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2014 Illinois Confederation of Clubs Run
2014 Illinois Confederation of Clubs Run
Published: 2014/06/30
Channel: Adam Gogola
Chief
Chief's Last Dance on ESPN
Published: 2007/02/23
Channel: Rosbo35
Prairie Fire: The Illinois Country, 1673-1818: Illinois Confederacy
Prairie Fire: The Illinois Country, 1673-1818: Illinois Confederacy
Published: 2011/02/18
Channel: niulibdiglab
Chief Illiniwek - Final Homecoming Dance
Chief Illiniwek - Final Homecoming Dance
Published: 2010/09/10
Channel: redrum2455
Huge Pyramids and Mounds Stood In Southern Illinois Over 1,000 Years Ago
Huge Pyramids and Mounds Stood In Southern Illinois Over 1,000 Years Ago
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: DAHBOO777
Chief Illiniwek  Scott Christensen 1983
Chief Illiniwek Scott Christensen 1983
Published: 2009/03/05
Channel: Stephen Douglas
U. of I. compromises on Chief Illiniwek use
U. of I. compromises on Chief Illiniwek use
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: Chicago Tribune
Starved Rock State Park in Oglesby, Illinois
Starved Rock State Park in Oglesby, Illinois
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Peter von Panda
Three In One - Chief Illiniwek
Three In One - Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2006/08/27
Channel: Bob224Bob
Chief Illiniwek - Final Three In One
Chief Illiniwek - Final Three In One
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: Bob224Bob
Joe Investigates Chief Illiniwek (Classic)
Joe Investigates Chief Illiniwek (Classic)
Published: 2014/10/01
Channel: Joe Goes
The Next Dance 2008 - - Chief Illiniwek Returns!
The Next Dance 2008 - - Chief Illiniwek Returns!
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: nickoftimex
Chief Illiniwek Last Dance, Tribute - Official Vid
Chief Illiniwek Last Dance, Tribute - Official Vid
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: RememberTheChief
Illini Tribe.dv
Illini Tribe.dv
Published: 2011/12/02
Channel: Greg Lochow
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/03/10
Channel: LiveShot321
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2006/12/09
Channel: Bob224Bob
Chief Illiniwek 2011 Homecoming Video
Chief Illiniwek 2011 Homecoming Video
Published: 2011/10/01
Channel: thechieflivesvids
White Man in Red Face - Chief Illiniwek
White Man in Red Face - Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: Eric Schacht
Chief Illiniwek University of Illinois
Chief Illiniwek University of Illinois
Published: 2006/12/07
Channel: Illinifan70
Chief Illiniwek - The Last Dance
Chief Illiniwek - The Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: browneyedillini
Band Day 2017 Halftime Trailer
Band Day 2017 Halftime Trailer
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Marching Illini
Chief Illiniwek & the Illinois game
Chief Illiniwek & the Illinois game
Published: 2006/11/11
Channel: iluvsports87
The Chief
The Chief's final kicks
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: hgilly
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: nutmeg37
Illiniwek new loop
Illiniwek new loop
Published: 2011/07/17
Channel: becadog
Chiefs last dance
Chiefs last dance
Published: 2007/02/23
Channel: crevy7
Honest Abe Illini
Honest Abe Illini
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: Stew Oleson
Acrylic Painting of the University of Illinois Logo (Chief Illiniwek) by Judsey
Acrylic Painting of the University of Illinois Logo (Chief Illiniwek) by Judsey
Published: 2014/02/10
Channel: JUDsey
Chief  Illiniwek 1993
Chief Illiniwek 1993
Published: 2008/06/06
Channel: Stephen Douglas
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's Final Performance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: Brian White
"The Next Dance" of Chief Illiniwek
"The Next Dance" of Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: onlyfantasticpoetry
Chief
Chief's Last Performance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: janmoch
Illiniwek down hill and wooden berms
Illiniwek down hill and wooden berms
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: Michael Pekios
Illiniwek 2016
Illiniwek 2016
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: gayked63
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek's 2nd to Last Dance!
Published: 2007/02/19
Channel: bwong005
chief illiniwek
chief illiniwek's final dance (part one)
Published: 2007/02/25
Channel: fingertwist
The Chief
The Chief
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: Brian Blair
THREE IN ONE CONTROVERSY PKG CL
THREE IN ONE CONTROVERSY PKG CL
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Journalism 340 Erdey
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: davidbehm66
chief illiniwek half vs northwestern 2nd to last performance
chief illiniwek half vs northwestern 2nd to last performance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: sfallon2
Chief Illiniwek at Ohio Game 2006
Chief Illiniwek at Ohio Game 2006
Published: 2006/10/15
Channel: gnagel
Chiefs Last Dance
Chiefs Last Dance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: kstay1
Chief Illiniwek Tribute
Chief Illiniwek Tribute
Published: 2014/02/22
Channel: Fighting Illini
Interview of Chief Illiniwek student supporter
Interview of Chief Illiniwek student supporter
Published: 2009/10/05
Channel: resistero
Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance 2010
Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance 2010
Published: 2011/02/26
Channel: Adam Musto
Chief Illiniwek   Final Homecoming Dance
Chief Illiniwek Final Homecoming Dance
Published: 2015/10/19
Channel: Scott Rogers
Chief Commemoration
Chief Commemoration
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: Russ Johnson
Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek
Published: 2006/09/03
Channel: Jean Browning
Illiniwek Bike Trail Part III - Downhill
Illiniwek Bike Trail Part III - Downhill
Published: 2013/08/14
Channel: Jon Richmiller
Illiniwek
Illiniwek's last performance
Published: 2007/02/22
Channel: wsa2003
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Illinois Confederation,[1] sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, was a group of 12–13 Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valley of North America. The tribes were the Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Peoria, Tamaroa, Moingwena, Michigamea, Chepoussa, Chinkoa, Coiracoentanon, Espeminkia, Maroa, and Tapouara.[2] At the time of European contact in the 17th century, they were believed to number over 10,000 people.[3] Most of the Illinois spoke various dialects of the Miami-Illinois language, one of the Algonquian languages family, with the known exception of the Siouan-speaking Michigamea. They occupied a broad inverted triangle from modern-day Iowa to near the shores of Lake Michigan in modern Chicago south to modern Arkansas. By the mid-18th century, only five principal tribes remained: the Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Peoria, and Tamaroa.

The Illinois River (Inoka Siipiiwi) (″the River of the Inoka, i.e. Illinois″) and the entire vast Illinois Country are named after the Illinois Confederacy.

Name[edit]

The „Illinois/Inoca“ spoke together with the neighboring Miami (Myaamiaki) various dialects of the Miami-Illinois language[4], one of the Algonquian languages family.

Illinois was not the tribes' name for themselves, or autonym. Rather, Illinois is a French transliteration of an Old Ottawa term for them, or exonym: /ilinwe/ (pl. /iliniwek/). (The Ottawa were a neighboring tribe, whom the French met first.) Ilinwe is in turn an Odawa language rendering presumably borrowed from the Illinois or Old Miami verb /irenweewa/, iren(i)we·wa or ileenwewa (″he speaks the ordinary way″ or ″he speaks our language″, ″he speaks like us″), because they could easy understand each other. One other source is probably the Miami-Illinois word /irenawaki/, /ilenawaki/ (″the true (irena or ilena) ones (waki)″) or aleniaki (Sing: alenia - ″Person″, ″People″). Sometimes it is suggested that the tribal name comes from the term which the „Illinois/Inoca“ used to designate their language - ireniweeyoni or iilinwiyankwi (″Our language″, lit. ″the ordinary, real language″).

Unlike the plural form iliniwek, the term illini does not appear to have a historic linguistic connection.[5]

Among the earliest renditions of the modernized, Anglicized term "Illiniwek" were Liniouek (1656), "Aliniouek" (1658), "Alimiwec" (1660), "iriniȣak" (1662; the old French symbol ȣ, often printed as the numeral '8' which it resembles, represents the vowel /o/ in Illinois), and "Ilinioüek" (1667). In 1670 Father Claude Allouez, S.J. referred to a band of natives as "IlimoucK" (the editor added an alternative spelling "Iliniouek") in one sentence and "Ilinioüetz" in the next. The English translation changed the latter spelling to "Iliniouetz."[6] In the variable spelling of the times, the name of Allouez was also spelled "Alloues," "Alloez," Aloes," "Aloez," "Aloues," and "Daloes" in these early records.

The „Illinois/Inoca“ autonym was /Inoca/, /Inoka/ or /Inouca/ (currently of unknown meaning), as it appears in all three Illinois dictionaries from the late 17th/early 18th century. For example, in the Illinois-French dictionary from the early 18th century often attributed to Gravier, the word 'Inȣca' is translated as Illinois people. Or, in the 1725 LeBoullenger French-Illinois dictionary, the same word is spelled inoca, and translated Illinois.[7]

The terms Illini (singular) and lliniwek, Illiniwek (plural) are therefore common in (historical) and current literature - and to designate the political organization of the „Illinois/Inoca“ it is currently customary to name these Illinois Confederation.

History[edit]

When French explorers first journeyed to the region from Canada in the 17th century, they found the area inhabited by a vigorous, populous, Algonquian-speaking nation. What we know today about the Illinois is based on the historical account Jesuit Relations, written by French Jesuits. The missionaries who lived among the various native nations wrote the Relations and sent the reports back to their superiors in France. One name for an Illinois Confederation tribe, the Cahokia, was used as a name for a French settlement, now Cahokia, Illinois, near what are now called the Cahokia Mounds, the remains of a large pre-Columbian city. However, it is currently unknown whether the Illinois Confederation peoples, including the Cahokia, have any relationship to the earlier native builders of the mounds civilization.

In the 17th century, the Illinois suffered from a combination of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity, and warfare by the expansion of the Iroquois into the western Great Lakes region. The Iroquois had hunted out their traditional lands and sought more productive hunting and trapping areas (see, Beaver Wars). They sought furs to purchase European goods in the fur trade. Many of the Illinois migrated to present-day eastern Kansas to escape the pressure from other tribes and encroaching European settlers.

Culture[edit]

The Illinois lived in a seasonal cycle related to cultivation of domestic plants and hunting, with movement from semi-permanent villages to hunting camps. They seasonally lived in long houses and wigwams of wood and woven mats.[8] They planted crops of maize (corn), beans, and squash, known as the "Three Sisters". They prepared dishes such as sagamite. They also gathered wild foods such as nuts, fruit, roots, and tubers. In the hunting season, the men hunted bison, deer, elk, bear, cougar, lynx, turkey, geese and duck. Women prepared the meat for preservation and the hides for equipment and clothing. They tapped maple trees and made the sap into a drink or boiled it for syrup and sugar.[9]

Present day[edit]

As a consequence of the Indian Removal Act, in the 1830s, the Illinois were relocated from where they had migrated to in eastern Kansas to northeastern Indian Territory. Today they chiefly reside in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, as the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma.

See also[edit]

Grand Village of the Illinois

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution; Bureau of American Ethnology), 145.
  2. ^ The Illinois: Identity, Illinois State Museum, 2000
  3. ^ "Native Americans:Historic:The Illinois:History:The Illinois Decline". Museum.state.il.us. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  4. ^ Aacimotaatiiyankwi - A Myaamia Community Blog - Language (Myaamiaataweenki — Miami-Illinois)(the name for the „Illinois/Inoca“ dialect is not known).
  5. ^ "Native Americans:Historic:The Illinois:Identity". Museum.state.il.us. Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  6. ^ Thwaites, R.G. (1899) The Jesuit relations and allied documents travels and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791, 236. The English translation is on the next page.
  7. ^ Costa, David J. 2008. "On the Origins of the Name “Illinois”", Le Journal 24/4: 6-10.
  8. ^ http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/te_houses.html
  9. ^ "The Illiniwek", The Lewis and Clark Journey of Discovery, National Park Service, accessed 29 Sep 2009

References[edit]

  • Costa, David J. 2000. "Miami-Illinois Tribe Names". In John Nichols, ed., Papers of the Thirty-first Algonquian Conference 30-53. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
  • Costa, David J. 2008. "On the Origins of the Name “Illinois”." Le Journal 24/4: 6-10.
  • Costa, David J.; Wolfart, H.C., ed. (2005). "The St-Jérôme Dictionary of Miami-Illinois" (PDF). Papers of the 36th Algonquian Conference. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. pp. 107–133. Retrieved March 7, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Masthay, Carl, editor. Kaskasia Illinois-to-French Dictionary. St. Louis, Missouri: Carl Masthay. p. 757. ISBN 0-9719113-04. 

External links[edit]

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