentous girdle called the rotator cuff. This cuff stabilizes the very mobile but inherently unstable glenohumeral joint. The other muscles are used as counterbalances for the actions of lifting/pulling and pressing/pushing.

Left humerus. Anterior view.
Humerus ant (mirroed).png Left humerus - anterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at anterior view.gif HumerusFront.png Human left humerus - anterior view - muscles.svg
Left humerus. Posterior view.
Humerus post (mirroed).png Left humerus - posterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at posterior view.gif HumerusBack.png Gray208.png

Other animals[edit]

Primitive fossils of amphibians had little, if any, shaft connecting the upper and lower extremities, making their limbs very short. In most living tetrapods, however, the humerus has a similar form to that of humans; connecting their extremities. In many reptiles and some primitive mammals, the lower extremity includes a large foramen, or opening, which allows nerves and blood vessels pass through.[3]

Additional images[edit]

Ossification[edit]

Upper end Accompanies shaft in 20th year. The parts which form upper end - Head Starts from 1st year, Greater tubercle Starts from 3rd year, Lesser tubercle Starts from the fifth year.

Lower end Accompanies shaft in 16th to 17th year. The parts which form lower end are - Capitulum and the lateral flange of trochlea Sarts from 2nd year, Medial part of trochlea starts from 10th year, Lateral epicondyle starts from 12th year and Medial epicondyle starts from the sixth year.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Humerus". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  2. ^ "Funny Bone". Word Detective. 
  3. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 198–199. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 
  4. ^ "Humerus - Anatomy, Proximal, Shaft, Distal and Fracture - Earth's Lab - The Easy Way to Learn". www.earthslab.com. Retrieved 2017-01-29. 

External links[edit]

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