From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

IEEE 802.11n-2009, commonly shortened to 802.11n, is a wireless-networking standard that uses multiple antennas to increase data rates. Sometimes referred to as MIMO, which stands for "multiple input and multiple output", it is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11-2007 wireless-networking standard. Its purpose is to improve network throughput over the two previous standards—802.11a and 802.11g—with a significant increase in the maximum net data rate from 54 Mbit/s to 600 Mbit/s (slightly higher gross bit rate including for example error-correction codes, and slightly lower maximum throughput) with the use of four spatial streams at a channel width of 40 MHz.[1][2] 802.11n standardized support for multiple-input multiple-output, frame aggregation, and security improvements, among other features. It can be used in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands.

802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods. They are commonly used today in their 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11ac versions to provide wireless connectivity in homes and businesses. Development of 802.11n began in 2002, seven years before publication. The 802.11n protocol is now Clause 20 of the published IEEE 802.11-2012 standard.


IEEE 802.11n is an amendment to IEEE 802.11-2007 as amended by IEEE 802.11k-2008, IEEE 802.11r-2008, IEEE 802.11y-2008, and IEEE 802.11w-2009, and builds on previous 802.11 standards by adding multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and 40 MHz channels to the PHY (physical layer), and frame aggregation to the MAC layer.

MIMO is a technology that uses multiple antennas to coherently resolve more information than possible using a single antenna. One way it provides this is through Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDM), which spatially multiplexes multiple independent data streams, transferred simultaneously within one spectral channel of bandwidth. MIMO SDM can significantly increase data throughput as the number of resolved spatial data streams is increased. Each spatial stream requires a discrete antenna at both the transmitter and the receiver. In addition, MIMO technology requires a separate radio-frequency chain and analog-to-digital converter for each MIMO antenna, making it more expensive to implement than non-MIMO systems.

Channels operating with a width of 40 MHz are another feature incorporated into 802.11n; this doubles the channel width from 20 MHz in previous 802.11 PHYs to transmit data, and provides twice the PHY data rate available over a single 20 MHz channel. It can be enabled in the 5 GHz mode, or within the 2.4 GHz mode if there is knowledge that it will not interfere with any other 802.11 or non-802.11 (such as Bluetooth) system using the same frequencies.[3] The MIMO architecture, together with wider-bandwidth channels, offers increased physical transfer rate over 802.11a (5 GHz) and 802.11g (2.4 GHz).[4]

Data encoding[edit]

The transmitter and receiver use precoding and postcoding techniques, respectively, to achieve the capacity of a MIMO link. Precoding includes spatial beamforming and spatial coding, where spatial beamforming improves the received signal quality at the decoding stage. Spatial coding can increase data throughput via spatial multiplexing and increase range by exploiting the spatial diversity, through techniques such as Alamouti coding.

Number of antennas[edit]

The number of simultaneous data streams is limited by the minimum number of antennas in use on both sides of the link. However, the individual radios often further limit the number of spatial streams that may carry unique data. The a x b : c notation helps identify what a given radio is capable of. The first number (a) is the maximum number of transmit antennas or TX RF chains that can be used by the radio. The second number (b) is the maximum number of receive antennas or RX RF chains that can be used by the radio. The third number (c) is the maximum number of data spatial streams the radio can use. For example, a radio that can transmit on two antennas and receive on three, but can only send or receive two data streams would be 2 x 3 : 2.

The 802.11n draft allows up to 4 x 4 : 4. Common configurations of 11n devices are 2 x 2 : 2; 2 x 3 : 2; and 3 x 2 : 2. All three configurations have the same maximum throughputs and features, and differ only in the amount of diversity the antenna systems provide. In addition, a fourth configuration, 3 x 3 : 3 is becoming common, which has a higher throughput, due to the additional data stream.[5]

Data rates[edit]

Assuming equal operating parameters to an 802.11g network achieving 54 megabits per second (on a single 20 MHz channel with one antenna), an 802.11n network can achieve 72 megabits per second (on a single 20 MHz channel with one antenna and 400 ns guard interval); 802.11n's speed may go up to 150 megabits per second if there are not other Bluetooth, microwave or Wi-Fi emissions in the neighborhood by using two 20 MHz channels in 40 MHz mode. If more antennas are used, then 802.11n can go up to 288 megabits per second in 20 MHz mode with four antennas, or 600 megabits per second in 40 MHz mode with four antennas and 400 ns guard interval. Because the 2.4 GHz band is seriously congested in most urban areas, 802.11n networks usually have more success in increasing data rate by utilizing more antennas in 20 MHz mode rather than by operating in the 40 MHz mode, as the 40 MHz mode requires a relatively free radio spectrum which is only available in rural areas away from cities. Thus, network engineers installing an 802.11n network should strive to select routers and wireless clients with the most antennas possible (one, two, three or four as specified by the 802.11n standard) and try to make sure that the network's bandwidth will be satisfactory even on the 20 MHz mode.

Data rates up to 600 Mbit/s are achieved only with the maximum of four spatial streams using one 40 MHz-wide channel. Various modulation schemes and coding rates are defined by the standard and are represented by a Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) index value. The table below shows the relationships between the variables that allow for the maximum data rate. GI (Guard Interval) : Timing between symbols.[6]

20 MHz channel uses an FFT of 64, of which: 56 OFDM subcarriers, 52 are for data and 4 are pilot tones with a carrier separation of 0.3125 MHz (20 MHz/64) (3.2 µs). Each of these subcarriers can be a BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM. The total bandwidth is 20 MHz with an occupied bandwidth of 17.8 MHz. Total symbol duration is 3.6 or 4 microseconds, which includes a guard interval of 0.4 or 0.8 microseconds.

Modulation and coding schemes
Data rate (in Mbit/s)[a]
20 MHz channel 40 MHz channel
800 ns GI 400 ns GI 800 ns GI 400 ns GI
0 1 BPSK 1/2 6.5 7.2 13.5 15
1 1 QPSK 1/2 13 14.4 27 30
2 1 QPSK 3/4 19.5 21.7 40.5 45
3 1 16-QAM 1/2 26 28.9 54 60
4 1 16-QAM 3/4 39 43.3 81 90
5 1 64-QAM 2/3 52 57.8 108 120
6 1 64-QAM 3/4 58.5 65 121.5 135
7 1 64-QAM 5/6 65 72.2 135 150
8 2 BPSK 1/2 13 14.4 27 30
9 2 QPSK 1/2 26 28.9 54 60
10 2 QPSK 3/4 39 43.3 81 90
11 2 16-QAM 1/2 52 57.8 108 120
12 2 16-QAM 3/4 78 86.7 162 180
13 2 64-QAM 2/3 104 115.6 216 240
14 2 64-QAM 3/4 117 130 243 270
15 2 64-QAM 5/6 130 144.4 270 300
16 3 BPSK 1/2 19.5 21.7 40.5 45
17 3 QPSK 1/2 39 43.3 81 90
18 3 QPSK 3/4 58.5 65 121.5 135
19 3 16-QAM 1/2 78 86.7 162 180
20 3 16-QAM 3/4 117 130 243 270
21 3 64-QAM 2/3 156 173.3 324 360
22 3 64-QAM 3/4 175.5 195 364.5 405
23 3 64-QAM 5/6 195 216.7 405 450
24 4 BPSK 1/2 26 28.8 54 60
25 4 QPSK 1/2 52 57.6 108 120
26 4 QPSK 3/4 78 86.8 162 180
27 4 16-QAM 1/2 104 115.6 216 240
28 4 16-QAM 3/4 156 173.2 324 360
29 4 64-QAM 2/3 208 231.2 432 480
30 4 64-QAM 3/4 234 260 486 540
31 4 64-QAM 5/6 260 288.8 540 600
32 1 BPSK 1/2 +
Dup ch.[clarification needed]
N/A N/A 6.0 6.7
33 – 38 2 Asymmetric mod. Depends Depends Depends Depends
39 – 52 3 Asymmetric mod. Depends Depends Depends Depends
53 – 76 4 Asymmetric mod. Depends Depends Depends Depends
77 – 127 Reserved N/A N/A N/A N/A

Frame aggregation[edit]

PHY level data rate does not match user level throughput because of 802.11 protocol overheads, like the contention process, interframe spacing, PHY level headers (Preamble + PLCP) and acknowledgment frames. The main media access control (MAC) feature that provides a performance improvement is aggregation. Two types of aggregation are defined:

  1. Aggregation of MAC service data units (MSDUs) at the top of the MAC (referred to as MSDU aggregation or A-MSDU)
  2. Aggregation of MAC protocol data units (MPDUs) at the bottom of the MAC (referred to as MPDU aggregation or A-MPDU)

Frame aggregation is a process of packing multiple MSDUs or MPDUs together to reduce the overheads and average them over multiple frames, thereby increasing the user level data rate. A-MPDU aggregation requires the use of block acknowledgement or BlockAck, which was introduced in 802.11e and has been optimized in 802.11n.

Backward compatibility[edit]

When 802.11g was released to share the band with existing 802.11b devices, it provided ways of ensuring coexistence between legacy and successor devices. 802.11n extends the coexistence management to protect its transmissions from legacy devices, which include 802.11g, 802.11b and 802.11a. There are MAC and PHY level protection mechanisms as listed below:

  1. PHY level protection: Mixed Mode Format protection (also known as L-SIG TXOP Protection): In mixed mode, each 802.11n transmission is always embedded in an 802.11a or 802.11g transmission. For 20 MHz transmissions, this embedding takes care of the protection with 802.11a and 802.11g. However, 802.11b devices still need CTS protection.
  2. PHY level protection: Transmissions using a 40 MHz channel in the presence of 802.11a or 802.11g clients require using CTS protection on both 20 MHz halves of the 40 MHz channel, to prevent interference with legacy devices.
  3. MAC level protection: An RTS/CTS frame exchange or CTS frame transmission at legacy rates can be used to protect subsequent 11n transmission.

Deployment strategies[edit]

To achieve maximum output, a pure 802.11n 5 GHz network is recommended. The 5 GHz band has substantial capacity due to many non-overlapping radio channels and less radio interference as compared to the 2.4 GHz band.[7] An 802.11n-only network may be impractical for many users because they need to support legacy equipment that still is 802.11b/g only. In a mixed-mode system, an optimal solution would be to use a dual-radio access point and place the 802.11b/g traffic on the 2.4 GHz radio and the 802.11n traffic on the 5 GHz radio.[8] This setup assumes that all the 802.11n clients are 5 GHz capable, which is not a requirement of the standard. Quite a few Wi-Fi-capable devices only support the 2.4 GHz and there is no practical way to upgrade them to support 5 GHz. Some enterprise-grade APs use band steering to send 802.11n clients to the 5 GHz band, leaving the 2.4 GHz band for legacy clients. Band steering works by responding only to 5 GHz association requests and not the 2.4 GHz requests from dual-band clients.[9]

40 MHz channels in 2.4 GHz[edit]

The 2.4 GHz ISM band is fairly congested. With 802.11n, there is the option to double the bandwidth per channel to 40 MHz which results in slightly more than double the data rate. However, when in 2.4 GHz, enabling this option takes up to 82% of the unlicensed band. For example, channel 3 SCA (secondary channel above), also known as 3+7, reserves the first 9 out of the 11 channels available in North America.

The specification calls for requiring one primary 20 MHz channel as well as a secondary adjacent channel spaced ±20 MHz away. The primary channel is used for communications with clients incapable of 40 MHz mode. When in 40 MHz mode, the center frequency is actually the mean of the primary and secondary channels.

20 MHz 40 MHz above 40 MHz below
Blocks 2nd ch. Center Blocks 2nd ch. Center Blocks
1 1–3 5 3 1–7 N/A
2 1–4 6 4 1–8 N/A
3 1–5 7 5 1–9 N/A
4 2–6 8 6 2–10 N/A
5 3–7 9 7 3–11 1 3 1–7
6 4–8 10 8 4–12 2 4 1–8
7 5–9 11 9 5–13 3 5 1–9
8 6–10 12 10 6–13 4 6 2–10
9 7–11 13 11 7–13 5 7 3–11
10 8–12 N/A 6 8 4–12
11 9–13 N/A 7 9 5–13
12 10–13 N/A 8 10 6–13
13 11–13 N/A 9 11 7–13

Local regulations may restrict certain channels from operation. For example, Channels 12 and 13 are normally unavailable for use as either a primary or secondary channel in North America. For further information, see List of WLAN channels.

Wi-Fi Alliance[edit]

The Wi-Fi Alliance began certifying products based on IEEE 802.11n draft 2.0 mid-2007.[10][11] This certification program established a set of features and a level of interoperability across vendors supporting those features, thus providing one definition of 'draft n'. The baseline certification covers both 20 MHz and 40 MHz wide channels, and up to two spatial streams, for maximum throughputs of 144.4 Mbit/s for 20 MHz and 300 Mbit/s for 40 MHz (with short guard interval). A number of vendors in both the consumer and enterprise spaces have built products that have achieved this certification.[12] The Wi-Fi Alliance certification program subsumed the previous industry consortium efforts to define 802.11n, such as the now dormant Enhanced Wireless Consortium (EWC). The Alliance has upgraded its suite of compatibility tests for some enhancements that were finalized after draft 2.0. Furthermore, it has affirmed that all draft-n certified products remain compatible with the products conforming to the final standards.[13] The Wi-Fi Alliance is investigating further work on certification of additional features of 802.11n not covered by the baseline certification, including higher numbers of spatial streams (3 or 4), Greenfield Format, PSMP, implicit and explicit beamforming and space-time block coding.


The following are milestones in the development of 802.11n:[14]

September 11, 2002
The first meeting of the High-Throughput Study Group (HTSG) was held. Earlier in the year, in the Wireless Next Generation standing committee (WNG SC), presentations were heard on why they need change and what the target throughput would be required to justify the amendments. Compromise was reached in May 2002 to delay the start of the Study Group until September to allow 11g to complete major work during the July 2002 session.
September 11, 2003
The IEEE-SA New Standards Committee (NesCom) approved the Project Authorization Request (PAR) for the purpose of amending the 802.11-2007 standard. The new 802.11 Task Group (TGn) is to develop a new amendment. The TGn amendment is based on IEEE Std 802.11-2007, as amended by IEEE Std 802.11k-2008, IEEE Std 802.11r-2008, IEEE Std 802.11y-2008 and IEEE P802.11w. TGn will be the 5th amendment to the 802.11-2007 standard. The scope of this project is to define an amendment that shall define standardized modifications to both the 802.11 physical layers (PHY) and the 802.11 Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) so that modes of operation can be enabled that are capable of much higher throughputs, with a maximum throughput of at least 100 Mbit/s, as measured at the MAC data service access point (SAP).
September 15, 2003
The first meeting of the new 802.11 Task Group (TGn).
May 17, 2004
Call for Proposals was issued.
September 13, 2004
32 first round of proposals were heard.
March 2005
Proposals were downselected to a single proposal, but there is not a 75% consensus on the one proposal. Further efforts were expended over the next 3 sessions without being able to agree on one proposal.
July 2005
Previous competitors TGn Sync, WWiSE, and a third group, MITMOT, said that they would merge their respective proposals as a draft. The standardization process was expected to be completed by the second quarter of 2009.
January 19, 2006
The IEEE 802.11n Task Group approved the Joint Proposal's specification, enhanced by EWC's draft specification.
March 2006
IEEE 802.11 Working Group sent the 802.11n draft to its first letter ballot, allowing the 500+ 802.11 voters to review the document and suggest bug fixes, changes, and improvements.
May 2, 2006
The IEEE 802.11 Working Group voted not to forward draft 1.0 of the proposed 802.11n standard. Only 46.6% voted to approve the ballot. To proceed to the next step in the IEEE standards process, a majority vote of 75% is required. This letter ballot also generated approximately 12,000 comments—many more than anticipated.
November 2006
TGn voted to accept draft version 1.06, incorporating all accepted technical and editorial comment resolutions prior to this meeting. An additional 800 comment resolutions were approved during the November session which will be incorporated into the next revision of the draft. As of this meeting, three of the 18 comment topic ad hoc groups chartered in May had completed their work, and 88% of the technical comments had been resolved, with approximately 370 remaining.
January 19, 2007
The IEEE 802.11 Working Group unanimously (100 yes, 0 no, 5 abstaining) approved a request by the 802.11n Task Group to issue a new draft 2.0 of the proposed standard. Draft 2.0 was based on the Task Group's working draft version 1.10. Draft 2.0 was at this point in time the cumulative result of thousands of changes to the 11n document as based on all previous comments.
February 7, 2007
The results of Letter Ballot 95, a 15-day Procedural vote, passed with 97.99% approval and 2.01% disapproval. On the same day, 802.11 Working Group announced the opening of Letter Ballot 97. It invited detailed technical comments to closed on 9 March 2007.
March 9, 2007
Letter Ballot 97, the 30-day Technical vote to approve draft 2.0, closed. They were announced by IEEE 802 leadership during the Orlando Plenary on 12 March 2007. The ballot passed with an 83.4% approval, above the 75% minimum approval threshold. There were still approximately 3,076 unique comments, which were to be individually examined for incorporation into the next revision of draft 2.
June 25, 2007
The Wi-Fi Alliance announced its official certification program for devices based on draft 2.0.
September 7, 2007
Task Group agreed on all outstanding issues for draft 2.07. Draft 3.0 is authorized, with the expectation that it go to a sponsor ballot in November 2007.
November 2007
Draft 3.0 approved (240 voted affirmative, 43 negative, and 27 abstained). The editor was authorized to produce draft 3.01.
January 2008
Draft 3.02 approved. This version incorporates previously approved technical and editorial comments. There remain 127 unresolved technical comments. It was expected that all remaining comments will be resolved and that TGn and WG11 would subsequently release draft 4.0 for working group recirculation ballot following the March meeting.
May 2008
Draft 4.0 approved.
July 2008
Draft 5.0 approved and anticipated publication timeline modified.
September 2008
Draft 6.0 approved.
November 2008
Draft 7.0 approved.
January 2009
Draft 7.0 forwarded to sponsor ballot; the sponsor ballot was approved (158 for, 45 against, 21 abstaining); 241 comments were received.
March 2009
Draft 8.0 proceeded to sponsor ballot recirculation; the ballot passed by an 80.1% majority (75% required) (228 votes received, 169 approve, 42 not approve); 277 members are in the sponsor ballot pool; The comment resolution committee resolved the 77 comments received, and authorized the editor to create a draft 9.0 for further balloting.
April 4, 2009
Draft 9.0 passed sponsor ballot recirculation; the ballot passed by an 80.7% majority (75% required) (233 votes received, 171 approve, 41 not approve); 277 members are in the sponsor ballot pool; The comment resolution committee is resolving the 23 new comments received, and will authorize the editor to create a new draft for further balloting.
May 15, 2009
Draft 10.0 passed sponsor ballot recirculation.
June 23, 2009
Draft 11.0 passed sponsor ballot recirculation.
July 17, 2009
Final WG Approval passed with 53 approve, 1 against, 6 abstain.[15] Unanimous approval to send Final WG draft 11.0 to RevCom.[16]
September 11, 2009
RevCom/Standards Board approval.[17]
October 29, 2009


802.11 network PHY standards
Stream data rate[19] Allowable
MIMO streams
Modulation Approximate
range[citation needed]
Indoor Outdoor
(GHz) (MHz) (Mbit/s)
802.11-1997 Jun 1997 2.4 22 1, 2 N/A DSSS, FHSS 20 m (66 ft) 100 m (330 ft)
a Sep 1999 5 20 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 N/A OFDM 35 m (115 ft) 120 m (390 ft)
3.7[A] 5,000 m (16,000 ft)[A]
b Sep 1999 2.4 22 1, 2, 5.5, 11 N/A DSSS 35 m (115 ft) 140 m (460 ft)
g Jun 2003 2.4 20 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 N/A OFDM 38 m (125 ft) 140 m (460 ft)
n Oct 2009 2.4/5 20 Up to 288.8[B] 4 MIMO-OFDM 70 m (230 ft) 250 m (820 ft)[20]
40 Up to 600[B]
ac Dec 2013 5 20 Up to 346.8[B] 8 35 m (115 ft)[21]
40 Up to 800[B]
80 Up to 1733.2[B]
160 Up to 3466.8[B]
0.054–0.79[C] 6–8 Up to 568.9[22] 4
ad Dec 2012 60 2,160 Up to 6,757[23]
(6.7 Gbit/s)
N/A OFDM, single carrier, low-power single carrier 3.3 m (11 ft)[24]
ah Dec 2016 0.9 1–16 Up to 347[25] 4 MIMO-OFDM
aj Est. Jul 2017 45/60
ax Est. Dec 2018 2.4/5 Up to 10.53 Gbit/s MIMO-OFDM
ay Est. Nov 2019 60 8000 Up to 20,000 (20 Gbit/s)[26] 4 OFDM, single carrier 10 m (33 ft) 100 m (328 ft)
az Est. Mar 2021 60
802.11 Standard rollups
802.11-2007 Mar 2007 2.4, 5 Up to 54 DSSS, OFDM
802.11-2012 Mar 2012 2.4, 5 Up to 150[B] DSSS, OFDM
802.11-2016 Dec 2016 2.4, 5, 60 Up to 866.7 or 6,757[B] DSSS, OFDM
  • A1 A2 IEEE 802.11y-2008 extended operation of 802.11a to the licensed 3.7 GHz band. Increased power limits allow a range up to 5,000 m. As of 2009, it is only being licensed in the United States by the FCC.
  • B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 Based on short guard interval; standard guard interval is ~10% slower. Rates vary widely based on distance, obstructions, and interference.
  • C1 IEEE 802.11af about using white space spectrum for WiFi based on the PHY layer of 802.11ac

See also[edit]



  1. ^ A second stream doubles the theoretical data rate, a third one triples it, etc.


  1. ^ Stanford, Michael (September 7, 2007). "How does 802.11n get to 600Mbps?". Archived from the original on November 9, 2007. 
  2. ^ a b "IEEE 802.11n-2009—Amendment 5: Enhancements for Higher Throughput". IEEE-SA. 29 October 2009. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2009.5307322. 
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  4. ^ Wireless Without Compromise: Delivering the promise of IEEE 802.11n Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Intel Ultimate N Wi-Fi Link 5300 Product Brief" (PDF). Intel. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2015-12-16. 
  6. ^ "AirMagnet - Page Not Found" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2018. 
  7. ^ "How to: Minimize 802.11 Interference Issues". Archived from the original on 2008-08-12. Retrieved 2008-07-30. 
  8. ^ "How to: Migrate to 802.11n in the Enterprise". Archived from the original on 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2008-07-30. 
  9. ^ Shawn M. Jackman; Matt Swartz; Marcus Burton; Thomas W. Head (2011). Certified Wireless Design Professional Official Study Guide. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 519–521. ISBN 978-0470769041. 
  10. ^ "Wi-Fi Alliance Begins Testing of Next-Generation Wi-Fi Gear". Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. 
  11. ^ Wi-Fi Alliance Reveals New Logo and Announces First Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 802.11n draft 2.0 Products and Test Suite Archived 2008-12-22 at the Wayback Machine.. May 16, 2007.
  12. ^ "Wi-Fi Certified 802.11n draft 2.0 products". Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2008-07-18.  (registration required)
  13. ^ "Wi-Fi Alliance launches updated Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n program" (Press release). Wi-Fi Alliance. September 30, 2009. Archived from the original on October 4, 2009. 
  14. ^ "IEEE 802.11n Report (Status of Project)". March 16, 2009. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. 
  15. ^ — Retrieved July 13, 2018.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link] Powerpoint Slide 10
  16. ^ "July 2009 meeting minutes" (PDF). IEEE 802 LMSC Executive Committee (unconfirmed ed.). 17 July 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2009. 
  17. ^ "IEEE-SA - News & Events". Archived from the original on 2010-07-26. Retrieved 2012-05-24. 
  18. ^ "Official IEEE 802.11 working group project timelines". January 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  19. ^ "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi® Networks" (registration required). Wi-Fi Alliance. September 2009. 
  20. ^ "802.11n Delivers Better Range". Wi-Fi Planet. 2007-05-31. 
  21. ^ "IEEE 802.11ac: What Does it Mean for Test?" (PDF). LitePoint. October 2013. 
  22. ^ Lee, Wookbong; Kwak, Jin-Sam; Kafle, Padam; Tingleff, Jens; Yucek, Tevfik; Porat, Ron; Erceg, Vinko; Lan, Zhou; Harada, Hiroshi (2012-07-10). "TGaf PHY proposal". IEEE P802.11. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  23. ^ "802.11ad - WLAN at 60 GHz: A Technology Introduction" (PDF). Rohde & Schwarz GmbH. November 21, 2013. p. 14. 
  24. ^ 802.11ad Antenna Differences: Beamsteering, Gain and Range
  25. ^ Sun, Weiping; Choi, Munhwan; Choi, Sunghyun (July 2013). "IEEE 802.11ah: A Long Range 802.11 WLAN at Sub 1 GHz" (PDF). Journal of ICT Standardization. 1 (1): 83–108. doi:10.13052/jicts2245-800X.125. 
  26. ^ Sun, Rob; Xin, Yan; Aboul-Maged, Osama; Calcev, George; Wang, Lei; Au, Edward; Cariou, Laurent; Cordeiro, Carlos; Abu-Surra, Shadi; Chang, Sanghyun; Taori, Rakesh; Kim, TaeYoung; Oh, Jongho; Cho, JanGyu; Motozuka, Hiroyuki; Wee, Gaius. "P802.11 Wireless LANs". IEEE. pp. 2,3. Archived from the original on 2017-12-06. Retrieved December 6, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]


None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license