The Illinois Confederation, sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, were a group of twelve to thirteen Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valley of North America. The tribes were the Kaskaskia, the Cahokia, the Peoria, the Tamaroa, Moingwena, Michigamea, Albiui, Amonokoa, Chepoussa, Chinkoa, Coiracoentanon, Espeminkia, Maroa, Matchinkoa, Michibousa, Negawichi, and Tapouara. At the time of European contact in the 17th century, they were believed to number several thousand people.
When French explorers first journeyed to the region from Canada in the early 17th century, they found the area inhabited by a vigorous, populous Algonquian-speaking nation. What we know today about the Illinois is based on the historical account Jesuit Relations, written by French Jesuit priests. The missionaries who lived among the various native nations wrote the Relations and sent the reports back to their superiors in France.
The Illinois spoke various dialects of the Miami-Illinois language, one of the Algonquian language family. Among the earliest renditions of the modernized, Anglicized term "Illiniwek" were Liniouek (1656), "Aliniouek" (1658), "Alimiwec" (1660), "iriniȣak" (1662; the old French symbol ȣ, often printed as the numeral '8' which it resembles, represents the vowel /o/ in Illinois), and "Ilinioüek" (1667). In 1670 Father Claude Allouez, S.J. referred to a band of natives as "IlimoucK" (the editor added an alternative spelling "Iliniouek") in one sentence and "Ilinioüetz" in the next. The English translation changed the latter spelling to "Iliniouetz." In the variable spelling of the times, the name of Allouez was also spelled "Alloues," "Alloez," Aloes," "Aloez," "Aloues," and "Daloes" in these early records.
Illinois was not the tribes' name for themselves, or autonym. Rather, Illinois is a French transliteration of an Old Ottawa term for them, or exonym: /ilinwe/ 'he speaks the ordinary way'. This in turn was presumably borrowed from the Illinois or Old Miami verb /irenweewa/, which has the same meaning as the Ottawa form. The Illinois' autonym was Inoka (sometimes spelled Inoca), as it appears in all three Illinois dictionaries from the late 17th/early 18th century. For example, in the Illinois-French dictionary from the early 18th century often attributed to Gravier, the word 'Inȣca' is translated as Illinois peuple. Or, in the 1725 LeBoullenger French-Illinois dictionary, the same word is spelled inoca, and translated Illinois.
In the 17th century, the Illinois suffered from a combination of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity, and warfare by the expansion of the Iroquois into the eastern Great Lakes region. The Iroquois had hunted out their traditional lands and sought more productive hunting and trapping areas. They sought furs to purchase European goods in the fur trade.
When a Peoria warrior murdered the Ottawa war chief Pontiac in 1769, the northern tribes retaliated against the Illiniwek. They suffered more losses. Many of the Illinois migrated to present-day eastern Kansas to escape the pressure from other tribes and encroaching Europeans settlers.
The Illinois lived in a seasonal cycle related to cultivation of domestic plants and hunting, with movement from semi-permanent villages to hunting camps. They planted crops of maize (corn), beans, and squash, known as the "Three Sisters". They prepared dishes such as sagamite. They also gathered wild foods such as nuts, fruit, roots and tubers. In the hunting season, the men hunted bison, deer, elk, bear, cougar, lynx, turkey, geese and duck. Women prepared the meat for preservation and the hides for equipment and clothing. They tapped maple trees and made the sap into a drink or boiled it for syrup and sugar.
As a consequence of the Indian Removal Act, in the 1830s the Illinois were relocated from where they had migrated to eastern Kansas to northeastern Indian Territory. Today they chiefly reside in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, as the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article about Illinois Confederation.|
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