Solution structure of human interleukin-33.
|Alt. symbols||DV27, C9ORF26, IL1F11, NFHEV|
|Locus||Chr. 9 p24.1|
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine belonging to the IL-1 superfamily. IL-33 induces helper T cells, mast cells, eosinophils and basophils to produce type 2 cytokines. This cytokine was previously named NF-HEV 'nuclear factor (NF) in high endothelial venules' (HEVs) since it was originally identified in these specialized cells. IL-33 mediates its biological effects by interacting with the receptors ST2 (aka IL1RL1) and IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP), activating intracellular molecules in the NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling pathways that drive production of type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-5 and IL-13) from polarized Th2 cells. The induction of type 2 cytokines by IL-33 in vivo is believed to induce the severe pathological changes observed in mucosal organs following administration of IL-33.
IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines, a determination based in part on the molecules β-trefoil structure, a conserved structure type described in other IL-1 cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra and IL-18. In this structure, the 12 β-strands of the β-trefoil are arranged in three pseudorepeats of four β-strand units, of which the first and last β-strands are antiparallel staves in a six-stranded β-barrel, while the second and third β-strands of each repeat form a β-hairpin sitting atop the β-barrel. IL-33 is a ligand that binds to a high-affinity receptor family member ST2. The complex of these two molecules with IL-1RAcP indicates a ternary complex formation. The binding area appears to be a mix of polar and non-polar regions that create a specific binding between ligand and receptor. The interface between the molecules has been shown to be extensive. Structural data on the IL-33 molecule was determined by solution NMR and small angle X-ray scattering.
|This immunology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Here you can share your comments or contribute with more information, content, resources or links about this topic.