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2014 Illinois Confederation of Clubs Run
2014 Illinois Confederation of Clubs Run
Published: 2014/06/30
Channel: Adam Gogola
Prairie Fire: The Illinois Country, 1673-1818: Illinois Confederacy
Prairie Fire: The Illinois Country, 1673-1818: Illinois Confederacy
Published: 2011/02/18
Channel: niulibdiglab
Confederation of Clubs Meetings
Confederation of Clubs Meetings
Published: 2011/07/07
Channel: AIMNCOM
Chief Illiniwek Last Dance, Tribute - Official Vid
Chief Illiniwek Last Dance, Tribute - Official Vid
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: RememberTheChief
Huge Pyramids and Mounds Stood In Southern Illinois Over 1,000 Years Ago
Huge Pyramids and Mounds Stood In Southern Illinois Over 1,000 Years Ago
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: DAHBOO777
Robert Mazrim (ISAS Researcher) Talk to La Salle County Historical Society, January 2011
Robert Mazrim (ISAS Researcher) Talk to La Salle County Historical Society, January 2011
Published: 2011/12/13
Channel: Illinois State Archaeological Survey
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: nutmeg37
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2006/12/09
Channel: Bob224Bob
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Final Dance
Published: 2008/02/02
Channel: bradjward
America
America's Great Indian Nations
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: WisdomShared Cheyenne
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/03/10
Channel: LiveShot321
The Next Dance 2008 - - Chief Illiniwek Returns!
The Next Dance 2008 - - Chief Illiniwek Returns!
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: nickoftimex
Chief Appearance - Illinois vs. Indiana Football Game
Chief Appearance - Illinois vs. Indiana Football Game
Published: 2010/10/27
Channel: thechieflivesvids
U. of I. compromises on Chief Illiniwek use
U. of I. compromises on Chief Illiniwek use
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: Chicago Tribune
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: unbeatabo67
Starved Rock State Park in Oglesby, Illinois
Starved Rock State Park in Oglesby, Illinois
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Peter von Panda
Interview of Chief Illiniwek student supporter
Interview of Chief Illiniwek student supporter
Published: 2009/10/05
Channel: resistero
Chief  Illiniwek 1993
Chief Illiniwek 1993
Published: 2008/06/06
Channel: Stephen Douglas
College Republicans meeting taken over by alleged school employee
College Republicans meeting taken over by alleged school employee
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: CampusReform
Logan Ponce
Logan Ponce
Published: 2010/04/22
Channel: resistero
Illiniwek 2016
Illiniwek 2016
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: gayked63
Illiniwek Fun
Illiniwek Fun
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: aburken1
Illiniwek new loop
Illiniwek new loop
Published: 2011/07/17
Channel: becadog
Memories of Chief Illiniwek
Memories of Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2007/02/27
Channel: cowdoc3
Starved Rock Illinois 2012
Starved Rock Illinois 2012
Published: 2012/10/23
Channel: Jess PR, Maries EVP Girl
Chief
Chief's Next Dance
Published: 2008/11/17
Channel: oskewowwow
Pro Chief Interview
Pro Chief Interview
Published: 2009/10/05
Channel: resistero
The Portrayal of The Chief Illiniwek Dance
The Portrayal of The Chief Illiniwek Dance
Published: 2009/11/02
Channel: Sharon Christine
Chief_PKG_AM
Chief_PKG_AM
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Journalism 340 Erdey
Illini Chief
Illini Chief
Published: 2006/01/05
Channel: Chris Scheufele
Chief Illiniwek Halftime Dance
Chief Illiniwek Halftime Dance
Published: 2006/04/22
Channel: Matt Miller
Schoolhouse Rock! The Preamble
Schoolhouse Rock! The Preamble
Published: 2012/09/16
Channel: Illinois Policy
Illiniwek park clip
Illiniwek park clip
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Erik Fries
Chief Illiniwek @ the Illinois vs. Iowa Basketball Game, 2.26.12
Chief Illiniwek @ the Illinois vs. Iowa Basketball Game, 2.26.12
Published: 2012/02/27
Channel: sgardner756
Wooden Indian Carving a Chief Illiniwek @ Fall creek gallery wood cigar store indian statue shop
Wooden Indian Carving a Chief Illiniwek @ Fall creek gallery wood cigar store indian statue shop
Published: 2015/04/25
Channel: FallCreekGallery
Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance
Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance
Published: 2008/11/18
Channel: allidan
Anti-mascot protest November 15, 2008
Anti-mascot protest November 15, 2008
Published: 2008/11/17
Channel: resistero
The Next Dance by Chief Illiniwek at Assembly Hall (Full Dance)
The Next Dance by Chief Illiniwek at Assembly Hall (Full Dance)
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: SL13579
Chief Illiniwek at PHS
Chief Illiniwek at PHS
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: Breeze-Courier
Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance
Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: Jeremy Jones
Chief
Chief's Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/23
Channel: Brittany1101
The Chief
The Chief
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: Brian Blair
Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
Chief Illiniwek: 7 Years Later, Produced by Senait Gebregiorgis
Chief Illiniwek: 7 Years Later, Produced by Senait Gebregiorgis
Published: 2014/12/12
Channel: Collins Shelf UIUC
Farewell to Chief Illiniwek
Farewell to Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2007/09/24
Channel: IllinoisChannelTV
Travel Guru Rick Steves Advocates for Marijuana Legalization in Illinois on Chicago Tonight
Travel Guru Rick Steves Advocates for Marijuana Legalization in Illinois on Chicago Tonight
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: DC 420 BACK UP
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Performance
Published: 2012/05/08
Channel: Liz B
Chief Illiniwek 2005
Chief Illiniwek 2005
Published: 2007/02/23
Channel: ChiefIlliniwek4evr
Piasa Bird #2
Piasa Bird #2
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Normie Norm
Explore The Peoria Skyline On A Beautiful Day!
Explore The Peoria Skyline On A Beautiful Day!
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Christine Lowery -Beachcricket
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Illinois Confederation,[1] sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, was a group of 12–13 Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valley of North America. The tribes were the Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Peoria, Tamaroa, Moingwena, Michigamea, Chepoussa, Chinkoa, Coiracoentanon, Espeminkia, Maroa, and Tapouara.[2] At the time of European contact in the 17th century, they were believed to number over 10,000 people.[3] Most of the Illinois spoke various dialects of the Miami-Illinois language, one of the Algonquian languages family, with the known exception of the Siouan-speaking Michigamea. They occupied a broad inverted triangle from modern-day Iowa to near the shores of Lake Michigan in modern Chicago south to modern Arkansas. By the mid-18th century, only five principal tribes remained: the Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Peoria, and Tamaroa.

The Illinois River (Inoka Siipiiwi) (″the River of the Inoka, i.e. Illinois″) and the entire vast Illinois Country are named after the Illinois Confederacy.

Name[edit]

The Illinois autonym was not "Illinois," but rather "Inoka," a word of unknown meaning. The name "Illinois" ultimately derives from the Miami-Illinois term irenweewa "s/he speaks normally" or "s/he speaks in the ordinary way." The term was likely originally applied to the Illinois by the Miami tribe, who spoke a dialect of the same language. It was then borrowed by Odawa as ilin(i)we/alin(i)we, and loaned from Odawa into French, and from there into English (in the French of the 1600s, the spelling <Illinois> represented /ilinwe/).[4]

History[edit]

When French explorers first journeyed to the region from Canada in the 17th century, they found the area inhabited by a vigorous, populous, Algonquian-speaking nation. What we know today about the Illinois is based on the historical account Jesuit Relations, written by French Jesuits. The missionaries who lived among the various native nations wrote the Relations and sent the reports back to their superiors in France. One name for an Illinois Confederation tribe, the Cahokia, was used as a name for a French settlement, now Cahokia, Illinois, near what are now called the Cahokia Mounds, the remains of a large pre-Columbian city. However, it is currently unknown whether the Illinois Confederation peoples, including the Cahokia, have any relationship to the earlier native builders of the mounds civilization.

In the 17th century, the Illinois suffered from a combination of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity, and warfare by the expansion of the Iroquois into the western Great Lakes region. The Iroquois had hunted out their traditional lands and sought more productive hunting and trapping areas (see, Beaver Wars). They sought furs to purchase European goods in the fur trade. Many of the Illinois migrated to present-day eastern Kansas to escape the pressure from other tribes and encroaching European settlers.

Culture[edit]

The Illinois lived in a seasonal cycle related to cultivation of domestic plants and hunting, with movement from semi-permanent villages to hunting camps. They seasonally lived in long houses and wigwams of wood and woven mats.[5] They planted crops of maize (corn), beans, and squash, known as the "Three Sisters". They prepared dishes such as sagamite. They also gathered wild foods such as nuts, fruit, roots, and tubers. In the hunting season, the men hunted bison, deer, elk, bear, cougar, lynx, turkey, geese and duck. Women prepared the meat for preservation and the hides for equipment and clothing. They tapped maple trees and made the sap into a drink or boiled it for syrup and sugar.[6]

Present day[edit]

As a consequence of the Indian Removal Act, in the 1830s, the Illinois were relocated from where they had migrated to in eastern Kansas to northeastern Indian Territory. Today they chiefly reside in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, as the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma.

See also[edit]

Grand Village of the Illinois

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution; Bureau of American Ethnology), 145.
  2. ^ The Illinois: Identity, Illinois State Museum, 2000
  3. ^ "Native Americans:Historic:The Illinois:History:The Illinois Decline". Museum.state.il.us. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  4. ^ Costa, David J. 2008. "On the Origins of the Name “Illinois”", Le Journal 24/4: 6-10.
  5. ^ http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/te_houses.html
  6. ^ "The Illiniwek", The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery, National Park Service, accessed 29 Sep 2009

References[edit]

  • Costa, David J. 2000. "Miami-Illinois Tribe Names". In John Nichols, ed., Papers of the Thirty-first Algonquian Conference 30-53. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
  • Costa, David J. 2008. "On the Origins of the Name “Illinois”." Le Journal 24/4: 6-10.
  • Costa, David J.; Wolfart, H.C., ed. (2005). "The St-Jérôme Dictionary of Miami-Illinois" (PDF). Papers of the 36th Algonquian Conference. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. pp. 107–133. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Masthay, Carl, editor. Kaskasia Illinois-to-French Dictionary. St. Louis, Missouri: Carl Masthay. p. 757. ISBN 0-9719113-04. 

External links[edit]

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