Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include weight loss, decreased salt intake, physical exercise, and a healthy diet. If lifestyle changes are not sufficient blood pressure medications are used. Up to three medications controls blood pressure in 90% of people. The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy. The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 140/90 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit and others not finding benefit. High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally. In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% (9.4 million) deaths.
Hypertension is rarely accompanied by any symptoms, and its identification is usually through screening, or when seeking healthcare for an unrelated problem. Some with high blood pressure report headaches (particularly at the back of the head and in the morning), as well as lightheadedness, vertigo, tinnitus (buzzing or hissing in the ears), altered vision or fainting episodes. These symptoms, however, might be related to associated anxiety rather than the high blood pressure itself.
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crisis is categorized as either hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency, according to the absence or presence of end organ damage, respectively.
In hypertensive urgency, there is no evidence of end organ damage resulting from the elevated blood pressure. In these cases, oral medications are used to lower the BP gradually over 24 to 48 hours.
In hypertensive emergency, there is evidence of direct damage to one or more organs. The most affected organs include the brain, kidney, heart and lungs, producing symptoms which may include confusion, drowsiness, chest pain and breathlessness. In hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure must be reduced more rapidly to stop ongoing organ damage, however, there is a lack of randomised controlled trial evidence for this approach.
Hypertension occurs in approximately 8–10% of pregnancies. Two blood pressure measurements six hours apart of greater than 140/90 mm Hg is considered diagnostic of hypertension in pregnancy. High blood pressure in pregnancy can be classified as pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia.
Hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Numerous common genetic variants with small effects on blood pressure have been identified as well as some rare genetic variants with large effects on blood pressure. Also, GWAS have identified 35 genetic loci related to blood pressure; 12 of these genetic loci influencing blood pressure were newly found. Sentinel SNP for each new genetic loci identified has shown an association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby Cpg sites. These sentinel SNP are located within genes related to vascular smooth muscle and renal function. DNA methylation might affect in some way linking common genetic variation to multiple phenotypes even though mechanisms underlying these associations are not understood. Single variant test performed in this study for the 35 sentinel SNP (known and new) showed that genetic variants singly or in aggregate contribute to risk of clinical phenotypes related to high blood pressure.
Blood pressure rises with aging and the risk of becoming hypertensive in later life is considerable. Several environmental factors influence blood pressure. High salt intake raises the blood pressure in salt sensitive individuals; lack of exercise, obesity, stress, and depression can play a role in individual cases. The possible role of other factors such as caffeine consumption, and vitamin D deficiency are less clear. Insulin resistance, which is common in obesity and is a component of syndrome X (or the metabolic syndrome), is also thought to contribute to hypertension. Events in early life, such as low birth weight, maternal smoking, and lack of breast feeding may be risk factors for adult essential hypertension, although the mechanisms linking these exposures to adult hypertension remain unclear. An increased rate of high blood urea has been found in untreated people with hypertensive in comparison with people with normal blood pressure, although it is uncertain whether the former plays a causal role or is subsidiary to poor kidney function.
Illustration depicting the effects of high blood pressure
In most people with established essential hypertension, increased resistance to blood flow (total peripheral resistance) accounts for the high pressure while cardiac output remains normal. There is evidence that some younger people with prehypertension or 'borderline hypertension' have high cardiac output, an elevated heart rate and normal peripheral resistance, termed hyperkinetic borderline hypertension. These individuals develop the typical features of established essential hypertension in later life as their cardiac output falls and peripheral resistance rises with age. Whether this pattern is typical of all people who ultimately develop hypertension is disputed. The increased peripheral resistance in established hypertension is mainly attributable to structural narrowing of small arteries and arterioles, although a reduction in the number or density of capillaries may also contribute. Whether increased active arteriolar vasoconstriction plays a role in established essential hypertension is unclear. Hypertension is also associated with decreased peripheral venous compliance which may increase venous return, increase cardiac preload and, ultimately, cause diastolic dysfunction.
Pulse pressure (the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) is frequently increased in older people with hypertension. This can mean that systolic pressure is abnormally high, but diastolic pressure may be normal or low — a condition termed isolated systolic hypertension. The high pulse pressure in elderly people with hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension is explained by increased arterial stiffness, which typically accompanies aging and may be exacerbated by high blood pressure.
Hypertension is diagnosed on the basis of a persistently high blood pressure. Traditionally, the National Institute of Clinical Excellence recommends three separate sphygmomanometer measurements at monthly intervals. The American Heart Association recommends at least three measurements on at least two separate health care visits. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over 12 to 24 hours is the most accurate method to confirm the diagnosis.
An exception to this is those with very high blood pressure readings especially when there is poor organ function. Initial assessment of the hypertensive people should include a complete history and physical examination. With the availability of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitors and home blood pressure machines, the importance of not wrongly diagnosing those who have white coat hypertension has led to a change in protocols. In the United Kingdom, current best practice is to follow up a single raised clinic reading with ambulatory measurement, or less ideally with home blood pressure monitoring over the course of 7 days. The United States Preventative Services Task Force also recommends getting measurements outside of the healthcare environment.Pseudohypertension in the elderly or noncompressibility artery syndrome may also require consideration. This condition is believed to be due to calcification of the arteries resulting in abnormally high blood pressure readings with a blood pressure cuff while intra arterial measurements of blood pressure are normal.Orthostatic hypertension is when blood pressure increases upon standing.
Once the diagnosis of hypertension has been made, healthcare providers should attempt to identify the underlying cause based on risk factors and other symptoms, if present. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by kidney disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension. Laboratory tests can also be performed to identify possible causes of secondary hypertension, and to determine whether hypertension has caused damage to the heart, eyes, and kidneys. Additional tests for diabetes and high cholesterol levels are usually performed because these conditions are additional risk factors for the development of heart disease and may require treatment.
Serum creatinine is measured to assess for the presence of kidney disease, which can be either the cause or the result of hypertension. Serum creatinine alone may overestimate glomerular filtration rate and recent guidelines advocate the use of predictive equations such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). eGFR can also provide a baseline measurement of kidney function that can be used to monitor for side effects of certain antihypertensive drugs on kidney function. Additionally, testing of urine samples for protein is used as a secondary indicator of kidney disease. Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG) testing is done to check for evidence that the heart is under strain from high blood pressure. It may also show whether there is thickening of the heart muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy) or whether the heart has experienced a prior minor disturbance such as a silent heart attack. A chest X-ray or an echocardiogram may also be performed to look for signs of heart enlargement or damage to the heart.
In people aged 18 years or older hypertension is defined as a systolic and/or a diastolic blood pressure measurement consistently higher than an accepted normal value (currently 139 mmHg systolic, 89 mmHg diastolic: see table—Classification (JNC7)). Lower thresholds are used (135 mmHg systolic or 85 mmHg diastolic) if measurements are derived from 24-hour ambulatory or home monitoring. Recent international hypertension guidelines have also created categories below the hypertensive range to indicate a continuum of risk with higher blood pressures in the normal range. JNC7 (2003) uses the term prehypertension for blood pressure in the range 120–139 mmHg systolic and/or 80–89 mmHg diastolic, while ESH-ESC Guidelines (2007) and BHS IV (2004) use optimal, normal and high normal categories to subdivide pressures below 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic. Hypertension is also sub-classified: JNC7 distinguishes hypertension stage I, hypertension stage II, and isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension refers to elevated systolic pressure with normal diastolic pressure and is common in the elderly. The ESH-ESC Guidelines (2007) and BHS IV (2004) additionally define a third stage (stage III hypertension) for people with systolic blood pressure exceeding 179 mmHg or a diastolic pressure over 109 mmHg. Hypertension is classified as "resistant" if medications do not reduce blood pressure to normal levels.
Hypertension occurs in around 0.2 to 3% of newborns; however, blood pressure is not measured routinely in healthy newborns. Hypertension is more common in high risk newborns. A variety of factors, such as gestational age, postconceptional age and birth weight needs to be taken into account when deciding if a blood pressure is normal in a newborn.
Hypertension defined as elevated blood pressure over several visits affects 1% to 5% of children and adolescents and is associated with long term risks of ill-health. Blood pressure rises with age in childhood and, in children, hypertension is defined as an average systolic or diastolic blood pressure on three or more occasions equal or higher than the 95th percentile appropriate for the sex, age and height of the child. High blood pressure must be confirmed on repeated visits however before characterizing a child as having hypertension. Prehypertension in children has been defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure that is greater than or equal to the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile. In adolescents, it has been proposed that hypertension and pre-hypertension are diagnosed and classified using the same criteria as in adults.
Much of the disease burden of high blood pressure is experienced by people who are not labeled as hypertensive. Consequently, population strategies are required to reduce the consequences of high blood pressure and reduce the need for antihypertensive drug therapy. Lifestyle changes are recommended to lower blood pressure, before starting drug therapy. The 2004 British Hypertension Society guidelines proposed the following lifestyle changes consistent with those outlined by the US National High BP Education Program in 2002 for the primary prevention of hypertension:
Various expert groups have produced guidelines regarding how low the blood pressure target should be when a person is treated for hypertension. These groups recommend a target below the range 140-160 / 90-100 mmHg for the general population. Controversy exists regarding the appropriate targets for certain subgroups, including the elderly, people with diabetes and people with kidney disease.
Many expert groups recommend a slightly higher target of 150/90 mmHg for those over 80 years of age. One expert group, the JNC-8, recommends the target of 150/90 mmHg for those over 60 years of age, but some experts within this group disagree with this recommendation. Some expert groups have also recommended slightly lower targets in those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease with proteinuria, but others recommend the same target as for the general population. In 2015 a large trial suggests that among people over 50 with increased heart disease risk, aiming to reduce systolic blood pressure to 120 mmHg was associated with lower mortality but increased side effects compared to a target of 140 mmHg.
The first line of treatment for hypertension is lifestyle changes, including dietary changes, physical exercise, and weight loss. Though these have all been recommended in scientific advisories, a review by Cochrane found no evidence for effects of weight loss diets on death or long-term complications and adverse events in persons with hypertension. The review did find a decrease in blood pressure. Their potential effectiveness is similar to and at times exceeds a single medication. If hypertension is high enough to justify immediate use of medications, lifestyle changes are still recommended in conjunction with medication.
Resistant hypertension is defined as hypertension that remains above goal blood pressure in spite of using, at once, three antihypertensive medications belonging to different drug classes. Low adherence to treatment is an important cause of resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension may also represent the result of chronic high activity of the autonomic nervous system; this concept is known as "neurogenic hypertension".
As of 2000, nearly one billion people or ~26% of the adult population of the world had hypertension. It was common in both developed (333 million) and undeveloped (639 million) countries. However, rates vary markedly in different regions with rates as low as 3.4% (men) and 6.8% (women) in rural India and as high as 68.9% (men) and 72.5% (women) in Poland. In Europe hypertension occurs in about 30-45% of people as of 2013.
In 1995 it was estimated that 43 million people in the United States had hypertension or were taking antihypertensive medication, almost 24% of the adult United States population. The prevalence of hypertension in the United States is increasing and reached 29% in 2004. As of 2006 hypertension affects 76 million US adults (34% of the population) and African American adults have among the highest rates of hypertension in the world at 44%. It is more common in blacks and Filipinos and less in whites and Mexican Americans, rates increase with age, and is greater in the southeastern United States. Hypertension is more common in men (though menopause tends to decrease this difference) and in those of low socioeconomic status.
Rates of high blood pressure in children and adolescents have increased in the last 20 years in the United States. Childhood hypertension, particularly in preadolescents, is more often secondary to an underlying disorder than in adults. Kidney disease is the most common secondary cause of hypertension in children and adolescents. Nevertheless, primary or essential hypertension accounts for most cases.
Modern understanding of the cardiovascular system began with the work of physician William Harvey (1578–1657), who described the circulation of blood in his book "De motu cordis". The English clergyman Stephen Hales made the first published measurement of blood pressure in 1733. However hypertension as a clinical entity came into being in 1896 with the invention of the cuff-based sphygmomanometer by Scipione Riva-Rocci in 1896. This allowed the measurement of blood pressure in the clinic. In 1905, Nikolai Korotkoff improved the technique by describing the Korotkoff sounds that are heard when the artery is ausculated with a stethoscope while the sphygmomanometer cuff is deflated.
The symptoms similar to symptoms of patients with hypertensive crisis are discussed in medieval Persian medical texts in the chapter of "fullness disease". The symptoms include headache, heaviness in the head, sluggish movements, general redness and warm to touch feel of the body, prominent, distended and tense vessels, fullness of the pulse, distension of the skin, coloured and dense urine, loss of appetite, weak eyesight, impairment of thinking, yawning, drowsiness, vascular rupture, and hemorrhagic stroke. Fullness disease was presumed to be due to an excessive amount of blood within the blood vessels.
Historically the treatment for what was called the "hard pulse disease" consisted in reducing the quantity of blood by bloodletting or the application of leeches. This was advocated by The Yellow Emperor of China, Cornelius Celsus, Galen, and Hippocrates. The therapeutic approach for the treatment of hard pulse disease included changes in lifestyle (staying away from anger and sexual intercourse) and dietary program for patients (avoiding the consumption of wine, meat, and pastries, reducing the volume of food in a meal, maintaining a low-energy diet and the dietary usage of spinach and vinegar).
In the 19th and 20th centuries, before effective pharmacological treatment for hypertension became possible, three treatment modalities were used, all with numerous side-effects: strict sodium restriction (for example the rice diet), sympathectomy (surgical ablation of parts of the sympathetic nervous system), and pyrogen therapy (injection of substances that caused a fever, indirectly reducing blood pressure).
Graph showing, prevalence of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension compared between the four studies of NHANES
The World Health Organization has identified hypertension, or high blood pressure, as the leading cause of cardiovascularmortality.The World Hypertension League (WHL), an umbrella organization of 85 national hypertension societies and leagues, recognized that more than 50% of the hypertensive population worldwide are unaware of their condition. To address this problem, the WHL initiated a global awareness campaign on hypertension in 2005 and dedicated May 17 of each year as World Hypertension Day (WHD). Over the past three years, more national societies have been engaging in WHD and have been innovative in their activities to get the message to the public. In 2007, there was record participation from 47 member countries of the WHL. During the week of WHD, all these countries – in partnership with their local governments, professional societies, nongovernmental organizations and private industries – promoted hypertension awareness among the public through several media and public rallies. Using mass media such as Internet and television, the message reached more than 250 million people. As the momentum picks up year after year, the WHL is confident that almost all the estimated 1.5 billion people affected by elevated blood pressure can be reached.
High blood pressure is the most common chronic medical problem prompting visits to primary health care providers in USA. The American Heart Association estimated the direct and indirect costs of high blood pressure in 2010 as $76.6 billion. In the US 80% of people with hypertension are aware of their condition, 71% take some antihypertensive medication, but only 48% of people aware that they have hypertension adequately control it. Adequate management of hypertension can be hampered by inadequacies in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or control of high blood pressure.Health care providers face many obstacles to achieving blood pressure control, including resistance to taking multiple medications to reach blood pressure goals. People also face the challenges of adhering to medicine schedules and making lifestyle changes. Nonetheless, the achievement of blood pressure goals is possible, and most importantly, lowering blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of death due to heart disease and stroke, the development of other debilitating conditions, and the cost associated with advanced medical care.
^Lackland, DT; Weber, MA (May 2015). "Global burden of cardiovascular disease and stroke: hypertension at the core.". The Canadian journal of cardiology31 (5): 569–71. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2015.01.009. PMID25795106.
^ abcdGiuseppe, Mancia; Fagard, R; Narkiewicz, K; Redon, J; Zanchetti, A; Bohm, M; Christiaens, T; Cifkova, R; De Backer, G; Dominiczak, A; Galderisi, M; Grobbee, DE; Jaarsma, T; Kirchhof, P; Kjeldsen, SE; Laurent, S; Manolis, AJ; Nilsson, PM; Ruilope, LM; Schmieder, RE; Sirnes, PA; Sleight, P; Viigimaa, M; Waeber, B; Zannad, F; Redon, J; Dominiczak, A; Narkiewicz, K; Nilsson, PM; et al. (July 2013). "2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)". European Heart Journal34 (28): 2159–219. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht151. PMID23771844.
^ abcdefJames, PA.; Oparil, S.; Carter, BL.; Cushman, WC.; Dennison-Himmelfarb, C.; Handler, J.; Lackland, DT.; Lefevre, ML.; et al. (Dec 2013). "2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)". JAMA311 (5): 507–20. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427. PMID24352797.
^Campbell, NR; Lackland, DT; Lisheng, L; Niebylski, ML; Nilsson, PM; Zhang, XH (March 2015). "Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.". Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.)17 (3): 165–7. doi:10.1111/jch.12479. PMID25644474.
^ abFisher ND, Williams GH (2005). "Hypertensive vascular disease". In Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1463–81. ISBN0-07-139140-1.
^Chobanian, AV; Bakris, GL; Black, HR; Cushman, WC; Green, LA; Izzo JL, Jr; Jones, DW; Materson, BJ; Oparil, S; Wright JT, Jr; Roccella, EJ; Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood, Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating, Committee (Dec 2003). "Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure". Hypertension42 (6): 1206–52. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.0000107251.49515.c2. PMID14656957.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Vasan, RS; Beiser, A; Seshadri, S; Larson, MG; Kannel, WB; D'Agostino, RB; Levy, D (2002-02-27). "Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: The Framingham Heart Study". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association287 (8): 1003–10. doi:10.1001/jama.287.8.1003. PMID11866648.
^Meng, L; Chen, D; Yang, Y; Zheng, Y; Hui, R (May 2012). "Depression increases the risk of hypertension incidence: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.". Journal of Hypertension30 (5): 842–51. doi:10.1097/hjh.0b013e32835080b7. PMID22343537.
^Mesas, AE; Leon-Muñoz, LM; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Lopez-Garcia, E (October 2011). "The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition94 (4): 1113–26. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.016667. PMID21880846.
^Dluhy RG, Williams GH eds (1998). "Endocrine hypertension". In Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM. Williams textbook of endocrinology (9th ed.). Philadelphia ; Montreal: W.B. Saunders. pp. 729–49. ISBN0721661521.
^Jieying Jiang, Mengling Liu, Faruque Parvez; et al. (August 2015). "Association between Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Longitudinal Change in Blood Pressure among HEALS Cohort Participants". Environmental Health Perspectives123 (8). doi:10.1289/ehp.1409004.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Abhyankar, LN; Jones, MR; Guallar, E; Navas-Acien, A (April 2012). "Arsenic exposure and hypertension: a systematic review.". Environmental Health Perspectives120 (4): 494–500. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103988. PMID22138666.
^Conway J (April 1984). "Hemodynamic aspects of essential hypertension in humans". Physiol. Rev.64 (2): 617–60. PMID6369352.
^ abPalatini P, Julius S; Julius (June 2009). "The role of cardiac autonomic function in hypertension and cardiovascular disease". Curr. Hypertens. Rep.11 (3): 199–205. doi:10.1007/s11906-009-0035-4. PMID19442329.
^Andersson OK, Lingman M, Himmelmann A, Sivertsson R, Widgren BR; Lingman; Himmelmann; Sivertsson; Widgren (2004). "Prediction of future hypertension by casual blood pressure or invasive hemodynamics? A 30-year follow-up study". Blood Press.13 (6): 350–4. doi:10.1080/08037050410004819. PMID15771219.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Folkow B (April 1982). "Physiological aspects of primary hypertension". Physiol. Rev.62 (2): 347–504. PMID6461865.
^Struijker Boudier HA, le Noble JL, Messing MW, Huijberts MS, le Noble FA, van Essen H; Le Noble; Messing; Huijberts; Le Noble; Van Essen (December 1992). "The microcirculation and hypertension". J Hypertens Suppl10 (7): S147–56. doi:10.1097/00004872-199212000-00016. PMID1291649.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Esler M, Lambert E, Schlaich M; Lambert; Schlaich (December 2010). "Point: Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system is the dominant contributor to systemic hypertension". J. Appl. Physiol.109 (6): 1996–8; discussion 2016. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00182.2010. PMID20185633.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Hemmelgarn BR, McAllister FA, Myers MG, et al. (June 2005). "The 2005 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: part 1- blood pressure measurement, diagnosis and assessment of risk". Canadian Journal of Cardiology21 (8): 645–56. PMID16003448.
^Aronow, WS; Fleg, JL; Pepine, CJ; Artinian, NT; Bakris, G; Brown, AS; Ferdinand, KC; Ann Forciea, M; Frishman, WH; Jaigobin, C; Kostis, JB; Mancia, G; Oparil, S; Ortiz, E; Reisin, E; Rich, MW; Schocken, DD; Weber, MA; Wesley, DJ; Harrington, RA; Bates, ER; Bhatt, DL; Bridges, CR; Eisenberg, MJ; Ferrari, VA; Fisher, JD; Gardner, TJ; Gentile, F; Gilson, MF; Hlatky, MA; Jacobs, AK; Kaul, S; Moliterno, DJ; Mukherjee, D; Rosenson, RS; Stein, JH; Weitz, HH; Wesley, DJ (Jul–Aug 2011). "ACCF/AHA 2011 expert consensus document on hypertension in the elderly: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents developed in collaboration with the American Academy of Neurology, American Geriatrics Society, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, American Society of Hypertension, American Society of Nephrology, Association of Black Cardiologists, and European Society of Hypertension". Journal of the American Society of Hypertension : JASH5 (4): 259–352. doi:10.1016/j.jash.2011.06.001. PMID21771565.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Siu, AL (13 October 2015). "Screening for High Blood Pressure in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.". Annals of Internal Medicine163: 778–86. doi:10.7326/m15-2223. PMID26458123.
^Siu, AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (17 November 2015). "Screening for High Blood Pressure in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.". Annals of Internal Medicine163 (10): 778–86. doi:10.7326/m15-2223. PMID26458123.
^ abcMancia G; De Backer G; Dominiczak A; et al. (September 2007). "2007 ESH-ESC Practice Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: ESH-ESC Task Force on the Management of Arterial Hypertension". J. Hypertens.25 (9): 1751–62. doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3282f0580f. PMID17762635.
^ abcdefWilliams, B; Poulter, NR, Brown, MJ, Davis, M, McInnes, GT, Potter, JF, Sever, PS, McG Thom, S, British Hypertension, Society (March 2004). "Guidelines for management of hypertension: report of the fourth working party of the British Hypertension Society, 2004-BHS IV". Journal of Human Hypertension18 (3): 139–85. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1001683. PMID14973512.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ abcdeNational High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents (August 2004). "The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". Pediatrics114 (2 Suppl 4th Report): 555–76. doi:10.1542/peds.114.2.S2.555. PMID15286277.
^Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Dec 2011). "Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report". Pediatrics. 128 Suppl 5: S213–56. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2107C. PMID22084329.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Moyer, VA.; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (October 2013). "Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement*". Annals of Internal Medicine159 (9): 613–9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-9-201311050-00725. PMID24097285.
^Whelton PK, et al. (2002). "Primary prevention of hypertension. Clinical and public health advisory from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program". JAMA288 (15): 1882–1888. doi:10.1001/jama.288.15.1882. PMID12377087.
^ abArguedas, JA; Leiva, V; Wright, JM (Oct 30, 2013). "Blood pressure targets for hypertension in people with diabetes mellitus.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews10: CD008277. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008277.pub2. PMID24170669.
^Wright JT, Jr; Fine, LJ; Lackland, DT; Ogedegbe, G; Dennison Himmelfarb, CR (1 April 2014). "Evidence supporting a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 150 mm Hg in patients aged 60 years or older: the minority view.". Annals of Internal Medicine160 (7): 499–503. doi:10.7326/m13-2981. PMID24424788.
^Sacks, F. M.; Svetkey, L. P.; Vollmer, W. M.; Appel, L. J.; Bray, G. A.; Harsha, D.; Obarzanek, E.; Conlin, P. R.; Miller, E. R. (2001-01-04). "Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group". The New England Journal of Medicine344 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440101. ISSN0028-4793. PMID11136953.
^Aburto, NJ; Hanson, S; Gutierrez, H; Hooper, L; Elliott, P; Cappuccio, FP (3 April 2013). "Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.)346: f1378. doi:10.1136/bmj.f1378. PMID23558164.
^ abBrook, RD; Appel, LJ; Rubenfire, M; Ogedegbe, G; Bisognano, JD; Elliott, WJ; Fuchs, FD; Hughes, JW; Lackland, DT; Staffileno, BA; Townsend, RR; Rajagopalan, S; American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Nutrition, Physical, Activity (Jun 2013). "Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the american heart association". Hypertension61 (6): 1360–83. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. PMID23608661.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Nagele, Eva; Jeitler, Klaus; Horvath, Karl; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Herrmann, Kirsten H.; Grouven, Ulrich; Hermanns, Tatjana; Hemkens, Lars G.; Siebenhofer, Andrea (2014). "Clinical effectiveness of stress-reduction techniques in patients with hypertension". Journal of Hypertension32 (10): 1936–1944. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000298. ISSN0263-6352. PMID25084308.
^Dickinson, HO; Campbell, F; Beyer, FR; Nicolson, DJ; Cook, JV; Ford, GA; Mason, JM (23 January 2008). "Relaxation therapies for the management of primary hypertension in adults.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD004935. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004935.pub2. PMID18254065.
^Chen, JM; Heran, BS; Wright, JM (7 October 2009). "Blood pressure lowering efficacy of diuretics as second-line therapy for primary hypertension.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (4): CD007187. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007187.pub2. PMID19821398.
^Santschi, V; Chiolero, A; Burnier, M (Nov 2009). "Electronic monitors of drug adherence: tools to make rational therapeutic decisions.". Journal of Hypertension27 (11): 2294–5; author reply 2295. doi:10.1097/hjh.0b013e328332a501. PMID20724871.
^ abKearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J; Whelton; Reynolds; Muntner; Whelton; He (2005). "Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data". Lancet365 (9455): 217–23. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17741-1. PMID15652604.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Whelton PK, He J; Whelton; Reynolds; Whelton; He (January 2004). "Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review". J. Hypertens.22 (1): 11–9. doi:10.1097/00004872-200401000-00003. PMID15106785.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Ostchega Y, Dillon CF, Hughes JP, Carroll M, Yoon S; Dillon; Hughes; Carroll; Yoon (July 2007). "Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in older U.S. adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2004". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society55 (7): 1056–65. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01215.x. PMID17608879.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R; Clarke; Qizilbash; Peto; Collins; Prospective Studies (December 2002). "Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies". Lancet360 (9349): 1903–13. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11911-8. PMID12493255.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^Singer DR, Kite A; Kite (June 2008). "Management of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease: does the choice of drugs matter?". European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery35 (6): 701–8. doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.01.007. PMID18375152.
James, Paul A.; Oparil, Suzanne; Carter, Barry L.; Cushman, William C.; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl; Handler, Joel; Lackland, Daniel T.; Lefevre, Michael L.; MacKenzie, Thomas D.; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Smith, Sidney C.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Taler, Sandra J.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Wright, Jackson T.; Narva, Andrew S.; Ortiz, Eduardo (18 December 2013). "2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults". JAMA311 (5): 507–20. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427. PMID24352797.