|• City||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Elevation||13 m (43 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Hyderabad (Urdu Language: حيدرآباد) is the second largest city in Pakistan's Sindh province and the fourth largest in the country. It was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus River known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabad. The last Battle of Amir Talpor and the British took place in the city in 1843. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with river water.
Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and the birthplace of a number of influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit hub between rural and urban Sindh.
Located 110 kilometres (68 mi) from important archaeological digs investigating the pre-Harappan settlement of Amri, the region holds extreme importance for archaeologists the world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions. It is also home to one of the oldest universities in the region, the University of Sindh.
In AD 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and the Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam. The conquest succeeded partly because Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king who ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty. This view is questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach himself may have been a Buddhist. The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors.
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerun or Nerun Kot meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of Indus River named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept for the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks, on account of which it was named Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort. After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The City has a history of Sufism. In the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here from Uch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) via Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from Multan). These were the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht a noted Sufi saint. The family's lineage is linked to Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uch Sharif( Punjab, Pakistan). Tando Jahania is a small town in the city known for Sufism and Azadari.
The Baloch Talpur's rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of an expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annexe Sindh due to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed a peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobilised his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When Napier heard that the Talpur Amir had demobilised his Baloch army, he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss with thousands killed in the battle, their fort plundered, and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma – never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonial empire.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Hyderabad. At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muhajirs began to immigrate to Pakistan and many settled in the city of Hyderabad. These refugee Muslim lost everything in India and were settled in refugee camps. Nearly all Hindus of Hyderabad left for India due to better socio-economic prospects in India.
The massive migration of Muhajirs into Pakistan after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 raised the population levels of the city to an extreme. The late 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots and violence broke out between the Muhajirs and Sindhi nationalist parties due to which the social fabric of the city was damaged.
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Karachi the former provincial capital of Sindh from 1936 was made the Federal Capital of Pakistan. From 1947 to 1955 the city of Hyderabad served as the capital of Sindh province, which was later dissolved and one unit was formed named West Pakistan. Lahore was the capital of West Pakistan. In 1969 Karachi regained the status of capital of newly made province Sindh which included Khayrpur state as well.
Located at 25.367 °N latitude and 68.367 °E longitude with an elevation of 13 metres (43 ft), Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150 kilometres (93 mi) away from Karachi, the provincial capital. Two of Pakistan's largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), Jamshoro at 8.1 kilometres (5.0 mi), Hattri at 5.0 kilometres (3.1 mi) and Husri at 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi).
Hyderabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), with warm conditions year-round. The period from mid-April to late June (before the onset of the monsoon) is the hottest of the year, with highs peaking in May at 41.4 °C (106.5 °F). During this time, winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is more pleasant. Winters are warm, with highs around 25 °C (77 °F), though lows can often drop below 10 °C (50 °F) at night. The highest temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F) was recorded on 7 June 1991, while the lowest temperature of 1 °C (34 °F) was recorded on 8 February 2012.
In recent years Hyderabad has seen great downpours. In February 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres (4.13 in) of rain in 12 hours, leaving many dead. The years of 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death tolls estimated in the hundreds. The highest single-day rain total of 250.7 millimetres (9.87 in) was recorded on 12 September 1962, while the wettest month was September 1962, at 286 millimetres (11.26 in).
|Climate data for Hyderabad, Pakistan|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.3
|Average high °C (°F)||24.7
|Average low °C (°F)||11.1
|Record low °C (°F)||3.3
|Rainfall mm (inches)||1.5
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||272.8||257.1||288.3||288.0||313.1||279.0||235.6||251.1||285.0||306.9||279.0||272.8||3,328.7|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: HKO (sun only, 1961–1990) |
Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries includes: textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of mirror, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit. Pakistani government recently discovered a large gas deposit in Hyderabad which has not been put in production.
The city of Hyderabad is where the district headquarters are located and the district government is seated. The district government elections are not held since the last governments term expired and the posts of District Nazim and Naib Nazim are vacant at the moment.
The government of the city does not yet support fully functional e-governance and has no website but the District Government of Hyderabad liberally uses the television as a mode of communication with the people of the city instructing them on public issues and awareness about projects under way. As of 2008, the district Hyderabad enabled its e-governance platform to support people via the Internet and other new media platforms.
Before the government of Abubaker Nizamani, the District Hyderabad included the present-day District of Badin. Then in the 2005-6 General Pervaiz Musharraf again divided it into four more districts Matiyari, Tando Allahyar, Tando Mohammad Khan and Hyderabad. Hyderabad district was subdivided into four talukas
To ease traffic congestion six flyover bridges are built in the city. These include Latifabad unit # 7 flyover, Hala Naka flyover, Sakhi Abdul Wahab flyover near railway station, Hosh Mohammad Sheedi flyover at Latif Chowk, Shahbaz Qalandar flyover at Shahbaz chowk and Ghulam Shah Kalhoro flyover at Railway crossing on Hyderabad-Mirpurkhas Road.
An expo center of international standards is also built near channel road. However, no major exhibition has been held yet.
Two filter plants to filter fresh water have been built at a cost of about Rs. 80,000,000. Their inclusion in the water system would ensure continuous supply of clean drinking water.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2014)|
Hyderabad is noteworthy in Sindh and Pakistan generally for its comparative tolerance towards religious and ethnic minorities. The independence of Pakistan in 1947 saw the influx of Muslim Urdu-speaking Muhajirs from India fleeing from anti-Muslim pograms. As per the census of Pakistan 1998, Sindhi & Muhajirs account for a majority of the population; other communities in the city include a large number of Punjabis, Saraikis, Pashtuns, Memons and Balochs.
A large influx of Pashtuns or Pakhtuns and Punjabis were attracted to Hyderabad after the Indus treaty settlement. Most Punjabis and Pashtuns or Pakhtuns are distinct and separately living near the railway station and its vicinity. The city therefore has cosmopolitan atmosphere with multiethnic and multicultural communities.
Hindus account for the largest religious minority forming 5% of the total population of the city. While Christians account for 1% of the total population, Hyderabad is the seat of a Diocese of the Church of Pakistan and has five churches and a cathedral.
Cricket is the most popular game in Hyderabad. The city is home to the cricket team Hyderabad Hawks. Their home ground is the Niaz Stadium. It has a seating capacity of 25,000, known for the first ever hat-trick in an One Day International (ODI) taken by the Pakistani bowler Jalal-ud-Din against Australia in 1982. Many test matches were also played at Niaz Stadium. Nowadays many visiting test playing countries refuse to play in Hyderabad because of lack of 5 star hotel. Hyderabad also has a hockey stadium. There is another stadium in Latifabad called Board Stadium mostly catering to school sports under the supervision of BISE (Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education) Hyderabad.
Hyderabad attracts students from the lesser developed regions of Sindh. The city has a large number of schools, colleges and universities.
A former nerve center of Sindhi nationalist and literary movements, the city has better education facilities and new universities, colleges and schools. At one time a hub of economic, educational and cultural activities, a breeding ground of academicians, philanthropists, writers, lawyers, politicians, journalists, actors and actresses, Hyderabad also had its industrialists, trade unionists, political activists, bureaucrats, bankers and diplomats who made a significant contribution to Pakistani society. But this gracious city now seems to be slowly dying, although it still produces over a couple of dozen major and minor newspapers in both Sindhi and Urdu.
The University of Sindh  is the dominant player in educational reforms since its inception in 1947. The University of Sindh, the second oldest university of the country, was constituted under the University of Sindh Act. No. XVII of 1947 passed by the Legislative Assembly of Sindh. It was founded in Karachi and relocated to Hyderabad in 1951, only because the city was re-enacted as the capital of the province of Sindh. It has 32 colleges affiliated with it. Main campus of the university is located outside Hyderabad city in Jamshoro town Jamshoro district along with other universities like the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Sindh's first medical school. It also has a Nursing school and Dental school. Sindh Agriculture University in Tando Jam is still in Hyderabad district and focus primarily on agriculture and horticulture. Other universities in the private sector in Hyderabad city include University of East and Isra University.
Most of the colleges are affiliated with the universities above but some enjoy repute built of time like the oldest being the Government Degree College now renamed Government College of Technology, Government Poly-technical college.
Intermediate level colleges in Hyderabad city includes:
Hyderabad is home to a few museums that store the cultural heritage of this land of religious and ethnic diversity. The Institute of Sindhology Museum and the Sindh Museum are a haven for Sindhi enthusiasts in ethnological contexts. Sindh Museum also hosts archæological treasures from Amri. Whilst there are a few libraries in the city, most of them are in a sad state. There is a children's library opposite Lady Duffrin Hospital on Station road, very few people know about its existence. Work is going on Moullana Hasrat Mohani library near pukka kila main gate in the Homestead Hall building. Allama Daudpota Library near Sindh Museum in Qasimabad stores literary work dating back to the earliest Sindhi text.
Serving as a socio-economic crossroad to the lesser developed cities and towns in Sindh and linking and networking them with the bigger towns and cities in the nation, Hyderabad holds importance as a vital transportation link via every service. It can be reached by every mean of transportation, be it air, land, water or rail.
The city has a modestly good airport. The operation was stopped for some years but the airport has started operating again from late 2008. There are 2 flights every week from Hyderabad. Currently the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines, operates prop aircraft into the city with flights to other cities within Pakistan.PIA is established in 1954, is the national carrier; until the mid-1990s it was the sole domestic carrier, but since then a number of small regional airlines and charter services have been established. (
Hyderabad has a decent road network, but most of the roads are being redone by the National Highway Authority. Hyderabad is deemed the most important milestone on the National Highway which passes through the city. The highway divides into Route N5 going southwest and M9 going north while it forks into the GT Road N5/KLP (Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, ) Road and the Hala Road. Over the years, the M9 has had massive construction work to include six lanes across its 136 km span being the most used highway in Pakistan while the N5 has two lanes to cater to its lesser traffic needs. However, the public has stressed to improve the conditions of the roads within Hyderabad.
There are seven large bus terminals within the city. Some of the most busiest are the Badin Bus Stop near SITE, Tando Bago Coach Stop, Jacobabad-Larkana Bus Stop at Pathan Colony, Nawab Shah Bus Stand at Halla Nakka, Sanghar Coach Stop near Civil Hospital, Karachi Bus Stand near Qasim Chowk and Sammi Daewoo Bus Service To Karachi at Auto-Bhan Road and Latifabad U7.
Hyderabad has a rich rail history. From the starting days of the Scinde Railways to the purchase of the private railway company by the North-Western Railway now Pakistan Railways, Hyderabad has been a major junction on the rail-line, where railway lines proceed in at least three directions: northwards (up-country), southwards (down-country) and eastwards. The railway station is called the Hyderabad Junction railway station. It was built under the British rule in 1890. The city with increasing need of transport facility is still facing a real trouble with respect to the rail transport. One full-fledged while two little stations in detha and tando jam are not satisfying the demands for rail travel.
With the city at the banks of the Indus River, the fishermen tend to use riverboats to fish and travel across the waters. Riverboats are not accessible to general public but local fishermen, in attempts of making money for their daily ration, sail people aboard their fishing ferries at Al-manzar, a restaurant at the banks of the Indus.
Buses and trucks have displaced rail as the principal long-distance carrier. A program of deregulation of the road transport industry was undertaken in 1970 and encouraged the entry of a large number of independent operators into the sector. Trucks and tractor-drawn trailers have largely displaced the traditional bullock cart for local transport of produce to markets, but in many rural areas animal power is still crucial to economic survival. Air transport of cargo and passengers has become increasingly important.
All the main cities are connected by major highways, and Pakistan is connected to each of its neighbours, including China, by road. The great majority of roads are paved. The country's main rail route runs more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north from Karachi to Peshawar, via Lahore and Rawalpindi. Another main line branches northwestward from Sukkur to Quetta.
As tradition goes, Sindh had always been a hub for Sufi poets. With a foothold on strong educational foundations, the city of Hyderabad was made into a refuge for thriving literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg received education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and carried the banner of Sindhi literature across borders. Modern novelists, writers, columnists and researchers like Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Ghulam Mustafa Khan and Qabil Ajmeri also hail from Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has served many Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the history of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are published in the city. A few worth mention dailies are the Kawish, Ibrat, and Daily Sindh.
With the inauguration of a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950, it was possible to lay the foundations for the Hyderabad radio station in 1951. The initial broadcast was made capable using 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the first successful transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in October 1998, the Government decided on opening transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found success. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to Hyderabad and other cities in Sindh.
A relief from the regular broadcasts in other cities, entertainment content on the Hyderabad radio gave birth to many a star whose names became an attribute to Hyderabad's richer media content. Among them were actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had recently finished his postgraduate degree from the University of Sindh. Such fresh and young talent became a trademark to entertainment in Hyderabad.
Whilst radio was gaining popularity, bulky television screens showed the broadcast of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon. Pakistan Television had only had half-a-decade broadcast success from 1963 to 1969 that people in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a mark on the television circuits. Prominent radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station like Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting skills on the television. Television shows and content enriched with the inclusion of Hyderabadi names however PTV never opened a television station in Hyderabad.
While the year 2005 saw new FM regular stations set up at Gawadar, Mianwali, Sargodha, Kohat, Bannu and Mithi, private radio channels began airing in and around Hyderabad. Of late, stations like Sachal FM 105 and some others have gained popularity. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and current affairs platform renders the services of such stations of not much value to the masses but nonetheless appealing to youngsters.
As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) gave licenses to private radio channels, so were television channels owned privately given a right to broadcast from the year 2002, and Daily Kawish, a prominent Sindhi newspaper published from Hyderabad opened a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Many followed in its path namely Sindh_TV, Dhoom TV and Kashish TV premièring Sindhi content. www.transport.gos.pk (Official website of Transport Department, Government of Sindh)
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