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The 17+ Different Kinds of Ice!
The 17+ Different Kinds of Ice!
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: SciShow
What Happens When Lava Meets Ice?
What Happens When Lava Meets Ice?
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: Science Channel
Ice polymorphs
Ice polymorphs
Published: 2014/07/19
Channel: Kazuhiro Himoto
Ice VII, Plastic Ice, and their Critical State
Ice VII, Plastic Ice, and their Critical State
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Masakazu Matsumoto
Melting of ice VII under high pressure and high temperature 高温高圧下での氷VII相の融解実験
Melting of ice VII under high pressure and high temperature 高温高圧下での氷VII相の融解実験
Published: 2010/12/24
Channel: kenm
How to make Hot Ice at home - Amazing Science Experiment
How to make Hot Ice at home - Amazing Science Experiment
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: Home Science
Emergence of new crystal ice leading to ice VII
Emergence of new crystal ice leading to ice VII
Published: 2014/06/03
Channel: Masakazu Matsumoto
Top 10 STRANGEST Planets In The Known Universe
Top 10 STRANGEST Planets In The Known Universe
Published: 2015/06/06
Channel: Top Lists
X-ray pulses reveal how water freezes into strange Ice VII
X-ray pulses reveal how water freezes into strange Ice VII
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Breaking News
5 Phenomenal Science Stunts, Done with Dry Ice
5 Phenomenal Science Stunts, Done with Dry Ice
Published: 2014/10/13
Channel: Grant Thompson - "The King of Random"
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 18
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 18
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: JoAnn Schneider Farris
[SimplePlanes]Fall until I hit ice VII (end)
[SimplePlanes]Fall until I hit ice VII (end)
Published: 2015/06/27
Channel: Rea Atkinson
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 17
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 17
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: JoAnn Schneider Farris
Ice Superdense Extraterrestrial: Formed in a Laser Flash.
Ice Superdense Extraterrestrial: Formed in a Laser Flash.
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Science and more
ice VII
ice VII
Published: 2014/07/29
Channel: ice VII
On Thin Ice 7
On Thin Ice 7
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: apetor
Europa Park Horror Nights 2016 HORROR ON ICE VII
Europa Park Horror Nights 2016 HORROR ON ICE VII
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: Manuel Schneider
Ice/ VII ЧМ Украины среди танцевальных коллективов
Ice/ VII ЧМ Украины среди танцевальных коллективов
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Ансамбль бального танцю Ритм
ice VII @Sammy
ice VII @Sammy's Original Lake Forest, CA
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: larry jones
Sanys - [B1] Ice VII
Sanys - [B1] Ice VII
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: Etien101
ice VII
ice VII
Published: 2016/06/03
Channel: larry jones
Kalli on Ice VII
Kalli on Ice VII
Published: 2013/01/23
Channel: kamelt01
Final Fantasy VII Sculpted Ice Show @ Sapporo Snow Festival 2017
Final Fantasy VII Sculpted Ice Show @ Sapporo Snow Festival 2017
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Dallas Staryu
ice VII
ice VII
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: larry jones
IceVII, Plastic Ice, and Liquid Water
IceVII, Plastic Ice, and Liquid Water
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: Masakazu Matsumoto
Disney On Ice VII
Disney On Ice VII
Published: 2014/08/10
Channel: Gabrielle Buglewicz
Facu in the ice VII
Facu in the ice VII
Published: 2008/02/28
Channel: anitajuntacoloress
Disney on ice VII
Disney on ice VII
Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: isaacliu1216
ICE VII (Feat. Chloe) - Preview
ICE VII (Feat. Chloe) - Preview
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: Brandon Yori
Alcohol Fueled Random Review - Smirnoff Ice VII Fruit Punch
Alcohol Fueled Random Review - Smirnoff Ice VII Fruit Punch
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: Don's Random Wreckage
Disney on Ice VII.MOV
Disney on Ice VII.MOV
Published: 2012/02/28
Channel: xenreyes
ICE 7
ICE 7
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: Matthew S Gomes - Soccer
KHS Class of 1973 40th Reunion Dinner Ice VII
KHS Class of 1973 40th Reunion Dinner Ice VII
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: David Boykin
Ice VII Xin....do Paloma
Ice VII Xin....do Paloma
Published: 2009/12/25
Channel: José García
KHS Class of 1973 40th Reunion Dinner Ice VII
KHS Class of 1973 40th Reunion Dinner Ice VII
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: David Boykin
SOULCALIBUR V AubreySonOfCammyTira  vs Black ice Vii
SOULCALIBUR V AubreySonOfCammyTira vs Black ice Vii
Published: 2015/10/31
Channel: Aubrey White
auey auey On Ice VII (Lovin
auey auey On Ice VII (Lovin' You, Solo Comp. Alpha)
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Somphop Cheevamongkol
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - r3m vs. IcE VII, pt. 1
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - r3m vs. IcE VII, pt. 1
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: Tickenest
Hockey Night in Barrie VII On Ice Action Video
Hockey Night in Barrie VII On Ice Action Video
Published: 2014/08/21
Channel: Runstar Media
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - FOLD vs. IcE VII, pt. 1
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - FOLD vs. IcE VII, pt. 1
Published: 2011/04/04
Channel: Tickenest
Emergence of new ice type T
Emergence of new ice type T
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Masakazu Matsumoto
"sold"    Black Ice 7 yr old GRADE mare
"sold" Black Ice 7 yr old GRADE mare
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: Slick Ponies Ranch
Smirnoff Ice VII Fruit Punch Review/Tasting - Liquorman
Smirnoff Ice VII Fruit Punch Review/Tasting - Liquorman's Arcade
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: Liquorman's Arcade
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - FOLD vs. IcE VII, pt. 3
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - FOLD vs. IcE VII, pt. 3
Published: 2011/04/04
Channel: Tickenest
Battles PunchlinerZ Edtion VII - Ice Kidd vs Stan
Battles PunchlinerZ Edtion VII - Ice Kidd vs Stan's
Published: 2014/06/17
Channel: BattlesPunchlinerZ
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - FOLD vs. IcE VII, pt. 2
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - FOLD vs. IcE VII, pt. 2
Published: 2011/04/04
Channel: Tickenest
Massive Final Fantasy VII snow sculpture at the 1997 Sapporo Snow Festival
Massive Final Fantasy VII snow sculpture at the 1997 Sapporo Snow Festival
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: raregamecollector
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 15
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 15
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: JoAnn Schneider Farris
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - r3m vs. IcE VII, pt. 2
Quake Team Fortress (QWTF) - r3m vs. IcE VII, pt. 2
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: Tickenest
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 7
Sun Valley On Ice 7-4-17 - Video 7
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: JoAnn Schneider Farris
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The crystal structure of ice VII

Ice VII is a cubic crystalline form of ice. It can be formed from liquid water above 3 GPa (30,000 atmospheres) by lowering its temperature to room temperature, or by decompressing heavy water (D2O) ice VI below 95 K. Ordinary water ice is known as ice Ih, (in the Bridgman nomenclature). Different types of ice, from ice II to ice XVI, have been created in the laboratory at different temperatures and pressures. Ice VII is metastable over a wide range of temperatures and pressures and transforms into low-density amorphous ice (LDA) above 120K.[1] Ice VII has a triple point with liquid water and ice VI at 355 K and 2.216 GPa, with the melt line extending to at least 715 K and 10 GPa.[2] It can also be created by increasing the pressure on ice VI at ambient temperature.[3]

Like the majority of ice phases (including ice Ih), the hydrogen atom positions are disordered.[4] In addition, the oxygen atoms are disordered over multiple sites.[5][6][7] The structure of ice VII comprises a hydrogen bond framework in the form of two interpenetrating (but non-bonded) sublattices.[5] Hydrogen bonds pass through the center of the water hexamers and thus do not connect the two lattices. Ice VII has a density of about 1.65 g cm−3 (at 2.5 GPa and 25 °C),[8] which is less than twice the cubic ice density as the intra-network O–O distances are 8% longer (at 0.1 MPa) to allow for interpenetration. The cubic unit cell has a side length of 3.3501 Å (for D2O, at 2.6 GPa and 22 °C) and contains two water molecules.[6]

Ice VII is the only disordered phase of ice that can be ordered by simple cooling,[3][9] and it forms (ordered) ice VIII below 273 K up to ~ 8 GPa. Above this pressure, the VII–VIII transition temperature drops rapidly, reaching 0 K at ~60 GPa.[10] Thus, ice VII has the largest stability field of all of the molecular phases of ice. The cubic oxygen sub-lattices that form the backbone of the ice VII structure persist to pressures of at least 128 GPa;[11] this pressure is substantially higher than that at which water loses its molecular character entirely, forming ice X. In high pressure ices, protonic diffusion (movement of protons around the oxygen lattice) dominates molecular diffusion, an effect which has been measured directly.[12]

Scientists hypothesize that ice VII may comprise the ocean floor of Titan as well as extrasolar planets (such as Gliese 436 b and GJ 1214 b) that are largely made of water.[13][14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S. Klotz, J. M. Besson, G. Hamel, R. J. Nelmes, J. S. Loveday and W. G. Marshall, Metastable ice VII at low temperature and ambient pressure, Nature 398 (1999) 681–684.
  2. ^ "IAPWS, Release on the pressure along the melting and the sublimation curves of ordinary water substance, 1993" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  3. ^ a b Johari, G. P.; Lavergne, A. & Whalley, E. (1974), "Dielectric properties of ice VII and VIII and the phase boundary between ice VI and VII", Journal of Chemical Physics, 61 (10): 4292, Bibcode:1974JChPh..61.4292J, doi:10.1063/1.1681733 
  4. ^ Petrenko, V. F.; Whitworth, R. W. (2002), The Physics of Ice, New York: Oxford University Press .
  5. ^ a b Kuhs, W. F.; Finney, J. L.; Vettier, C. & Bliss, D. V. (1984), "Structure and hydrogen ordering in ices VI, VII, and VIII by neutron powder diffraction", Journal of Chemical Physics, 81 (8): 3612–3623, Bibcode:1984JChPh..81.3612K, doi:10.1063/1.448109 .
  6. ^ a b Jorgensen, J. D.; Worlton, T. G. (1985), "Disordered structure of D2O ice VII from in situ neutron powder diffraction", Journal of Chemical Physics, 83 (1): 329–333, Bibcode:1985JChPh..83..329J, doi:10.1063/1.449867 .
  7. ^ Nelmes, R. J.; Loveday, J. S.; Marshall, W. G.; et al. (1998), "Multisite Disordered Structure of Ice VII to 20 GPa", Physical Review Letters, 81 (13): 2719–2722, Bibcode:1998PhRvL..81.2719N, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2719 .
  8. ^ D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann, The structure and properties of water (Oxford University Press, London, 1969); (b) The dodecahedral interstitial model is described in L. Pauling, The structure of water, In Hydrogen bonding, Ed. D. Hadzi and H. W. Thompson (Pergamon Press Ltd, London, 1959) pp 1–6.
  9. ^ Note: ice Ih theoretically transforms into proton-ordered ice XI on geologic timescales, but in practice it is necessary to add small amounts of KOH catalyst.
  10. ^ Pruzan, Ph.; Chervin, J. C. & Canny, B. (1993), "Stability domain of the ice VIII proton-ordered phase at very high pressure and low temperature", Journal of Chemical Physics, 99 (12): 9842–9846, Bibcode:1993JChPh..99.9842P, doi:10.1063/1.465467 .
  11. ^ Hemley, R. J.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Mao, H. K.; et al. (1987), "Static compression of H2O-ice to 128 GPa (1.28 Mbar)", Nature, 330 (6150): 737–740, Bibcode:1987Natur.330..737H, doi:10.1038/330737a0 .
  12. ^ Katoh, E. (15 February 2002). "Protonic Diffusion in High-Pressure Ice VII". Science. 295 (5558): 1264–1266. Bibcode:2002Sci...295.1264K. PMID 11847334. doi:10.1126/science.1067746. 
  13. ^ University of Liège (2007, May 16). Astronomers Detect Shadow Of Water World In Front Of Nearby Star. ScienceDaily. Retrieved Jan. 3, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070516151053.htm
  14. ^ David A. Aguilar (2009-12-16). "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur, Off-the-Shelf Technology". Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved January 23, 2010. 

Works cited

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