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The Incumbent - Nigerian Nollywood Movie
The Incumbent - Nigerian Nollywood Movie
Published: 2012/11/26
Channel: Nollywood5star 2018 Nigerian Movies
Incumbent Definition
Incumbent Definition
Published: 2012/10/16
Channel: Christopher Hunt
Incumbent Meaning
Incumbent Meaning
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: SDictionary
7.5 Define incumbency.  Discuss incumbent advantages.
7.5 Define incumbency. Discuss incumbent advantages.
Published: 2013/11/17
Channel: MyCitizenU
What does incumbent mean?
What does incumbent mean?
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: What Does That Mean?
How to Challenge An Incumbent
How to Challenge An Incumbent
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: WNYC
What are the advantages/disadvantages of being an incumbent candidate?
What are the advantages/disadvantages of being an incumbent candidate?
Published: 2012/10/23
Channel: LewisUniversity
speed to value: how to kill incumbent insurance providers
speed to value: how to kill incumbent insurance providers
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Agency Nation
incumbent (up)on (someone)
incumbent (up)on (someone)
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: The Free Dictionary
Vocab24#45-Adroitly,Incumbent,Expedient,Stalemate,Squander,Assiduously,Salient,Engulf,Staunch,Relent
Vocab24#45-Adroitly,Incumbent,Expedient,Stalemate,Squander,Assiduously,Salient,Engulf,Staunch,Relent
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: WiFiStudy
FlytimeTv - Word Of The Day (Incumbent)
FlytimeTv - Word Of The Day (Incumbent)
Published: 2012/10/05
Channel: Flytime Promotions
Electoral Results Delayed in Honduras Presidential Election As Opposition Candidate Leads Incumbent
Electoral Results Delayed in Honduras Presidential Election As Opposition Candidate Leads Incumbent
Published: 2017/11/29
Channel: Democracy Now!
Charles Barkley can
Charles Barkley can't pronounce INCUMBENT inside the NBA on TNT opening night, Shaq, Ernie, Kenny TV
Published: 2017/10/18
Channel: SaveGreenHere
Eleksyon 2016: Incumbent Manila Mayor Estrada, nangunguna sa pagka-alkalde
Eleksyon 2016: Incumbent Manila Mayor Estrada, nangunguna sa pagka-alkalde
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: GMA News
Most Endangered Incumbent in California Hosts Raucus Town Hall
Most Endangered Incumbent in California Hosts Raucus Town Hall
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Arthur Christopher Schaper
Soul Coughing - The Incumbent (Early Version)
Soul Coughing - The Incumbent (Early Version)
Published: 2010/01/29
Channel: dododummy
Petahana Terjemahan dari Kata "Incumbent"
Petahana Terjemahan dari Kata "Incumbent"
Published: 2017/12/05
Channel: KOMPASTV
Incumbent Manila Mayor Joseph Estrada at dating Mayor Alfredo Lim, dikit pa rin ng laban
Incumbent Manila Mayor Joseph Estrada at dating Mayor Alfredo Lim, dikit pa rin ng laban
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: GMA News
What Does It Mean Incumbent?
What Does It Mean Incumbent?
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Last Question
Richard Boykin, Cook County Board Dem primary candidate and incumbent | Chicago.SunTimes.com
Richard Boykin, Cook County Board Dem primary candidate and incumbent | Chicago.SunTimes.com
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Chicago Sun-Times
“All Eyes on U.S.” as Honduran Election Panel Declares Incumbent President Hernández Election Winner
“All Eyes on U.S.” as Honduran Election Panel Declares Incumbent President Hernández Election Winner
Published: 2017/12/18
Channel: Democracy Now!
3 Incumbent Advantages
3 Incumbent Advantages
Published: 2013/12/08
Channel: Fuchs AP GOV
Primary Challenges Threaten Incumbent Republicans
Primary Challenges Threaten Incumbent Republicans
Published: 2013/12/01
Channel: The Young Turks
Raziq Backs Noor As Incumbent Balkh Governor
Raziq Backs Noor As Incumbent Balkh Governor
Published: 2018/01/03
Channel: TOLOnews
Incumbent govt used state resources to campaign -  EU observers
Incumbent govt used state resources to campaign - EU observers
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: NTV Kenya
Stephen Kepley Kentwood Mayor - Incumbent
Stephen Kepley Kentwood Mayor - Incumbent
Published: 2017/10/23
Channel: WKTVVideos
Doomed Incumbent Senator Rallies His Lobbyist Base
Doomed Incumbent Senator Rallies His Lobbyist Base
Published: 2014/10/09
Channel: The Young Turks
Cyprus incumbent Anastasiades wins presidential run-off
Cyprus incumbent Anastasiades wins presidential run-off
Published: 2018/02/05
Channel: euronews (in English)
Iran election: Incumbent president Rouhani faces ultimate test
Iran election: Incumbent president Rouhani faces ultimate test
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Al Jazeera English
George Latimer Wins Stunning Upset Over Incumbent Westchester Executive
George Latimer Wins Stunning Upset Over Incumbent Westchester Executive
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: CBS New York
Public Face: अपने आपको साबित कर पाएंगे अखिलेश यादव | Biopic on Incumbent UP CM Akhilesh Yadav
Public Face: अपने आपको साबित कर पाएंगे अखिलेश यादव | Biopic on Incumbent UP CM Akhilesh Yadav
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: NEXT9NEWS हर खबर आप तक
INCUMBENT OFFICIALS SA TALISAY, BATANGAS, WALANG KALABAN SA ELEKSYON
INCUMBENT OFFICIALS SA TALISAY, BATANGAS, WALANG KALABAN SA ELEKSYON
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: News5Everywhere
Nyeri politicians intensify campaigns to unseat incumbent Wamathai in governor
Nyeri politicians intensify campaigns to unseat incumbent Wamathai in governor's race
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: NTV Kenya
Jim HILL, the man who beat INCUMBENT MAYOR as a WRITE-IN
Jim HILL, the man who beat INCUMBENT MAYOR as a WRITE-IN
Published: 2016/01/09
Channel: William WAGENER
Uasin Gishu incumbent Governor Jackson Mandago
Uasin Gishu incumbent Governor Jackson Mandago's full speech in Eldoret
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Incumbent waltz
Incumbent waltz
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: Tobias Hounsham - Pianist and composer
Incumbent Worker Training
Incumbent Worker Training
Published: 2015/01/21
Channel: High Country Workforce Development Board
Murali Vijay should return as he is the incumbent opener - Harsha Bhogle
Murali Vijay should return as he is the incumbent opener - Harsha Bhogle
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: Cricbuzz
Incumbent Bike Commercial
Incumbent Bike Commercial
Published: 2012/08/11
Channel: joe r
Kenya: Incumbent Kenyatta wins disputed elections with 98.2 percent
Kenya: Incumbent Kenyatta wins disputed elections with 98.2 percent
Published: 2017/10/31
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Incumbent Nyamira Governor-John Nyang
Incumbent Nyamira Governor-John Nyang'arama scoops ODM nominations with 17,487 votes
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Vocab24#47-Dislodge,Staunch,Engulf,Salient,Assiduously,Squander,Stalemate,Expedient,Incumbent.
Vocab24#47-Dislodge,Staunch,Engulf,Salient,Assiduously,Squander,Stalemate,Expedient,Incumbent.
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: WiFiStudy
NOCK Elections halted: Candidates blame incumbent officials for delay
NOCK Elections halted: Candidates blame incumbent officials for delay
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: NTV Kenya
Kazungu Kambi consolidates evidence for a court case against incumbent Governor Amason Kingi
Kazungu Kambi consolidates evidence for a court case against incumbent Governor Amason Kingi
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Do former, incumbent senators have edge over rivals?
Do former, incumbent senators have edge over rivals?
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: ABS-CBN News
Incumbent (Prescott Series: Book 1) Trailer by Joanne Schwehm
Incumbent (Prescott Series: Book 1) Trailer by Joanne Schwehm
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Joanne Schwehm Books
Incumbent governor William Kabogo offers goodwill and support to Ferdinard Waititu
Incumbent governor William Kabogo offers goodwill and support to Ferdinard Waititu's win
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: KTN News Kenya
How JB Straubel of Tesla Breaks Through Incumbent Thinking
How JB Straubel of Tesla Breaks Through Incumbent Thinking
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: CO-OP THINK
Pro-Russian incumbent leads the polls in Czech election
Pro-Russian incumbent leads the polls in Czech election
Published: 2018/01/12
Channel: CGTN
Public Face: मध्य प्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री शिवराज सिंह चौहान | Incumbent MP CM Shivraj Singh Chouhan
Public Face: मध्य प्रदेश के मुख्यमंत्री शिवराज सिंह चौहान | Incumbent MP CM Shivraj Singh Chouhan
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: NEXT9NEWS हर खबर आप तक
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The incumbent is the current holder of a political office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the Hungarian presidential election, 2017, János Áder was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the term before the term for which the election sought to determine the president. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an open seat.

Etymology

The word "incumbent" is derived from the Latin verb incumbere, literally meaning "to lean or lay upon" with the present participle stem incumbent-, "leaning a variant of encumber,[1] while encumber is derived from the root cumber,[2] most appropriately defined: "To occupy obstructively or inconveniently; to block fill up with what hinders freedom of motion or action; to burden, load."[3]

Incumbency advantage

In general, incumbents have structural advantages over challengers during elections. The timing of elections may be determined by the incumbent instead of a set schedule. For most political offices, the incumbent often has more name recognition due to their previous work in the office. Incumbents also have easier access to campaign finance, as well as government resources (such as the franking privilege) that can be indirectly used to boost a campaign. An election (especially for a single-member constituency in a legislature) in which no incumbent is running is often called an open seat; because of the lack of incumbency advantage, these are often amongst the most hotly contested races in any election.

When newcomers look to fill an open office, voters tend to compare and contrast the candidates' qualifications, positions on political issues, and personal characteristics in a relatively straightforward way. Elections featuring an incumbent, on the other hand, are, as Guy Molyneux puts it, "fundamentally a referendum on the incumbent."[4] Voters will first grapple with the record of the incumbent. Only if they decide to "fire" the incumbent do they begin to evaluate whether each of the challengers is an acceptable alternative.

A 2017 study in the British Journal of Political Science argues that the incumbency advantage stems from the fact that voters evaluate the incumbent's ideology individually whereas they assume that any challenger shares his party's ideology.[5] This means that the incumbency advantage gets more significant as political polarization increases.[5] A 2017 study in the Journal of Politics found that incumbents have "a far larger advantage" in on-cycle elections than in off-cycle elections.[6]

Sophomore surge

Political analysts in the United States and United Kingdom have noted the existence of a sophomore surge in which first term representatives see an increase in votes in their first election. This phenomenon is said to bring an advantage of up to 10% for first term representatives, which increases the incumbency advantage.

Anti-incumbency

However, there exist scenarios in which the incumbency factor itself leads to the downfall of the incumbent. Popularly known as the anti-incumbency factor, situations of this kind occur when the incumbent has proven himself not worthy of office during his tenure and the challengers demonstrate this to the voters. An anti-incumbency factor can also be responsible for bringing down incumbents who have been in office for many successive terms despite performance indicators, simply because the voters are convinced by the challengers of a need for change. It is also argued that the holders of extensively powerful offices are subject to immense pressure which leaves them politically impotent and unable to command enough public confidence for re-election; such is the case, for example, with the Presidency of France.[7]


Nick Panagakis, a pollster, coined what he dubbed the incumbent rule in 1989—that any voter who claims to be undecided towards the end of the election will probably end up voting for a challenger.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ OED (1989), p. 834
  2. ^ OED (1989), p. 218
  3. ^ OED (1989), p. 124
  4. ^ Guy Molyneux, The Big Five-Oh, The American Prospect, 1 October 2004.
  5. ^ a b Peskowitz, Zachary (2017-05-01). "Ideological Signaling and Incumbency Advantage". British Journal of Political Science: 1–24. doi:10.1017/S0007123416000557. ISSN 0007-1234. 
  6. ^ de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin (2017-12-07). "Off-Cycle and Out of Office: Election Timing and the Incumbency Advantage". The Journal of Politics: 000–000. doi:10.1086/694396. ISSN 0022-3816. 
  7. ^ Robert Tombs (May 2, 2017). "France's Presidency Is Too Powerful to Work". Polling Report. Retrieved December 3, 2017. 
  8. ^ Nick Panagakis (February 27, 1989). "Incumbent Rule". Polling Report. Retrieved February 5, 2016. 

Sources

Further reading

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