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Incumbent Definition
Incumbent Definition
Published: 2012/10/16
Channel: Christopher Hunt
What does incumbent mean?
What does incumbent mean?
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Incumbent Meaning
Incumbent Meaning
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: SDictionary
What are the advantages/disadvantages of being an incumbent candidate?
What are the advantages/disadvantages of being an incumbent candidate?
Published: 2012/10/23
Channel: LewisUniversity
7.5 Define incumbency.  Discuss incumbent advantages.
7.5 Define incumbency. Discuss incumbent advantages.
Published: 2013/11/17
Channel: MyCitizenU
The Incumbent
The Incumbent
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: Soul Coughing - Topic
Soul Coughing - The Incumbent
Soul Coughing - The Incumbent
Published: 2012/08/12
Channel: Mariano F
FlytimeTv - Word Of The Day (Incumbent)
FlytimeTv - Word Of The Day (Incumbent)
Published: 2012/10/05
Channel: Flytime Promotions
speed to value: how to kill incumbent insurance providers
speed to value: how to kill incumbent insurance providers
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Agency Nation
The Incumbent - Nigerian Nollywood Movie
The Incumbent - Nigerian Nollywood Movie
Published: 2012/11/26
Channel: Nollywood5star 2017 Nigerian Movies
Incumbent Manila Mayor Joseph Estrada at dating Mayor Alfredo Lim, dikit pa rin ng laban
Incumbent Manila Mayor Joseph Estrada at dating Mayor Alfredo Lim, dikit pa rin ng laban
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: GMA News
Eleksyon 2016: Incumbent Manila Mayor Estrada, nangunguna sa pagka-alkalde
Eleksyon 2016: Incumbent Manila Mayor Estrada, nangunguna sa pagka-alkalde
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: GMA News
Kanyeihamba: Amendment should not favour only incumbent
Kanyeihamba: Amendment should not favour only incumbent
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: NTVUganda
Incumbent Worker Training
Incumbent Worker Training
Published: 2015/01/21
Channel: High Country Workforce Development Board
incumbent (up)on (someone)
incumbent (up)on (someone)
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: The Free Dictionary
Incumbent govt used state resources to campaign -  EU observers
Incumbent govt used state resources to campaign - EU observers
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Kenya NTV
Soul Coughing- The Incumbent
Soul Coughing- The Incumbent
Published: 2008/09/21
Channel: EF86
Soul Coughing - The Incumbent (Early Version)
Soul Coughing - The Incumbent (Early Version)
Published: 2010/01/29
Channel: dododummy
Incumbent waltz
Incumbent waltz
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: Tobias Hounsham - Pianist and composer
Pōti17:  Meet Hauraki-Waikato MP incumbent, Nanaia Mahuta
Pōti17: Meet Hauraki-Waikato MP incumbent, Nanaia Mahuta
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Te Karere TVNZ
Incumbent Republican congressman facing tough reelection
Incumbent Republican congressman facing tough reelection
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: Fox News
24 Oras: Incumbent Mayor Estrada, iprinoklamang alkalde ng Maynila
24 Oras: Incumbent Mayor Estrada, iprinoklamang alkalde ng Maynila
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: GMA News
Primary Challenges Threaten Incumbent Republicans
Primary Challenges Threaten Incumbent Republicans
Published: 2013/12/01
Channel: The Young Turks
Protests erupt in Gilgil after incumbent MP is denied certificate
Protests erupt in Gilgil after incumbent MP is denied certificate
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Kenya NTV
Finding Innovation In An Incumbent // Claire Calmejane of Lloyds
Finding Innovation In An Incumbent // Claire Calmejane of Lloyds
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: FinTech Insider
Elders defy Nkaissery as they rally behind incumbent Nkedianye
Elders defy Nkaissery as they rally behind incumbent Nkedianye
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Kenya NTV
2 Kilifi speaker candidates want incumbent Kahindi out of race
2 Kilifi speaker candidates want incumbent Kahindi out of race
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: The Star Kenya
Minister Akila responded to the Chief Incumbent of Rangiri Dambulu Vihara
Minister Akila responded to the Chief Incumbent of Rangiri Dambulu Vihara
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Hiru News
How JB Straubel of Tesla Breaks Through Incumbent Thinking
How JB Straubel of Tesla Breaks Through Incumbent Thinking
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: CO-OP THINK
Incumbent governor Wambora set to battle for the seat against a psyched Kithinji Kiragu:Kivumbi 2017
Incumbent governor Wambora set to battle for the seat against a psyched Kithinji Kiragu:Kivumbi 2017
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: KTN News Kenya
Somalia: Former PM Farmajo wins presidential election, incumbent concedes defeat
Somalia: Former PM Farmajo wins presidential election, incumbent concedes defeat
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Kenya
Kenya's first female Deputy speaker Dr. Joyce Laboso seeking to unseat incumbent Bomet Governor
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Kenya NTV
NOCK Elections halted: Candidates blame incumbent officials for delay
NOCK Elections halted: Candidates blame incumbent officials for delay
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Kenya NTV
'Ammendments Favour the Incumbent'
Published: 2017/07/17
Channel: NBS TV Uganda
venison   incumbent
venison incumbent
Published: 2014/03/02
Channel: Kieran Gunn
Jim HILL, the man who beat INCUMBENT MAYOR as a WRITE-IN
Jim HILL, the man who beat INCUMBENT MAYOR as a WRITE-IN
Published: 2016/01/09
Channel: William WAGENER
Incumbent Governor John Nyagarama prevails in ODM
Incumbent Governor John Nyagarama prevails in ODM's Nyamira County primaries
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Kenya NTV
Incumbent pres.: Critics angry at country’s progress
Incumbent pres.: Critics angry at country’s progress
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Alabama Chooses GOP Jurist Over Incumbent Trump Endorsed
Alabama Chooses GOP Jurist Over Incumbent Trump Endorsed
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: CBS Los Angeles
Incumbent Samuel Chepkonga beats opponent in repeat primary in Munyaka
Incumbent Samuel Chepkonga beats opponent in repeat primary in Munyaka
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: Kenya NTV
special statement from ramagngna nikaya chief incumbent napana premasiri thero
special statement from ramagngna nikaya chief incumbent napana premasiri thero
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Hiru News
How to Pronounce Incumbent
How to Pronounce Incumbent
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: Emma Saying
Nigeria asks NFF
Nigeria asks NFF's Pinnick to vote for incumbent Issa Hayatou
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: CGTN Africa
3 Incumbent Advantages
3 Incumbent Advantages
Published: 2013/12/08
Channel: Fuchs AP GOV
Gambia
Gambia's incumbent president urged to transfer power
Published: 2016/12/11
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Kiambaa MP aspirant
Kiambaa MP aspirant's supporters protest incumbent's declaration win
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: K24TV
Iran election: Incumbent president Rouhani faces ultimate test
Iran election: Incumbent president Rouhani faces ultimate test
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Nyeri politicians intensify campaigns to unseat incumbent Wamathai in governor
Nyeri politicians intensify campaigns to unseat incumbent Wamathai in governor's race
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: Kenya NTV
Public Face: अपने आपको साबित कर पाएंगे अखिलेश यादव | Biopic on Incumbent UP CM Akhilesh Yadav
Public Face: अपने आपको साबित कर पाएंगे अखिलेश यादव | Biopic on Incumbent UP CM Akhilesh Yadav
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: NEXT9NEWS हर खबर आप तक
Rwanda Presidential Election: Incumbent Paul Kagame seeks third term
Rwanda Presidential Election: Incumbent Paul Kagame seeks third term
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: TRT World
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The incumbent is the current holder of a political office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the 2012 United States presidential election, Barack Obama was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the previous term while the election sought to determine the president for the current term. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an open seat.

Etymology

The word "incumbent" is derived from the Latin verb incumbere, literally meaning "to lean or lay upon" with the present participle stem incumbent-, "leaning a variant of encumber,[1] while encumber is derived from the root cumber,[2] most appropriately defined: "To occupy obstructively or inconveniently; to block fill up with what hinders freedom of motion or action; to burden, load."[3]

Incumbency advantage

In general, incumbents have structural advantages over challengers during elections. The timing of elections may be determined by the incumbent instead of a set schedule. For most political offices, the incumbent often has more name recognition due to their previous work in the office. Incumbents also have easier access to campaign finance, as well as government resources (such as the franking privilege) that can be indirectly used to boost a campaign. An election (especially for a legislature) in which no incumbent is running is often called an open seat; because of the lack of incumbency advantage, these are often amongst the most hotly contested races in any election.

In the United States, incumbents traditionally win their party's nomination to run for office. Unseating an incumbent president, governor, senator or other figure during a primary election is very difficult, and even in the general election, incumbents have a very strong record. For instance, the percentage of incumbents who win reelection after seeking it in the U.S. House of Representatives has been over 80% for over 50 years, and is often over 90%.[4] However, this rate may be artificially inflated, as incumbents that feel unlikely to win may decline to run for reelection. Additionally, shifts in congressional districts due to reapportionment or other longer-term factors may make it more or less likely for an incumbent to win re-election over time. For example, a Democratic incumbent in historically conservative rural Texas would have less chance of winning than a Democratic incumbent in historically liberal New York City, because Texas has shifted away from the Democratic Party in terms of voting while New York City has shifted toward the same party (see also Congressional stagnation in the United States).

When newcomers look to fill an open office, voters tend to compare and contrast the candidates' qualifications, issues positions and personal characteristics in a relatively straightforward way. Elections featuring an incumbent, on the other hand, are as Guy Molyneux puts it, "fundamentally a referendum on the incumbent."[5] Voters will first grapple with the record of the incumbent. Only if they decide to "fire" the incumbent do they begin to evaluate whether the challenger is an acceptable alternative.

A 2017 study argues that the incumbency advantage stems from the fact that voters evaluate the incumbent's ideology individually whereas they assume that the challenger shares the party's ideology.[6] This explains why higher-profile Senate races have less incumbency advantage than low-profile races in the Senate and the House of Representatives.[6] This also means that the incumbency advantage gets more significant as political polarization increases.[6]

Sophomore surge

Political analysts in the United States and United Kingdom have noted the existence of a sophomore surge in which first term representatives see an increase in votes in their first election. This phenomenon is said to bring an advantage of up to 10% for first term representatives, which increases the incumbency advantage.

Anti-incumbency

However, there exist scenarios in which the incumbency factor itself leads to the downfall of the incumbent. Popularly known as the anti-incumbency factor, situations of this kind occur when the incumbent has proven himself not worthy of office during his tenure and the challenger demonstrates this to the voters. An anti-incumbency factor can also be responsible for bringing down incumbents who have been in office for many successive terms despite performance indicators, simply because the voters are convinced by the challenger of a need for change. Nick Panagakis, a pollster, coined what he dubbed the incumbent rule in 1989—that any voter who claims to be undecided towards the end of the election will probably end up voting for the challenger.[7]

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ OED (1989), p. 834
  2. ^ OED (1989), p. 218
  3. ^ OED (1989), p. 124
  4. ^ "Re-Election Rates Over the Years". Opensecrets.org. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  5. ^ Guy Molyneux, The Big Five-Oh, The American Prospect, 1 October 2004.
  6. ^ a b c Peskowitz, Zachary (2017-05-01). "Ideological Signaling and Incumbency Advantage". British Journal of Political Science: 1–24. ISSN 0007-1234. doi:10.1017/S0007123416000557. 
  7. ^ Nick Panagakis (February 27, 1989). "Incumbent Rule". Polling Report. Retrieved February 5, 2016. 
Sources

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