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2014 Illinois Confederation of Clubs Run
2014 Illinois Confederation of Clubs Run
Published: 2014/06/30
Channel: Adam Gogola
Chief Illiniwek Last Dance, Tribute - Official Vid
Chief Illiniwek Last Dance, Tribute - Official Vid
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: RememberTheChief
Three In One - Chief Illiniwek
Three In One - Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2006/08/27
Channel: Bob224Bob
Chief
Chief's Last Dance on ESPN
Published: 2007/02/23
Channel: Rosbo35
Chief Illiniwek - Final Homecoming Dance
Chief Illiniwek - Final Homecoming Dance
Published: 2010/09/10
Channel: redrum2455
Chief Illiniwek - Final Three In One
Chief Illiniwek - Final Three In One
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: Bob224Bob
Chief  Illiniwek 1993
Chief Illiniwek 1993
Published: 2008/06/06
Channel: Stephen Douglas
Huge Pyramids and Mounds Stood In Southern Illinois Over 1,000 Years Ago
Huge Pyramids and Mounds Stood In Southern Illinois Over 1,000 Years Ago
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: DAHBOO777
Joe Investigates Chief Illiniwek (Classic)
Joe Investigates Chief Illiniwek (Classic)
Published: 2014/10/01
Channel: Joe Goes
Chief Illiniwek at PHS
Chief Illiniwek at PHS
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: Breeze-Courier
The Portrayal of The Chief Illiniwek through History
The Portrayal of The Chief Illiniwek through History
Published: 2009/11/02
Channel: Sharon Christine
Prairie Fire: The Illinois Country, 1673-1818: Illinois Confederacy
Prairie Fire: The Illinois Country, 1673-1818: Illinois Confederacy
Published: 2011/02/18
Channel: niulibdiglab
Confederation of Clubs Meetings
Confederation of Clubs Meetings
Published: 2011/07/07
Channel: AIMNCOM
Chief Illiniwek  Scott Christensen 1983
Chief Illiniwek Scott Christensen 1983
Published: 2009/03/05
Channel: Stephen Douglas
The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8
Published: 2013/03/21
Channel: CrashCourse
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2006/12/09
Channel: Bob224Bob
Starved Rock State Park in Oglesby, Illinois
Starved Rock State Park in Oglesby, Illinois
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Peter von Panda
Chief Illiniwek University of Illinois
Chief Illiniwek University of Illinois
Published: 2006/12/07
Channel: Illinifan70
U. of I. compromises on Chief Illiniwek use
U. of I. compromises on Chief Illiniwek use
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: Chicago Tribune
Chief Illiniwek 2011 Homecoming Video
Chief Illiniwek 2011 Homecoming Video
Published: 2011/10/01
Channel: thechieflivesvids
Farewell to Chief Illiniwek
Farewell to Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2007/09/24
Channel: IllinoisChannelTV
Illini Tribe.dv
Illini Tribe.dv
Published: 2011/12/02
Channel: Greg Lochow
Chief Illiniwek Is Tradition
Chief Illiniwek Is Tradition
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Collins Shelf UIUC
Honest Abe Illini
Honest Abe Illini
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: Stew Oleson
Chief Illiniwek @ the Illinois vs. Iowa Basketball Game, 2.26.12
Chief Illiniwek @ the Illinois vs. Iowa Basketball Game, 2.26.12
Published: 2012/02/27
Channel: sgardner756
NAISO: Removing Chief Illiniwek, One T-Shirt at a Time
NAISO: Removing Chief Illiniwek, One T-Shirt at a Time
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: Collins Shelf UIUC
Chief Illiniwek Tribute - Wedding Reception Entrance
Chief Illiniwek Tribute - Wedding Reception Entrance
Published: 2012/06/11
Channel: MixParkProductions
Logan Ponce
Logan Ponce
Published: 2010/04/22
Channel: resistero
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Next Dance 2010 (October 23, 2010)
Published: 2010/10/24
Channel: millsie99
Chief Commemoration
Chief Commemoration
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: Russ Johnson
Interview of Chief Illiniwek student supporter
Interview of Chief Illiniwek student supporter
Published: 2009/10/05
Channel: resistero
Chief
Chief's Last Performance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: janmoch
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/06/26
Channel: clayton6600
The Next Dance
The Next Dance
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: Judith Siess
After the Chief - Three Years Later
After the Chief - Three Years Later
Published: 2010/03/17
Channel: Kevin Swanson
Chief
Chief's Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/23
Channel: Brittany1101
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: unbeatabo67
Chief at Illini game 11-5-2016
Chief at Illini game 11-5-2016
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: phatgeezer1955
Racist Mascots Have to Go
Racist Mascots Have to Go
Published: 2011/11/10
Channel: Jack Brighton
Chief Illiniwek Makes Surprise Appearance at Homecoming Halftime Show 2012
Chief Illiniwek Makes Surprise Appearance at Homecoming Halftime Show 2012
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: zackstork
Ted on MSNBC
Ted on MSNBC
Published: 2007/03/10
Channel: LiveShot321
"The Next Dance" of Chief Illiniwek
"The Next Dance" of Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: onlyfantasticpoetry
White Man in Red Face - Chief Illiniwek
White Man in Red Face - Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: Eric Schacht
Final Dance of Chief Illiniwek
Final Dance of Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: Joeyxi
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's 2nd to Last Dance!
Published: 2007/02/19
Channel: bwong005
Illiniwek Bike Trail Part III - Downhill
Illiniwek Bike Trail Part III - Downhill
Published: 2013/08/14
Channel: Jon Richmiller
Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
Pro Chief Interview
Pro Chief Interview
Published: 2009/10/05
Channel: resistero
Chief Illiniwek Tribute
Chief Illiniwek Tribute
Published: 2014/02/22
Channel: Fighting Illini
Illiniwek 2016
Illiniwek 2016
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: gayked63
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Illinois Confederation,[1] sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, was a group of 12–13 Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valley of North America. The tribes were the Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Peoria, Tamaroa, Moingwena, Michigamea, Chepoussa, Chinkoa, Coiracoentanon, Espeminkia, Maroa, and Tapouara.[2] At the time of European contact in the 17th century, they were believed to number over 10,000 people.[3] Most of the Illinois spoke various dialects of the Miami-Illinois language, one of the Algonquian languages family, with the known exception of the Siouan-speaking Michigamea. They occupied a broad inverted triangle from modern-day Iowa to near the shores of Lake Michigan in modern Chicago south to modern Arkansas. By the mid-18th century, only five principal tribes remained: the Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Peoria, and Tamaroa.

The Illinois River (Inoka Siipiiwi) (″the River of the Inoka, i.e. Illinois″) and the entire vast Illinois Country are named after the Illinois Confederacy.

Name[edit]

The Illinois autonym was not "Illinois," but rather "Inoka," a word of unknown meaning. The name "Illinois" ultimately derives from the Miami-Illinois term irenweewa "s/he speaks normally" or "s/he speaks in the ordinary way." The term was likely originally applied to the Illinois by the Miami tribe, who spoke a dialect of the same language. It was then borrowed by Odawa as ilin(i)we/alin(i)we, and loaned from Odawa into French, and from there into English (in the French of the 1600s, the spelling <Illinois> represented /ilinwe/).[4]

History[edit]

When French explorers first journeyed to the region from Canada in the 17th century, they found the area inhabited by a vigorous, populous, Algonquian-speaking nation. What we know today about the Illinois is based on the historical account Jesuit Relations, written by French Jesuits. The missionaries who lived among the various native nations wrote the Relations and sent the reports back to their superiors in France. One name for an Illinois Confederation tribe, the Cahokia, was used as a name for a French settlement, now Cahokia, Illinois, near what are now called the Cahokia Mounds, the remains of a large pre-Columbian city. However, it is currently unknown whether the Illinois Confederation peoples, including the Cahokia, have any relationship to the earlier native builders of the mounds civilization.

In the 17th century, the Illinois suffered from a combination of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity, and warfare by the expansion of the Iroquois into the western Great Lakes region. The Iroquois had hunted out their traditional lands and sought more productive hunting and trapping areas (see, Beaver Wars). They sought furs to purchase European goods in the fur trade. Many of the Illinois migrated to present-day eastern Kansas to escape the pressure from other tribes and encroaching European settlers.

Culture[edit]

The Illinois lived in a seasonal cycle related to cultivation of domestic plants and hunting, with movement from semi-permanent villages to hunting camps. They seasonally lived in long houses and wigwams of wood and woven mats.[5] They planted crops of maize (corn), beans, and squash, known as the "Three Sisters". They prepared dishes such as sagamite. They also gathered wild foods such as nuts, fruit, roots, and tubers. In the hunting season, the men hunted bison, deer, elk, bear, cougar, lynx, turkey, geese and duck. Women prepared the meat for preservation and the hides for equipment and clothing. They tapped maple trees and made the sap into a drink or boiled it for syrup and sugar.[6]

Present day[edit]

As a consequence of the Indian Removal Act, in the 1830s, the Illinois were relocated from where they had migrated to in eastern Kansas to northeastern Indian Territory. Today they chiefly reside in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, as the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma.

See also[edit]

Grand Village of the Illinois

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution; Bureau of American Ethnology), 145.
  2. ^ The Illinois: Identity, Illinois State Museum, 2000
  3. ^ "Native Americans:Historic:The Illinois:History:The Illinois Decline". Museum.state.il.us. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  4. ^ Costa, David J. 2008. "On the Origins of the Name “Illinois”", Le Journal 24/4: 6-10.
  5. ^ http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/te_houses.html
  6. ^ "The Illiniwek", The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery, National Park Service, accessed 29 Sep 2009

References[edit]

  • Costa, David J. 2000. "Miami-Illinois Tribe Names". In John Nichols, ed., Papers of the Thirty-first Algonquian Conference 30-53. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
  • Costa, David J. 2008. "On the Origins of the Name “Illinois”." Le Journal 24/4: 6-10.
  • Costa, David J.; Wolfart, H.C., ed. (2005). "The St-Jérôme Dictionary of Miami-Illinois" (PDF). Papers of the 36th Algonquian Conference. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. pp. 107–133. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Masthay, Carl, editor. Kaskasia Illinois-to-French Dictionary. St. Louis, Missouri: Carl Masthay. p. 757. ISBN 0-9719113-04. 

External links[edit]

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