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Hyponymy and hypernymy
Hyponymy and hypernymy
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: WikiWikiup
Hyponymy & Meronymy Part 1 - Hyponymy
Hyponymy & Meronymy Part 1 - Hyponymy
Published: 2008/10/24
Channel: Siti Zubaidah Abdul Muttalib
Group Troupe
Group Troupe's Hyponymy Lesson (Part 1 of 3)
Published: 2008/10/23
Channel: wh1803
Semantics Lexical Relations (Introduction to Linguistics)
Semantics Lexical Relations (Introduction to Linguistics)
Published: 2016/12/28
Channel: Putri Intan Nurhidayati
13. semantics (synonym, antonym, homonym, hyponym, polyseme, idioms)
13. semantics (synonym, antonym, homonym, hyponym, polyseme, idioms)
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Positive thinker
What Hyponym Means
What Hyponym Means
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: SDictionary
Hypernym Meaning
Hypernym Meaning
Published: 2015/04/19
Channel: SDictionary
Hyponymy & Meronymy Part 3 - Putting both together
Hyponymy & Meronymy Part 3 - Putting both together
Published: 2008/10/24
Channel: Siti Zubaidah Abdul Muttalib
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
Hyponymy Meaning
Hyponymy Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
How to say "hyponym"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "hyponym"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: WordBox
[Inheritance1, Video 2] Hypernyms and Hyponyms
[Inheritance1, Video 2] Hypernyms and Hyponyms
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Josh Hug
Hyponyms and Homonyms
Hyponyms and Homonyms
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Andrea Paez
hiponimia e hiperonimia
hiponimia e hiperonimia
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Jrobles apostolic
Remembering the Hypernym - Site Explanation
Remembering the Hypernym - Site Explanation
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Mark Vanek
A TALE OF SEMANTICS
A TALE OF SEMANTICS
Published: 2009/05/27
Channel: kampsinheaven
Hypernymy Meaning
Hypernymy Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
Hyponymy & Meronymy Part 2 - Meronymy
Hyponymy & Meronymy Part 2 - Meronymy
Published: 2008/10/24
Channel: Siti Zubaidah Abdul Muttalib
What are Hyponymy, Synonymy, and Anatonymy?
What are Hyponymy, Synonymy, and Anatonymy?
Published: 2009/12/02
Channel: frlibra2003
putting concepts together 1
putting concepts together 1
Published: 2011/03/17
Channel: Linda Hanson
Semantics - Lexical Relationships (Linguistics / Dilbilim 84)
Semantics - Lexical Relationships (Linguistics / Dilbilim 84)
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Eyüp Dilber
Group Troupe
Group Troupe's Hyponymy Lesson (Part 2 of 3)
Published: 2008/10/24
Channel: wh1803
Hyponym_Violet Pon_Part 1 of 2
Hyponym_Violet Pon_Part 1 of 2
Published: 2008/10/23
Channel: 202Assignment
hyponym
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Published: 2015/09/20
Channel: Apiwat toonkeaw
What does hypernym mean?
What does hypernym mean?
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: What Does That Mean?
HYPONYMS – HOMONYMS
HYPONYMS – HOMONYMS
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: JOhanna Sandoval
What is AUTOMATIC TAXONOMY CONSTRUCTION? What does AUTOMATIC TAXONOMY CONSTRUCTION mean?
What is AUTOMATIC TAXONOMY CONSTRUCTION? What does AUTOMATIC TAXONOMY CONSTRUCTION mean?
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: The Audiopedia
Hyponym_Violet Pon_Part 2 of 2
Hyponym_Violet Pon_Part 2 of 2
Published: 2008/10/23
Channel: 202Assignment
What is MERONYMY? WHat does MERONYMY mean? MERONYMY meaning, definition & explanation
What is MERONYMY? WHat does MERONYMY mean? MERONYMY meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: The Audiopedia
What does cohyponym mean?
What does cohyponym mean?
Published: 2015/03/25
Channel: What Does That Mean?
HYPONYMY
HYPONYMY
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Perla Parra
hypernym - superordinate
hypernym - superordinate
Published: 2013/06/20
Channel: wordsuit
The Parable of Jesus and The Hyponyms
The Parable of Jesus and The Hyponyms
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: David W. Jones
What does hypernymy mean?
What does hypernymy mean?
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Cohyponym Meaning
Cohyponym Meaning
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: ADictionary
Hyponymy_Joanne Tay n Co.
Hyponymy_Joanne Tay n Co.
Published: 2008/10/23
Channel: cescajo
How to Pronounce Hyponym
How to Pronounce Hyponym
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Emma Saying
Meronymy_Zarita
Meronymy_Zarita
Published: 2008/10/23
Channel: maxfizal
[obsolete video, oops!]
[obsolete video, oops!]
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Josh Hug
What Is Antonymy?
What Is Antonymy?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
Hyponymy_HelloKids_Part 2 of 2
Hyponymy_HelloKids_Part 2 of 2
Published: 2008/10/21
Channel: kumzy13
How to say "hyponymic"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "hyponymic"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: WordBox
What is POLYSEMY? What does POLYSEMY mean? POLYSEMY meaning, definition & explanation
What is POLYSEMY? What does POLYSEMY mean? POLYSEMY meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: The Audiopedia
Thuyết trình Hyponymy - 56NNA - Phương Quang và Xuân Quang
Thuyết trình Hyponymy - 56NNA - Phương Quang và Xuân Quang
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: Xuân Quang Nguyễn
Not All Contexts Are Equal - Automatic Identification of Antonyms, Hypernyms...
Not All Contexts Are Equal - Automatic Identification of Antonyms, Hypernyms...
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: Enrico Santus
How to Pronounce Hyponym
How to Pronounce Hyponym
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How to Pronounce Hyponyms
How to Pronounce Hyponyms
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
How to Pronounce Hyponym
How to Pronounce Hyponym
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
How to pronounce hyponym
How to pronounce hyponym
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: How to pronounce
How to pronounce hyponymy
How to pronounce hyponymy
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: How to pronounce
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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An example of the relationship between hyponyms and hypernym

In linguistics, a hyponym (from Greek hupó, "under" and ónoma, "name") is a word or phrase whose semantic field[1] is included within that of another word, its hyperonym or hypernym (from Greek hupér, "over" and ónoma, "name").[2] In simpler terms, a hyponym shares a type-of relationship with its hypernym. For example, pigeon, crow, eagle and seagull are all hyponyms of bird (their hyperonym); which, in turn, is a hyponym of animal.[3]

Hyponyms and hypernyms[edit]

Hyponymy shows the relationship between a generic term (hypernym) and a specific instance of it (hyponym). A hyponym is a word or phrase whose semantic field is more specific than its hypernym. The semantic field of a hypernym, also known as a superordinate, is broader than that of a hyponym. An approach to the relationship between hyponyms and hypernyms is to view a hypernym as consisting of hyponyms. This, however, becomes more difficult with abstract words such as imagine, understand and knowledge. While hyponyms are typically used to refer to nouns, it can also be used on other parts of speech. Like nouns, hyponyms in verbs are words that refer to a broad category of actions[dubious ]. For example, verbs such as stare, gaze, view and peer can also be considered hyponyms of the verb look.

Hypernyms and hyponyms are asymmetric. Hyponymy can be tested by substituting X and Y in the sentence ‘X is a kind of Y’ and determining if it makes sense.[4] For example, ‘A screwdriver is a kind of tool’ makes sense but not ‘A tool is a kind of screwdriver’.

Strictly speaking, the meaning relation between hyponyms and hypernyms applies to lexical items of the same word class (or parts of speech), and holds between senses rather than words. For instance, the word screwdriver used in the previous example refers to the tool for turning a screw, and not to the drink made with vodka and orange juice.

Hyponymy is a transitive relation, if X is a hyponym of Y, and Y is a hyponym of Z, then X is a hyponym of Z.[5] For example, violet is a hyponym of purple and purple is a hyponym of color; therefore violet is a hyponym of color. In addition, it should be noted that a word can be both a hypernym and a hyponym: for example purple is a hyponym of colour but itself is a hypernym of the broad spectrum of shades of purple between the range of crimson and violet.

The hierarchical structure of semantic fields can be mostly seen in hyponymy. They could be observed from top to bottom, where the higher level is more general and the lower level is more specific. For example, living things will be the highest level followed by plants and animals, and the lowest level may comprise dog, cat and wolf.[6]

Under the relations of hyponymy and incompatibility, taxonomic hierarchical structures too can be formed. It consists of two relations; the first one being exemplified in 'An X is a Y' (simple hyponymy) while the second relation is 'An X is a kind/type of Y'. The second relation is said to be more discriminating and can be classified more specifically under the concept of taxonomy.[7]

Co-hyponyms[edit]

If the hypernym Z consists of hyponyms X and Y, X and Y are identified as co-hyponyms. Co-hyponyms are labelled as such when separate hyponyms share the same hypernym but are not hyponyms of one another, unless they happen to be synonymous.[4] For example, screwdriver, scissors, knife, and hammer are all co-hyponyms of tool, but not hyponyms of one another: *‘A hammer is a type of knife’ is false.

Co-hyponyms are often but not always related to one another by the relation of incompatibility. For example, apple, peach and plum are co-hyponyms of fruit. However, an apple is not a peach, which is also not a plum. Thus, they are incompatible. Nevertheless, co-hyponyms are not necessarily incompatible in all senses. A queen and mother are both hyponyms of woman but there is nothing preventing the queen from being a mother.[8] This shows that compatibility may be relevant.

Usage[edit]

Computer science often terms this relationship an "is-a" relationship. For example, the phrase 'Red is-a colour' can be used to describe the hyponymic relationship between red and colour.

Hyponymy is the most frequently encoded relation among synsets used in lexical databases such as WordNet. These semantic relations can also be used to compare semantic similarity by judging the distance between two synsets and to analyse Anaphora.

As a hypernym can be understood as a more general word than its hyponym, the relation is used in semantic compression by generalization to reduce a level of specialization.

The notion of hyponymy is particularly relevant to language translation, as hyponyms are very common across languages. For example, in Japanese the word for older brother is ani (), and the word for younger brother is otōto (). An English-to-Japanese translator presented with a phrase containing the English word brother would have to choose which Japanese word equivalent to use. This would be difficult, because abstract information (such as the speakers' relative ages) is often not available during machine translation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brinton, Laurel J. (2000). The Structure of Modern English: A Linguistic Introduction (Illustrated ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 112. ISBN 978-90-272-2567-2. 
  2. ^ Stede, Manfred (June 2000). "The hyperonym problem revisited: Conceptual and lexical hierarchies in language generation - W00-1413" (PDF). Association for Computational Linguistics. pp. 93–99. doi:10.3115/1118253.1118267. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Fromkin, Victoria; Robert, Rodman (1998). Introduction to Language (6th ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. ISBN 0-03-018682-X. [page needed]
  4. ^ a b Maienborn, Claudia; von Heusinger, Klaus; Portner, Paul (eds.) (2011). Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 978-3-11-018470-9. 
  5. ^ Lyons, John (1977). Semantics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-129165-1. 
  6. ^ Gao, Chunming; Xu, Bin (November 2013). "The Application of Semantic Field Theory to English Vocabulary Learning". Theory and Practice in Language studies. 3 (11): 2030–2035. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  7. ^ Green, Rebecca; Bean, Carol A.; Sung, Hyon Myaeng (2002). The Semantics of Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 12. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  8. ^ Cruse, D. A. (2004). Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics (PDF) (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 162. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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