Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Infrastructure: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Infrastructure: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: LastWeekTonight
Why Is America
Why Is America's Infrastructure Collapsing?
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: NowThis World
America’s $16 trillion problem… that both Presidential candidates actually agree on
America’s $16 trillion problem… that both Presidential candidates actually agree on
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Business Insider
The Cost of the World
The Cost of the World's Biggest Infrastructure Projects
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: Wall Street Journal
19 Mega Infrastructure Projects that could reshape the world | Largest Construction Projects
19 Mega Infrastructure Projects that could reshape the world | Largest Construction Projects
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: Check Facts 360
Crumbling America1 Full Documentary
Crumbling America1 Full Documentary
Published: 2014/06/29
Channel: Ronald Rucker
5 giant Chinese infrastructure projects that are reshaping the world
5 giant Chinese infrastructure projects that are reshaping the world
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: Tech Insider
What
What's that Infrastructure? (Ep. 1 - Transportation Infrastructure)
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: Practical Engineering
INFRASTRUCTURE - THEY ARE BILLIONS Gameplay Part 2 - COLONY GOLF - Let
INFRASTRUCTURE - THEY ARE BILLIONS Gameplay Part 2 - COLONY GOLF - Let's Play Walkthrough [Twitch]
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: ChristopherOdd
Top 5 Massive Infrastructure Projects | The B1M
Top 5 Massive Infrastructure Projects | The B1M
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: The B1M
What
What's That Infrastructure? (Ep. 4 - Subsurface Utilities)
Published: 2016/12/31
Channel: Practical Engineering
Smart Cities - Infrastructure and Transport of the Future
Smart Cities - Infrastructure and Transport of the Future
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: VolvoGroupVideos
WATCH: President Trump Delivers Infrastructure Speech at Dept. of Transportation (FULL SPEECH) (FNN)
WATCH: President Trump Delivers Infrastructure Speech at Dept. of Transportation (FULL SPEECH) (FNN)
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: FOX 10 Phoenix
INDIA
INDIA'S MEGA INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT SAGARMALA
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Ye Jo Desh Hain Swadesh Hain Tera
MUMBAI(INDIA) VS KARACHI(PAKISTAN)|INFRASTRUCTURE/SKYLINE COMPARISON|2017 UPDATE
MUMBAI(INDIA) VS KARACHI(PAKISTAN)|INFRASTRUCTURE/SKYLINE COMPARISON|2017 UPDATE
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Omkar Nevrekar
How China Hides Its Infrastructure Debt
How China Hides Its Infrastructure Debt
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Wall Street Journal
America
America's Crumbling Infrastructure
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Fusion
What
What's That Infrastructure? (Ep. 5 - Wireless Telecommunications)
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Practical Engineering
Cities Skylines | 4K | Infrastructure Ep6
Cities Skylines | 4K | Infrastructure Ep6
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: Skippy0330
BP: Russia at PHL, magtutulungan sa pag-develop ng nuclear infrastructure sa Pilipinas
BP: Russia at PHL, magtutulungan sa pag-develop ng nuclear infrastructure sa Pilipinas
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: GMA News
Infrastructure in London
Infrastructure in London
Published: 2015/08/03
Channel: New London Architecture
US Could
US Could've Paid For 881k Infrastructure Jobs With Afghán Wár Money
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: Secular Talk
Logistics Sector to Soon Get Infrastructure Status | आवाज समाचार | CNBC Awaaz
Logistics Sector to Soon Get Infrastructure Status | आवाज समाचार | CNBC Awaaz
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: CNBC Awaaz
Top 10 infrastructure projects in india 2017 | mega project | rising India
Top 10 infrastructure projects in india 2017 | mega project | rising India
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: Bengal Voice
The Future of Internet Infrastructure
The Future of Internet Infrastructure
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: The Daily Conversation
Is crumbling infrastructure inhibiting American productivity?
Is crumbling infrastructure inhibiting American productivity?
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: PBS NewsHour
U.S. railways work to update aging infrastructure
U.S. railways work to update aging infrastructure
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: CBS This Morning
Turkey
Turkey's Infrastructure Boom: Future MEGAPROJECTS
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: The Daily Conversation
The Cost of Australia
The Cost of Australia's Infrastructure Boom
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Wall Street Journal
Infrastructure HBO MOVIE TRAILER
Infrastructure HBO MOVIE TRAILER
Published: 2015/03/03
Channel: Boris DpB
President Donald Trump full remarks at Trump Tower: Remarks on Charlottesville, Infrastructure
President Donald Trump full remarks at Trump Tower: Remarks on Charlottesville, Infrastructure
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: ABC News
Build Your Infrastructure For Success
Build Your Infrastructure For Success
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: Actualized.org
The Portfolio Episode 358 14TH Nov 2017 ECOWAS Quality Infrastructure And Export
The Portfolio Episode 358 14TH Nov 2017 ECOWAS Quality Infrastructure And Export
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: NTA News
Duterte
Duterte's 1st Year: Delivering on 'the golden age of infrastructure'
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: ABS-CBN News
Project and Infrastructure Finance for Beginners | Edureka
Project and Infrastructure Finance for Beginners | Edureka
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: edureka!
Australia’s growing infrastructure demand
Australia’s growing infrastructure demand
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Macquarie Group
Best Infrastructure Projects Of 2016
Best Infrastructure Projects Of 2016
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: NDTV
Infrastructure with Japan: Design Tomorrow, Infrastructure with Japan [full ver.]
Infrastructure with Japan: Design Tomorrow, Infrastructure with Japan [full ver.]
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Prime Minister's Office of Japan
Infrastructure crisis in Canadian cities
Infrastructure crisis in Canadian cities
Published: 2013/11/26
Channel: The National
Pakistan Infrastructure And Life Style Is Better Than India
Pakistan Infrastructure And Life Style Is Better Than India
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Punjabi Leaks With Deema
INFRASTRUCTURE & OPERATIONS - How Google Does Planet-Scale Engineering for Planet-Scale Infra
INFRASTRUCTURE & OPERATIONS - How Google Does Planet-Scale Engineering for Planet-Scale Infra
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: Google Cloud
A $750 billion gap in India’s push for China-like infrastructure
A $750 billion gap in India’s push for China-like infrastructure
Published: 2015/05/15
Channel: Mint
Faster internet connection expected after completion of Luzon Bypass Infrastructure
Faster internet connection expected after completion of Luzon Bypass Infrastructure
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: UNTV News and Rescue
Infrastructure Meaning
Infrastructure Meaning
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: SDictionary
Private vs Public: Infrastructure Spending
Private vs Public: Infrastructure Spending
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: John Stossel
BIM in Infrastructure - Implementation is happening 2017
BIM in Infrastructure - Implementation is happening 2017
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: ADSKInfrastructure
Agriculture, infrastructure to boost Tanzania
Agriculture, infrastructure to boost Tanzania's growth
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: CGTN Africa
Infrastructure In Focus, Region 8
Infrastructure In Focus, Region 8
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: DPI | Department of Public Information
America
America's 2017 Infrastructure Report Card: D+
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Secular Talk
Designing Urban Infrastructure: Investing for now or tomorrow? - Norman Foster
Designing Urban Infrastructure: Investing for now or tomorrow? - Norman Foster
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: UrbanAge
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area,[1] including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.[2] It typically characterises technical structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications (including Internet connectivity and broadband speeds), and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions."[3]

The word infrastructure has been used in English since 1887 and in French since 1875, originally meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".[4][5] The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway. The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below", and "structure". The military use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, and by 1970 was adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense.[6]

Classifications[edit]

A 1987 US National Research Council panel adopted the term "public works infrastructure", referring to:

"... both specific functional modes – highways, streets, roads, and bridges; mass transit; airports and airways; water supply and water resources; wastewater management; solid-waste treatment and disposal; electric power generation and transmission; telecommunications; and hazardous waste management – and the combined system these modal elements comprise. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but also the operating procedures, management practices, and development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, and transmission of information within and between communities."[7]

The OECD also classifies communications as a part of infrastructure.[8]

The American Society of Civil Engineers issues a US "Infrastructure Report Card" every 2-4 years.[9] As of 2017 they grade 16 categories, namely Aviation, Bridges, Dams, Drinking Water, Energy, Hazardous Waste, Inland Waterways, Levees, Parks & Recreation, Ports, Rail, Roads, Schools, Solid Waste, Transit and Wastewater.[9]:4

Hard infrastructure is the physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industrial nation.[citation needed] Soft infrastructure is the institutions which are required to maintain an economy,[10] like health, and cultural and social standards of a country, such as the financial system, the education system, the health care system, the system of government, and law enforcement, as well as emergency services.[5][11]

Critical infrastructure distinguishes those infrastructure elements that, if significantly damaged or destroyed, would cause serious disruption of a system or organization. Storm, flood, or earthquake damage leading to loss of certain transportation routes in a city, for example bridges crossing a river, that would make it impossible for people to evacuate, and for emergency services to operate, would be deemed critical infrastructure. Similarly, an on-line booking system might be critical infrastructure for an airline. These elements of infrastructure are the focus of recovery efforts in the aftermath of natural disasters.[citation needed]

Related concepts[edit]

The term infrastructure may be confused with the following overlapping or related concepts.

Land improvement and land development are general terms that in some contexts may include infrastructure, but in the context of a discussion of infrastructure would refer only to smaller scale systems or works that are not included in infrastructure, because they are typically limited to a single parcel of land, and are owned and operated by the land owner. For example, an irrigation canal that serves a region or district would be included with infrastructure, but the private irrigation systems on individual land parcels would be considered land improvements, not infrastructure. Service connections to municipal service and public utility networks would also be considered land improvements, not infrastructure.[12][13]

The term public works includes government-owned and operated infrastructure as well as public buildings, such as schools and court houses. Public works generally refers to physical assets needed to deliver public services. Public services include both infrastructure and services generally provided by government.

Ownership and financing[edit]

Infrastructure may be owned and managed by governments or by private companies, such as sole public utility or railway companies. Generally, most roads, major airports and other ports, water distribution systems, and sewage networks are publicly owned, whereas most energy and telecommunications networks are privately owned.[citation needed] Publicly owned infrastructure may be paid for from taxes, tolls, or metered user fees, whereas private infrastructure is generally paid for by metered user fees.[citation needed] Major investment projects are generally financed by the issuance of long-term bonds.[citation needed]

Government-owned and operated infrastructure may be developed and operated in the private sector or in public-private partnerships, in addition to in the public sector. As of 2008 in the United States for example, public spending on infrastructure has varied between 2.3% and 3.6% of GDP since 1950.[14] Many financial institutions invest in infrastructure.

Types[edit]

Engineering and construction[edit]

Engineers generally limit the term "infrastructure" to describe fixed assets that are in the form of a large network; in other words, hard infrastructure.[citation needed] Efforts to devise more generic definitions of infrastructures have typically referred to the network aspects of most of the structures, and to the accumulated value of investments in the networks as assets.[citation needed] One such definition from 1998 defined infrastructure as the network of assets "where the system as a whole is intended to be maintained indefinitely at a specified standard of service by the continuing replacement and refurbishment of its components".[15]

Civil defense and economic development[edit]

Civil defense planners and developmental economists generally refer to both hard and soft infrastructure, including public services such as schools and hospitals, emergency services such as police and fire fighting, and basic financial services. The notion of infrastructure-based development combining long-term infrastructure investments by government agencies at central and regional levels with public private partnerships has proven popular among economists in Asia (notably Singapore and China), mainland Europe, and Latin America.

Military[edit]

Military infrastructure is the buildings and permanent installations necessary for the support of military forces, whether they are stationed in bases, being deployed or engaged in operations. For example barracks, headquarters, airfields, communications facilities, stores of military equipment, port installations, and maintenance stations.[16]

Green[edit]

Green infrastructure (or blue-green infrastructure) highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning.[17][18] In particular there is an emphasis on the "life support" functions provided by a network of natural ecosystems, with an emphasis on interconnectivity to support long-term sustainability. Examples include clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. The concept can be extended to apply to the management of stormwater runoff at the local level through the use of natural systems, or engineered systems that mimic natural systems, to treat polluted runoff.[19][20]

Marxism[edit]

In Marxism, the term "infrastructure" is sometimes used as a synonym for "base" in the dialectic synthetic pair base and superstructure. However, the Marxist notion of "base" is broader than the non-Marxist use of the term "infrastructure", and some soft infrastructure, such as laws, governance, regulations, and standards, would be considered by Marxists to be part of the superstructure, not the base.[21]

Communications[edit]

Communications infrastructure is the informal and formal channels of communication, political and social networks, or beliefs held by members of particular groups, as well as information technology, software development tools. Still underlying these more conceptual uses is the idea that infrastructure provides organizing structure and support for the system or organization it serves, whether it is a city, a nation, a corporation, or a collection of people with common interests. Examples include IT infrastructure, research infrastructure, terrorist infrastructure, employment infrastructure and tourism infrastructure.[citation needed]

In the developing world[edit]

According to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute, the lack of infrastructure in many developing countries represents one of the most significant limitations to economic growth and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infrastructure investments and maintenance can be very expensive, especially in such areas as landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries in Africa. It has been argued that infrastructure investments contributed to more than half of Africa's improved growth performance between 1990 and 2005, and increased investment is necessary to maintain growth and tackle poverty. The returns to investment in infrastructure are very significant, with on average thirty to forty percent returns for telecommunications (ICT) investments, over forty percent for electricity generation, and eighty percent for roads.[22]

Regional differences[edit]

The demand for infrastructure, both by consumers and by companies is much higher than the amount invested.[22] There are severe constraints on the supply side of the provision of infrastructure in Asia.[23] The infrastructure financing gap between what is invested in Asia-Pacific (around US$48 billion) and what is needed (US$228 billion) is around US$180 billion every year.[22]

In Latin America, three percent of GDP (around US$71 billion) would need to be invested in infrastructure in order to satisfy demand, yet in 2005, for example, only around two percent was invested leaving a financing gap of approximately US$24 billion.[22]

In Africa, in order to reach the seven percent annual growth calculated to be required to meet the MDGs by 2015 would require infrastructure investments of about fifteen percent of GDP, or around US$93 billion a year. In fragile states, over thirty-seven percent of GDP would be required.[22]

Sources of funding[edit]

The source of financing varies significantly across sectors. Some sectors are dominated by government spending, others by overseas development aid (ODA), and yet others by private investors.[22]

In Sub-Saharan Africa, governments spend around US$9.4 billion out of a total of US$24.9 billion. In irrigation, governments represent almost all spending. In transport and energy a majority of investment is government spending. In ICT and water supply and sanitation, the private sector represents the majority of capital expenditure. Overall, between them aid, the private sector, and non-OECD financiers exceed government spending. The private sector spending alone equals state capital expenditure, though the majority is focused on ICT infrastructure investments. External financing increased in the 2000s (decade) and in Africa alone external infrastructure investments increased from US$7 billion in 2002 to US$27 billion in 2009. China, in particular, has emerged as an important investor.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ . Infrastructure | Define Infrastructure at Dictionary.com
  2. ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur; Sheffrin, Steven M. (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 474. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. 
  3. ^ Fulmer, Jeffrey (2009). "What in the world is infrastructure?". PEI Infrastructure Investor (July/August): 30–32. 
  4. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/infrastructure (accessed: April 24, 2008)
  5. ^ a b "Soft Infrastructure – Definition". Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  6. ^ Stephen Lewis The Etymology of Infrastructure and the Infrastructure of the Internet, blog Hag Pak Sak, posted September 22, 2008.
  7. ^ Infrastructure for the 21st Century, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987.
  8. ^ OECD Economic Infrastructure. Common Reporting Standard (CRS) Codes 2 pages, n.d.
  9. ^ a b 2017 Infrastructure Report, 112pp, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017
  10. ^ The soft infrastructure of a market economy Archived 2011-03-28 at the Wayback Machine. William A. Niskanen, 1991, Cato Journal, Vol.11, No.2, 233-238, Cato Institute
  11. ^ "Infrastructure in India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-03. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  12. ^ Land improvement, Online BusinessDictionary.com, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/land-development.html (accessed January 31, 2009)
  13. ^ Land development, Online BusinessDictionary.com, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/land-development.html (accessed January 31, 2009)
  14. ^ The New York Times, "Money for Public Projects", November 19, 2008 (accessed January 26, 2009)
  15. ^ Association of Local Government Engineers New Zealand: "Infrastructure Asset Management Manual", June 1998 - Edition 1.1
  16. ^ D.O.D. Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 2001 (rev. 2005)
  17. ^ The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA. "Green Infrastructure". Accessed 2009-10-06.
  18. ^ Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD. Maryland's Green Infrastructure Assessment: A Comprehensive Strategy for Land Conservation and Restoration. Archived 2008-03-09 at the Wayback Machine. May 2003.
  19. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, D.C., et al., Green Infrastructure Statement of Intent. 2007-04-19. Archived May 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ EPA et al. "Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure: Action Strategy 2008." January 2008. Archived May 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818–1883), accessed January 9, 2011.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Christian K.M. Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape. London: Overseas Development Institute
  23. ^ Peter McCawley (2010), 'Infrastructure Policy in Developing countries', Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 24(1), May. See also Asian-Pacific Economic Literature Policy Brief No 19, May 2010, on 'Infrastructure policy in developing countries in Asia'.

Nurre, Sarah G. "Restoring infrastructure systems: An integrated network design and scheduling (INDS) problem." European Journal of Operational Research. (12/2012), 223 (3), p. 794–806.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ascher, Kate; researched by Wendy Marech (2007). The works: anatomy of a city (Reprint. ed.). New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0143112709. 
  • Larry W. Beeferman, "Pension Fund Investment in Infrastructure: A Resource Paper", Capital Matter (Occasional Paper Series), No.3 December 2008
  • A. Eberhard, "Infrastructure Regulation in Developing Countries", PPIAF Working Paper No. 4 (2007) World Bank
  • M. Nicolas J. Firzli and Vincent Bazi, "Infrastructure Investments in an Age of Austerity : The Pension and Sovereign Funds Perspective", published jointly in Revue Analyse Financière, Q4 2011 issue, pp. 34–37 and USAK/JTW July 30, 2011 (online edition)
  • Hayes, Brian (2005). Infrastructure: the book of everything for the industrial landscape (1st ed.). New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0393329599. 
  • Huler, Scott (2010). On the grid: a plot of land, an average neighborhood, and the systems that make our world work. Emmaus, Penn.: Rodale. ISBN 978-1-60529-647-0. 
  • Georg Inderst, "Pension Fund Investment in Infrastructure", OECD Working Papers on Insurance and Private Pensions, No. 32 (2009)
  • Dalakoglou, Dimitris (2017). The Road: An Ethnography of (Im)mobility, space and cross-border infrastructures. Manchester: Manchester University Press/ Oxford university Press. 

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license