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How to Make Hydraulic Powered Robotic Arm from Cardboard
How to Make Hydraulic Powered Robotic Arm from Cardboard
Published: 2017/03/18
Channel: The Q
Basic of Hydraulics 1 OF 16 | Mechanical Engineering
Basic of Hydraulics 1 OF 16 | Mechanical Engineering
Published: 2014/12/25
Channel: rockey rock
Hydraulics Contest - NOPI Car Show
Hydraulics Contest - NOPI Car Show
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: Primecutpro
hydraulic and pneumatic part 1
hydraulic and pneumatic part 1
Published: 2008/08/25
Channel: deyidt
Hydraulic Lowrider Cars Defy Gravity
Hydraulic Lowrider Cars Defy Gravity
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: Barcroft Cars
Lowrider in the Drive-thru
Lowrider in the Drive-thru
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: ThatWasEpic
Hydraulic SDCC P-71 Cop Car Cosplay Comic Con Police SDPD #throughglass
Hydraulic SDCC P-71 Cop Car Cosplay Comic Con Police SDPD #throughglass
Published: 2014/08/02
Channel: Cereal Marshmallows
I SHOULD
I SHOULD'VE NEVER DONE THAT !! - CRUSH BATTERY WITH HYDRAULIC PRESS - THE SMASHER SHOW
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: Experiment at Home
07 Hydraulic System
07 Hydraulic System
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: ERAUSpecialVFR
How The Hydraulics Machine Works - Documentary Movies
How The Hydraulics Machine Works - Documentary Movies
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Documentary Movies
GTA 5 Online Funny Moments - Lowrider Hydraulics & Machete Battles!
GTA 5 Online Funny Moments - Lowrider Hydraulics & Machete Battles!
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: VanossGaming
How to Make a Powerful Hydraulic Jack using Syringe
How to Make a Powerful Hydraulic Jack using Syringe
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: BOBKA TV
Learn hydraulics - 4/2 Directional control valve
Learn hydraulics - 4/2 Directional control valve
Published: 2014/07/25
Channel: Aladár Lakatos
Basic Hydraulics
Basic Hydraulics
Published: 2010/09/15
Channel: HeWasShowingOff
How To Hop with Hydraulics Lowrider
How To Hop with Hydraulics Lowrider
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Russell Harris Lowrider Hydraulics
Animation How basic hydraulic circuit works. ✔
Animation How basic hydraulic circuit works. ✔
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: TechTrixInfo.com
How It’s Made Hydraulic Cylinders
How It’s Made Hydraulic Cylinders
Published: 2015/06/11
Channel: How It’s Made
Making hydraulic cylinder
Making hydraulic cylinder
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Make it Extreme
Hydraulics (1936)
Hydraulics (1936)
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: US Auto Industry
How to Make Hydraulic Powered Claw Machine from Cardboard
How to Make Hydraulic Powered Claw Machine from Cardboard
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: The Q
Open Loop vs Closed Loop Hydraulics
Open Loop vs Closed Loop Hydraulics
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: APT Specialist Hydraulics and Training
Dodge Dakota Bed Dancer Lowrider, Airride Buick 1955, Hydraulics on a Caddy Fleetwood & more 43
Dodge Dakota Bed Dancer Lowrider, Airride Buick 1955, Hydraulics on a Caddy Fleetwood & more 43
Published: 2015/12/29
Channel: Food for Dude
Uncle Luke - Hydraulics Cap D Comin
Uncle Luke - Hydraulics Cap D Comin
Published: 2010/04/06
Channel: MrSetteitoff
Hydraulics Lift Made From Syringe
Hydraulics Lift Made From Syringe
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: De Facto
car  hydraulics suspensions
car hydraulics suspensions
Published: 2012/10/30
Channel: yasser khoder
AFTER HOP/ HYDRAULIC SHOW 2015 LAS VEGAS
AFTER HOP/ HYDRAULIC SHOW 2015 LAS VEGAS
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: AHAT Battle Rap League
Lifted Box Chevy with Hydraulics
Lifted Box Chevy with Hydraulics
Published: 2014/04/10
Channel: Primecutpro
How to Make a Remote Control Hydraulic Excavator / JCB at Home
How to Make a Remote Control Hydraulic Excavator / JCB at Home
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Navin Khambhala # crazyNK
HYDRAULIC contest gone BAD! 2017
HYDRAULIC contest gone BAD! 2017
Published: 2011/07/25
Channel: manuel rocha
Hydraulics | GCSE Physics | Doodle Science
Hydraulics | GCSE Physics | Doodle Science
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Channel: DoodleScience
Hydraulics: GCSE revision
Hydraulics: GCSE revision
Published: 2014/01/05
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1964 Impala testing the Hydraulics on "Midnight Rush"
1964 Impala testing the Hydraulics on "Midnight Rush"
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Sixtaillights
Fluid Mechanics (Hydraulics) Part-1 TA0001
Fluid Mechanics (Hydraulics) Part-1 TA0001
Published: 2016/09/11
Channel: Technical Atyachar
EXPERIMENT HYDRAULIC PRESS 100 TON vs 1000 Sheets of Paper
EXPERIMENT HYDRAULIC PRESS 100 TON vs 1000 Sheets of Paper
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Life Hacks & Experiments
Mike Rowe rides high on hydraulics
Mike Rowe rides high on hydraulics
Published: 2015/06/02
Channel: CNN
Simple Hydraulic System Working and simulation
Simple Hydraulic System Working and simulation
Published: 2014/07/28
Channel: Sriram Balasubramanian
Fundamentals of Hydraulics
Fundamentals of Hydraulics
Published: 2014/09/21
Channel: Tyler Phillis
Crushing Adamantium with Hydraulic Press
Crushing Adamantium with Hydraulic Press
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Hydraulic Press Channel
EXPERIMENT HYDRAULIC PRESS 100 TON vs iPhone
EXPERIMENT HYDRAULIC PRESS 100 TON vs iPhone
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Life Hacks & Experiments
Lowrider Honda Civic, Airride Skoda Fabia, Hydraulics Pick Up Truck & more 25
Lowrider Honda Civic, Airride Skoda Fabia, Hydraulics Pick Up Truck & more 25
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Food for Dude
Orange 86 monte carlo w/ hydraulics
Orange 86 monte carlo w/ hydraulics
Published: 2008/08/17
Channel: Phillip5029
HYDRAULIC PUMP IN 3D
HYDRAULIC PUMP IN 3D
Published: 2011/11/03
Channel: MadBursa
How Hydraulic Ram Works. ✔
How Hydraulic Ram Works. ✔
Published: 2012/10/04
Channel: TechTrixInfo.com
Keaira LaShae HYDRAULICS Dance Workout - Uncle Luke
Keaira LaShae HYDRAULICS Dance Workout - Uncle Luke
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: superherofitnesstv
Pascal
Pascal's Law and Hydraulic Brake System
Published: 2010/05/06
Channel: TutorVista
How to Make Hydraulic JCB From Cardboard
How to Make Hydraulic JCB From Cardboard
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Mr Ax : The BackBencher Experiment
How to Easily Fix Tractor Hydraulics
How to Easily Fix Tractor Hydraulics
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: Dan Gingell and Rachel Gingell
Crushing 1500 sheets of Paper with Hydraulic Press
Crushing 1500 sheets of Paper with Hydraulic Press
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: Hydraulic Press Channel
Hydraulics Fundamentals Pascal
Hydraulics Fundamentals Pascal's Law
Published: 2011/05/20
Channel: Columbia Gorge Community College
Homemade Hydraulic Cylinders, Excavator Arms, Hexapod - Bullet Blender
Homemade Hydraulic Cylinders, Excavator Arms, Hexapod - Bullet Blender
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: Phymec
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Hydraulic)
Jump to: navigation, search
Hydraulics and other studies[1]
An open channel, with a uniform depth, Open Channel Hydraulics deals with uniform and non-uniform streams.
Illustration of hydraulic and hydrostatic.[2]

Hydraulics (From Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics, which concerns gases. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In its fluid power applications, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps. The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the human body within the heart and the penile erection.[3][4] Free surface hydraulics is the branch of hydraulics dealing with free surface flow, such as occurring in rivers, canals, lakes, estuaries and seas. Its sub-field open channel flow studies the flow in open channels.

The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός (hydraulikos) which in turn originates from ὕδωρ (hydor, Greek for water) and αὐλός (aulos, meaning pipe).

Ancient and medieval era[edit]

Waterwheel.

Early uses of water power date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, where irrigation has been used since the 6th millennium BC and water clocks had been used since the early 2nd millennium BC. Other early examples of water power include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the Turpan water system in ancient Central Asia.

Greek / Hellenistic age[edit]

The Greeks constructed sophisticated water and hydraulic power systems. An example is the construction by Eupalinos, under a public contract, of a watering channel for Samos, the Tunnel of Eupalinos. An early example of the usage of hydraulic wheel, probably the earliest in Europe, is the Perachora wheel (3rd century BC).[5]

The construction of the first hydraulic automata by Ctesibius (flourished c. 270 BC) and Hero of Alexandria (c. 10 – 80 AD) is notable. Hero describes a number of working machines using hydraulic power, such as the force pump, which is known from many Roman sites as having been used for raising water and in fire engines.[6][citation needed]

China[edit]

In ancient China there was Sunshu Ao (6th century BC), Ximen Bao (5th century BC), Du Shi (circa 31 AD), Zhang Heng (78 – 139 AD), and Ma Jun (200 – 265 AD), while medieval China had Su Song (1020 – 1101 AD) and Shen Kuo (1031–1095). Du Shi employed a waterwheel to power the bellows of a blast furnace producing cast iron. Zhang Heng was the first to employ hydraulics to provide motive power in rotating an armillary sphere for astronomical observation.[7][citation needed]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Moat and gardens at Sigiriya.

In ancient Sri Lanka, hydraulics were widely used in the ancient kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa.[8] The discovery of the principle of the valve tower, or valve pit, (Bisokotuwa in Sinhalese) for regulating the escape of water is credited to ingenuity more than 2,000 years ago.[9] By the first century AD, several large-scale irrigation works had been completed.[10] Macro- and micro-hydraulics to provide for domestic horticultural and agricultural needs, surface drainage and erosion control, ornamental and recreational water courses and retaining structures and also cooling systems were in place in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka. The coral on the massive rock at the site includes cisterns for collecting water. Large ancient reservoirs of Sri Lanka are Kalawewa (King Dhatusena), Parakrama Samudra (King Parakrama Bahu), Tisa Wewa (King Dutugamunu), Minneriya (King Mahasen)

Innovations in Ancient Rome[edit]

Aqueduct of Segovia, a 1st-century AD masterpiece.

In Ancient Rome, many different hydraulic applications were developed, including public water supplies, innumerable aqueducts, power using watermills and hydraulic mining. They were among the first to make use of the siphon to carry water across valleys, and used hushing on a large scale to prospect for and then extract metal ores. They used lead widely in plumbing systems for domestic and public supply, such as feeding thermae.[citation needed]

Hydraulic mining was used in the gold-fields of northern Spain, which was conquered by Augustus in 25 BC. The alluvial gold-mine of Las Medulas was one of the largest of their mines. It was worked by at least 7 long aqueducts, and the water streams were used to erode the soft deposits, and then wash the tailings for the valuable gold content.[11][12][13][citation needed]

Modern era (c. 1600 – 1870)[edit]

Benedetto Castelli[edit]

In 1619 Benedetto Castelli (1576 – 1578–1643), a student of Galileo Galilei, published the book Della Misura dell'Acque Correnti or "On the Measurement of Running Waters", one of the foundations of modern hydrodynamics. He served as a chief consultant to the Pope on hydraulic projects, i.e., management of rivers in the Papal States, beginning in 1626.[14]

Blaise Pascal[edit]

Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) studied fluid hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids. His inventions include the hydraulic press, which multiplied a smaller force acting on a smaller area into the application of a larger force totaled over a larger area, transmitted through the same pressure (or same change of pressure) at both locations. Pascal's law or principle states that for an incompressible fluid at rest, the difference in pressure is proportional to the difference in height and this difference remains the same whether or not the overall pressure of the fluid is changed by applying an external force. This implies that by increasing the pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container, i.e., any change in pressure applied at any point of the fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluids.

Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille[edit]

A French physician, Poiseuille researched the flow of blood through the body and discovered an important law governing the rate of flow with the diameter of the tube in which flow occurred.[15][citation needed]

In the UK[edit]

Several cities developed citywide hydraulic power networks in the 19th century, to operate machinery such as lifts, cranes, capstans and the like. Joseph Bramah[16] was an early innovator and William Armstrong[17] perfected the apparatus for power delivery on an industrial scale. In London, the London Hydraulic Power Company[18] was a major supplier its pipes serving large parts of the West End of London, City and the Docks, but there were schemes restricted to single enterprises such as docks and railway goods yards.

Hydraulic models[edit]

After students understand the basic principles of hydraulics, some teachers use a hydraulic analogy to help students learn other things. For example:

  • The MONIAC Computer uses water flowing through hydraulic components to help students learn about economics.
  • The thermal-hydraulic analogy uses hydraulic principles to help students learn about thermal circuits.
  • The electronic–hydraulic analogy uses hydraulic principles to help students learn about electronics.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ NEZU Iehisa (1995), Suirigaku, Ryutai-rikigaku, Asakura Shoten, p. 17, ISBN 4-254-26135-7. 
  2. ^ "hidraulica Archivos – Zona Ingenieria". 
  3. ^ http://www.industrialoutpost.com/human-circulatory-system-heart-modern-hydraulic/[full citation needed]
  4. ^ Meldrum, David R.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Dorey, Grace; Esposito, Katherine; Ignarro, Louis J. (2014). "Erectile Hydraulics: Maximizing Inflow While Minimizing Outflow". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 11 (5): 1208–20. PMID 24521101. doi:10.1111/jsm.12457. 
  5. ^ Tomlinson, R. A. (2013). "The Perachora Waterworks: Addenda". The Annual of the British School at Athens. 71: 147–8. JSTOR 30103359. doi:10.1017/S0068245400005864. 
  6. ^ Museum, Victoria and Albert. "Catalogue of the mechanical engineering collection in the Science Division of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, with descriptive and historical notes." Ulan Press. 2012.
  7. ^ 1974-, Fu, Chunjiang,; Liping., Yang,; N., Han, Y.; Editorial., Asiapac (2006). Origins of Chinese science and technology. Asiapac. ISBN 9812293760. OCLC 71370433. 
  8. ^ "SriLanka-A Country study" (PDF). USA Government, Department of Army. 1990. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  9. ^ "SriLanka – History". Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  10. ^ "Traditional SriLanka or Ceylon". Sam Houston State University. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  11. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Las Médulas". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-06-13. 
  12. ^ ricardo (2014-10-30). "Las Médulas". Castilla y León World Heritage UNESCO (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-06-13. 
  13. ^ Bird, David. Pliny's Arrugia Water Mining in Roman Gold-Mining. Papers Presented at the National Association of Mining History Organizations' Conference July 2002. Obtained from: http://www.goldchartsrus.com/papers/PlinysArrugia-WaterPowerInRomanGoldMining.pdf
  14. ^ "The Galileo Project – Science – Benedetto Castelli". 
  15. ^ Sutera and Skalak, Salvatore and Richard. The History of Poiseuille's Law. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1993. 25: 1-19.
  16. ^ "Joseph Bramah". Robinsonlibrary.com. 2014-03-23. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 
  17. ^ "William George Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Cragside (1810-1900)". Victorianweb.org. 2005-12-22. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 
  18. ^ "Subterranea Britannica: Sites: Hydraulic power in London". Subbrit.org.uk. 1981-09-25. Retrieved 2014-04-08. 

References[edit]

  • Rāshid, Rushdī; Morelon, Régis (1996), Encyclopedia of the history of Arabic science, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-12410-2. 

External links[edit]

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