Play Video
1
Mul Mantra, Bhai Anup Singh Una Sahib Wale
Mul Mantra, Bhai Anup Singh Una Sahib Wale
::2009/10/02::
Play Video
2
Sri Lankan Civil War (by naveenvathy)
Sri Lankan Civil War (by naveenvathy)
::2009/02/22::
Play Video
3
State Song of Tamil Nadu - Invocation to Tamil Mother
State Song of Tamil Nadu - Invocation to Tamil Mother
::2012/10/15::
Play Video
4
TAMIL EELAM
TAMIL EELAM
::2013/02/10::
Play Video
5
شرح تحميل وتثبيت لعبة gta iv مجانا + كراك والباتش
شرح تحميل وتثبيت لعبة gta iv مجانا + كراك والباتش
::2013/11/04::
Play Video
6
Drop Dopers - #DISKO (Official Video)
Drop Dopers - #DISKO (Official Video)
::2014/06/12::
Play Video
7
Crear una Imagen de Windows 8 para reparar tu PC
Crear una Imagen de Windows 8 para reparar tu PC
::2013/02/02::
Play Video
8
Nikon D800
Nikon D800
::2013/04/17::
Play Video
9
New Cod5 Nazi Zombie iso Mods (iBeTreyy)
New Cod5 Nazi Zombie iso Mods (iBeTreyy)
::2010/10/14::
Play Video
10
Minecraft   Animacion   Disco roto o Disco 11
Minecraft Animacion Disco roto o Disco 11
::2013/02/13::
Play Video
11
Nikon D7100 Digital Camera Review
Nikon D7100 Digital Camera Review
::2013/04/15::
Play Video
12
Descargar Grand Theft Auto (GTA) San Andreas PC Full Español
Descargar Grand Theft Auto (GTA) San Andreas PC Full Español
::2013/07/15::
Play Video
13
~ Ultra Deep Meditation ~ Shamanic Consciousness -Tibeten Buddhist Chants
~ Ultra Deep Meditation ~ Shamanic Consciousness -Tibeten Buddhist Chants
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
14
alterando letras no msn com fontes
alterando letras no msn com fontes
::2009/01/30::
Play Video
15
The Legend of Zelda Skyward Sword Walkthrough Part 58
The Legend of Zelda Skyward Sword Walkthrough Part 58
::2011/11/17::
Play Video
16
How To - FH-X700BT - Bluetooth Pairing
How To - FH-X700BT - Bluetooth Pairing
::2012/08/18::
Play Video
17
PS1 Gameplay - Poy Poy 2 #1
PS1 Gameplay - Poy Poy 2 #1
::2011/06/11::
Play Video
18
planet band-kolo 2 svadba sanja i jedinko
planet band-kolo 2 svadba sanja i jedinko
::2010/08/23::
Play Video
19
Como Baixar e Instalar: Call of Duty 2
Como Baixar e Instalar: Call of Duty 2
::2013/10/05::
Play Video
20
Cum sa decodezi,Hacktivezi,Jailbreakuiesti un iDevice cu softwear 4.1
Cum sa decodezi,Hacktivezi,Jailbreakuiesti un iDevice cu softwear 4.1
::2011/04/20::
Play Video
21
SOLUCION AL PROBLEMA IMAGE LOADING FAILURE. RELOAD IMAGE !
SOLUCION AL PROBLEMA IMAGE LOADING FAILURE. RELOAD IMAGE !
::2014/03/12::
Play Video
22
Kaizen Melhoria Contínua   part 01
Kaizen Melhoria Contínua part 01
::2011/09/17::
Play Video
23
[TUTO] RECREER MON INTRO
[TUTO] RECREER MON INTRO
::2013/02/04::
Play Video
24
Como Chipear Un Xbox (Negro o Clasico) Sin Destaparlo
Como Chipear Un Xbox (Negro o Clasico) Sin Destaparlo
::2013/12/26::
Play Video
25
iDeneb 1.6 Mac OS x 10.5.8
iDeneb 1.6 Mac OS x 10.5.8
::2010/03/19::
Play Video
26
JOSE LEON - PORQUE TE FALLE
JOSE LEON - PORQUE TE FALLE
::2012/04/13::
Play Video
27
Dragon Ball Z Infinite World - BR
Dragon Ball Z Infinite World - BR
::2013/01/19::
Play Video
28
Top Ten Pokemons malhechos (2/2)
Top Ten Pokemons malhechos (2/2)
::2009/10/03::
Play Video
29
Escuchar música mientras juegas en el PSP
Escuchar música mientras juegas en el PSP
::2013/07/08::
Play Video
30
Accounting 1: Program #17 - "Accounting Basics For Merchandisers"
Accounting 1: Program #17 - "Accounting Basics For Merchandisers"
::2011/10/07::
Play Video
31
Como se hizo CAMINO (HD). 13.- Corta
Como se hizo CAMINO (HD). 13.- Corta
::2009/10/24::
Play Video
32
Trilha sonora para Auditoria
Trilha sonora para Auditoria
::2009/05/18::
Play Video
33
copia de seguridad con windows xp
copia de seguridad con windows xp
::2010/11/17::
Play Video
34
Canon EOS Abenteuer Lehrgang Teil 2: Licht und Landschaft
Canon EOS Abenteuer Lehrgang Teil 2: Licht und Landschaft
::2012/05/02::
Play Video
35
TuTo | Comment cracker tous les jeux PC (sans µTorrent)
TuTo | Comment cracker tous les jeux PC (sans µTorrent)
::2014/01/12::
Play Video
36
Facebook Hacker v1.8 (Torrent Download) 4th April 2011
Facebook Hacker v1.8 (Torrent Download) 4th April 2011
::2011/12/16::
Play Video
37
1446Hz - Progesterone, production of
1446Hz - Progesterone, production of
::2013/02/11::
Play Video
38
Jason
Jason's Elite Whey Protein Isolate Review Dymatize Nutrition | TheMuscleProgram.com
::2012/07/06::
Play Video
39
Tuto : Comment Hacker Une Wii Pour Avoir Des Jeux GRATUITEMENT !
Tuto : Comment Hacker Une Wii Pour Avoir Des Jeux GRATUITEMENT !
::2013/12/16::
Play Video
40
⟨ Complete Tutorial ⟩ Nikon D5100 Video Exposure
⟨ Complete Tutorial ⟩ Nikon D5100 Video Exposure
::2013/02/01::
Play Video
41
MIRA LO Q HIZO EN MI JESUS.MP4
MIRA LO Q HIZO EN MI JESUS.MP4
::2011/04/13::
Play Video
42
PPSSPP 8.1 Snapdragon600 Monster Hunter 3rd HD gameplay
PPSSPP 8.1 Snapdragon600 Monster Hunter 3rd HD gameplay
::2013/07/08::
Play Video
43
Spring Photography - Nikon D90 Pictures
Spring Photography - Nikon D90 Pictures
::2010/06/20::
Play Video
44
NBA 2K14 PS4 MyCAREER ~ GATORADE Endorsement ~ Dwight Gets POSTERIZED
NBA 2K14 PS4 MyCAREER ~ GATORADE Endorsement ~ Dwight Gets POSTERIZED
::2014/01/03::
Play Video
45
ЯК-9П обучающее видео War Thunder СБ
ЯК-9П обучающее видео War Thunder СБ
::2013/06/24::
Play Video
46
Languages of India
Languages of India
::2014/05/02::
Play Video
47
Vasa Ergometer: Indoor Swimming as Efficient Training to Gain Swim Power
Vasa Ergometer: Indoor Swimming as Efficient Training to Gain Swim Power
::2009/06/24::
Play Video
48
Tips de fotografía FOTOROJA.COM - Fotografiando paisajes
Tips de fotografía FOTOROJA.COM - Fotografiando paisajes
::2010/03/28::
Play Video
49
Descargar e instalar sims 1 + expansiones facil HD
Descargar e instalar sims 1 + expansiones facil HD
::2013/07/15::
Play Video
50
Sony RX-100 case review
Sony RX-100 case review
::2012/09/08::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

ISO 15919 Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters is an international standard for the transliteration of Indic scripts to the Latin script formed in 2001. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script.

ISO 15919 and other systems[edit]

ISO 15919 is an international standard on the romanization of many Indic scripts, which was agreed upon in 2001 by a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries.[1] However, the Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanization in India" and a United Nations expert group noted about ISO 15919 that "there is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products."[2][3][4]

Another standard, United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names (UNRSGN), was developed by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN)[5] and covers many Indic scripts.

ALA-LC was approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association and is a US standard. IAST is not a standard (as no specification exists for it) but a convention developed in Europe for the transliteration of Sanskrit rather than the transcription of Indic scripts.

As a notable difference, both international standards, ISO 15919 and UNRSGN transliterate anusvara as , while ALA-LC and IAST use for it. However, ISO 15919 provides guidance towards disambiguating between various anusvara situations (such as labial versus dental nasalizations), which is described in the table below.

Fonts supporting Unicode characters[edit]

Only certain fonts can support all Indic ISO 15919 Unicode character sets. For example, Tahoma supports most Unicode characters needed for Indic language transliteration. Arial and Times New Roman font packages that come with Microsoft Office 2007 (but not with MS Office 2003 or earlier) also support most "Latin extended additional" ISO 15919 Unicode characters like ḑ, ḥ, ḷ, ḻ, ṁ, ṅ, ṇ, ṛ, ṣ, ṭ, etc.

Comparison with UNRSGN and IAST[edit]

The table below shows the differences between ISO 15919, UNRSGN and IAST for Devanagari transliteration.

Devanagari ISO 15919 UNRSGN IAST Comment
ए /  े ē e e To distinguish between long and short 'e' in Dravidian languages, 'e' now represents ऎ /  ॆ (short). Note that the use of ē is considered optional in ISO 15919, and using e for (long) is acceptable for languages that do not distinguish long and short e.
ओ /  ो ō o o To distinguish between long and short 'o' in Dravidian languages, 'o' now represents ऒ /  ॊ (short). Note that the use of ō is considered optional in ISO 15919, and using o for (long) is acceptable for languages that do not distinguish long and short o.
ऋ /  ृ In ISO 15919, is used to represent ड़.
ॠ /  ॄ r̥̄ For consistency with
ऌ /  ॢ In ISO 15919, is used to represent .
ॡ /  ॣ l̥̄ l̤̄ For consistency with
◌ं ISO 15919 has two options about anusvāra. (1) In the simplified nasalization option, an anusvāra is always transliterated as . (2) In the strict nasalization option, anusvāra before a class consonant is transliterated as the class nasal— before k, kh, g, gh, ṅ; ñ before c, ch, j, jh, ñ; before ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ; n before t, th, d, dh, n; m before p, ph, b, bh, m. is sometimes used to specifically represent Gurmukhi Tippi  ੰ.
ṅ ñ ṇ n m
◌ँ Vowel nasalization is transliterated as a tilde above the transliterated vowel (over the second vowel in the case of a digraph such as aĩ, aũ), except in Sanskrit.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ISO
  2. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Technical reference manual for the standardization of geographical names, United Nations Publications, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5, "... ISO 15919 ... There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products ... The Hunterian system is the actually used national system of romanization in India ..." 
  3. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Far East, Volume 2, United Nations, 1955, "... In India the Hunterian system is used, whereby every sound in the local language is uniformly represented by a certain letter in the Roman alphabet ..." 
  4. ^ National Library (India), Indian scientific & technical publications, exhibition 1960: a bibliography, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, 1960, "... The Hunterian system of transliteration, which has international acceptance, has been used ..." 
  5. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014