Ibid. (Latin, short for ibidem, meaning "the same place") is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the preceding endnote or footnote. This is similar in meaning to idem (meaning something that has been mentioned previously; the same), abbreviated Id., which is commonly used in legal citation. To find the ibid. source, one must look at the reference preceding it.
-  E. Vijh, Latin for Dummies (New York: Academic, 1997), p. 23.
-  Ibid.
-  Ibid., p. 29.
-  Al Azif, The Necronomicon (Petrus de Dacia, 1994).
-  Ibid. 1, at 34
Reference 2 is the same as reference 1: E. Vijh, Latin for Dummies on page 23, whereas reference 3 refers to the same work but at a different location, namely page 29. Intervening entries require a reference to the original citation in the form Ibid. <citation #>, as in reference 5. Notice that ibid. is an abbreviation where the last two letters of the word are not present; thus, it always takes a period (or full stop) in both British and American usage.
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