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Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Published: 2015/03/21
Channel: toppersacadamy
Intertropical Convergence Zone: How it works
Intertropical Convergence Zone: How it works
Published: 2012/08/17
Channel: News Direct
Intertropical Convergence Zone - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Intertropical Convergence Zone - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
Ocean & Atmosphere - Intertropical Convergence Zone
Ocean & Atmosphere - Intertropical Convergence Zone
Published: 2008/11/16
Channel: Professor Sean Chamberlin
Seasonal Shifts
Seasonal Shifts
Published: 2011/12/18
Channel: Keith Meldahl
NAPAPANAHONG KAALAMAN: Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
NAPAPANAHONG KAALAMAN: Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Published: 2012/12/10
Channel: Panahon TV
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
Approaching squall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Approaching squall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Published: 2014/04/22
Channel: Blair Faulwetter
Convectional Rainfall and the Intertropical Convergence Zone
Convectional Rainfall and the Intertropical Convergence Zone
Published: 2015/08/26
Channel: Darron Gedge's Geography Channel
Intertropical convergence zone copy 2
Intertropical convergence zone copy 2
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: John Huth
Jet Streams - Everything you need to know
Jet Streams - Everything you need to know
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Amit Sengupta
June Snow Again as Inter-tropical Convergence Zone Shifts (391)
June Snow Again as Inter-tropical Convergence Zone Shifts (391)
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Adapt 2030
Flying North to Asia - crossing the ITCZ and Equator
Flying North to Asia - crossing the ITCZ and Equator
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Wolfie6020
Global Wind Patterns
Global Wind Patterns
Published: 2013/09/19
Channel: Joshua Fulton
Global Atmospheric Circulation
Global Atmospheric Circulation
Published: 2011/12/17
Channel: Keith Meldahl
Ch07F Seasonally Wandering ITCZ
Ch07F Seasonally Wandering ITCZ
Published: 2013/06/27
Channel: Elisabeth Snipes Spring
Intertropical Convergence Zone, ITCZ
Intertropical Convergence Zone, ITCZ
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: An Encyclopedia
Outdoor Learning- ITCZ
Outdoor Learning- ITCZ
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: Geography Class
Climate - Chapter 4 Geography NCERT class 11
Climate - Chapter 4 Geography NCERT class 11
Published: 2015/11/20
Channel: Amit Sengupta
Thurman Brasher - ITCZ Africa
Thurman Brasher - ITCZ Africa
Published: 2013/09/25
Channel: Thurman Brasher
#WeatherWiser Ka Na Ba Episode 10: Monsoons and ITCZ
#WeatherWiser Ka Na Ba Episode 10: Monsoons and ITCZ
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: WeatherPH
InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Published: 2014/05/17
Channel: Martin Jucker
Fall - ITCZ
Fall - ITCZ
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: 5TH DIMENSION
The Coriolis Effect
The Coriolis Effect
Published: 2013/07/19
Channel: NOVA PBS Official
24Oras: Pagasa: Hanging amihan at intertropical convergence zone, magpapaulan sa bansa
24Oras: Pagasa: Hanging amihan at intertropical convergence zone, magpapaulan sa bansa
Published: 2014/10/23
Channel: GMA News
Indian geography - Monsoon
Indian geography - Monsoon
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: JeetoBharat
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: Emma Reed
Intertropical Convergence Zone nakakaapekto sa Visayas Region
Intertropical Convergence Zone nakakaapekto sa Visayas Region
Published: 2012/09/06
Channel: PTV
CONTRAST Research Flight 10
CONTRAST Research Flight 10
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: Ross Salawitch
ITCZ
ITCZ
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Ernie Alfonso
Sunday Science Tidbit  ITCZ
Sunday Science Tidbit ITCZ
Published: 2016/05/22
Channel: Candice Boling
ITCZ to bring rains over Palawan, Visayas, Mindanao
ITCZ to bring rains over Palawan, Visayas, Mindanao
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: UNTV News and Rescue
Intertropical Convergence Zone - Cagayan De Oro Flood 1/16/2017
Intertropical Convergence Zone - Cagayan De Oro Flood 1/16/2017
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: American Expat In The Philippines
આંતર ઉષ્ણ કટિબંધીય અભિસરણ ક્ષેત્ર Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Geography of India@vasant teraiya
આંતર ઉષ્ણ કટિબંધીય અભિસરણ ક્ષેત્ર Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Geography of India@vasant teraiya
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: Proud to be Gujarati Vasant Teraiya
I.T.C.Z.
I.T.C.Z.
Published: 2011/01/21
Channel: Vener Berja
Sunset  - ITCZ
Sunset - ITCZ
Published: 2016/10/02
Channel: 5TH DIMENSION
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
Published: 2011/09/09
Channel: Ryan Lumley
BT: Ilang barangay, binaha dahil sa ulang dulot ng intertropical convergence zone
BT: Ilang barangay, binaha dahil sa ulang dulot ng intertropical convergence zone
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: GMA News
South Pacific convergence zone - Video Learning - WizScience.com
South Pacific convergence zone - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
Intertropical Convergence Zone leaves country
Intertropical Convergence Zone leaves country
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: Eagle News
Ligging ITCZ door het jaar heen; nieuwe versie
Ligging ITCZ door het jaar heen; nieuwe versie
Published: 2013/12/27
Channel: Aardrijkskunde Videolessen Martin Bakker
Climate - Chapter 4 Geography NCERT class 9
Climate - Chapter 4 Geography NCERT class 9
Published: 2016/04/05
Channel: Amit Sengupta
The Doldrums - Clouds, Rain & Crappy Weather | Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15
The Doldrums - Clouds, Rain & Crappy Weather | Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: Volvo Ocean Race
NTG: Intertropical convergence zone, dahilan ng magdamagang pag-ulan sa Metro Manila
NTG: Intertropical convergence zone, dahilan ng magdamagang pag-ulan sa Metro Manila
Published: 2012/09/11
Channel: GMA News
St. Elmo
St. Elmo's Fire
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: TogaSRS
Convergence Zone 5/4/12
Convergence Zone 5/4/12
Published: 2012/05/04
Channel: skunkbayweather
Zonal-mean circulation: the ITCZ and Hadley circulation (Chris Lucas)
Zonal-mean circulation: the ITCZ and Hadley circulation (Chris Lucas)
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: CoE CSS
PAGASA monitoring LPA, ITCZ, tropical storm, tropical depression
PAGASA monitoring LPA, ITCZ, tropical storm, tropical depression
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: Rappler
InterAksyon Weather 101 - The Intertropical Convergence Zone
InterAksyon Weather 101 - The Intertropical Convergence Zone
Published: 2012/09/13
Channel: Jebi Tiong dela Cruz
above the inter-tropical convergence zone, there
above the inter-tropical convergence zone, there's a girl without a dream
Published: 2012/02/25
Channel: William Tell
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The thunderstorms of the Intertropical Convergence Zone form a line across the eastern Pacific Ocean
Infrared image from GOES 14 showing the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Vertical air velocity at 500 hPa, July average. Ascent (negative values) is concentrated close to the solar equator; descent (positive values) is more diffuse

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.

The ITCZ was originally identified from the 1920s to the 1940s as the "Intertropical Front" ("ITF"), but after the recognition in the 1940s and 1950s of the significance of wind field convergence in tropical weather production, the term ITCZ was then applied.[1] When it lies near the Equator, it is called the near-equatorial trough. Where the ITCZ is drawn into and merges with a monsoonal circulation, it is sometimes referred to as a monsoon trough, a usage more common in Australia and parts of Asia. In the seamen's speech, the zone is referred to as the doldrums because of its erratic weather patterns with stagnant calms and violent thunderstorms.

The ITCZ appears as a band of clouds, usually thunderstorms, that encircle the globe near the Equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds move in a southwestward direction from the northeast, while in the Southern Hemisphere, they move northwestward from the southeast. When the ITCZ is positioned north or south of the Equator, these directions change according to the Coriolis effect imparted by Earth's rotation. For instance, when the ITCZ is situated north of the Equator, the southeast trade wind changes to a southwest wind as it crosses the Equator. The ITCZ is formed by vertical motion largely appearing as convective activity of thunderstorms driven by solar heating, which effectively draw air in; these are the trade winds.[2] The ITCZ is effectively a tracer of the ascending branch of the Hadley cell and is wet. The dry descending branch is the horse latitudes.

The location of the ITCZ gradually varies with the seasons. Over land, it moves back and forth across the Equator, following the Sun's zenith point at high noon. Over the oceans, where the convergence zone is better defined, the seasonal cycle is more subtle, as the convection is constrained by the distribution of ocean temperatures. Sometimes, a double ITCZ forms, with one located north and another south of the Equator, one of which is usually stronger than the other. When this occurs, a narrow ridge of high pressure forms between the two convergence zones.

South Pacific convergence zone[edit]

The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) is a reverse-oriented, or west-northwest to east-southeast aligned, trough extending from the west Pacific warm pool southeastwards towards French Polynesia. It lies just south of the equator during the Southern Hemisphere warm season, but can be more extratropical in nature, especially east of the International Date Line. It is considered the largest and most important piece of the ITCZ, and has the least dependence upon heating from a nearby land mass during the summer than any other portion of the monsoon trough.[3] The southern ITCZ in the southeast Pacific and southern Atlantic, known as the SITCZ, occurs during the Southern Hemisphere fall between and 10° south of the equator east of the 140th meridian west longitude during cool or neutral El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) patterns. When ENSO reaches its warm phase, otherwise known as El Niño, the tongue of lowered sea surface temperatures due to upwelling off the South American continent disappears, which causes this convergence zone to vanish as well.[4]

Effects on weather[edit]

The ITCZ moves farther away from the equator during the Northern summer than the Southern one due to the North-heavy arrangement of the continents.

Variation in the location of the intertropical convergence zone drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the intertropical convergence zone can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas.

In some cases, the ITCZ may become narrow, especially when it moves away from the equator; the ITCZ can then be interpreted as a front along the leading edge of the equatorial air.[5] There appears to be a 15- to 25-day cycle in thunderstorm activity along the ITCZ, which is roughly half the wavelength of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO).[6]

Within the ITCZ the average winds are slight, unlike the zones north and south of the equator where the trade winds feed. Early sailors named this belt of calm the doldrums because of the inactivity and stagnation they found themselves in after days of no wind. To find oneself becalmed in this region in a hot and muggy climate could mean death in an era when wind was the only effective way to propel ships across the ocean. Even today leisure and competitive sailors attempt to cross the zone as quickly as possible as the erratic weather and wind patterns may cause unexpected delays.

Role in tropical cyclone formation[edit]

Tropical cyclones over the West Atlantic, Middle America and East Pacific (see also Hurricane)

Tropical cyclogenesis depends upon low-level vorticity as one of its six requirements, and the ITCZ fills this role as it is a zone of wind change and speed, otherwise known as horizontal wind shear. As the ITCZ migrates more than 500 kilometres (300 mi) from the equator during the respective hemisphere's summer season, increasing Coriolis force makes the formation of tropical cyclones within this zone more possible. Surges of higher pressure from high latitudes can enhance tropical disturbances along its axis.[7] In the north Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific oceans, tropical waves move along the axis of the ITCZ causing an increase in thunderstorm activity, and under weak vertical wind shear, these clusters of thunderstorms can become tropical cyclones.

Hazards[edit]

Thunderstorms along the Intertropical Convergence Zone played a role in the loss of Air France Flight 447, which left Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport on Sunday, May 31, 2009, at about 7:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. EDT or 10:00 p.m. UTC) and had been expected to land at Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris on Monday, June 1, 2009, at 11:15 a.m. (5:15 a.m. EDT or 9:15 a.m. UTC)[8] The aircraft crashed with no survivors while flying through a series of large ITCZ thunderstorms, and ice forming rapidly on airspeed sensors was the precipitating cause for a cascade of human errors which ultimately doomed the flight. Most aircraft flying these routes are able to avoid the larger convective cells without incident. [9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Barry, Roger Graham; Chorley, Richard J. (1992). Atmosphere, weather, and climate. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-07760-6. OCLC 249331900. 
  2. ^ "Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone". JetStream - Online School for Weather. NOAA. 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  3. ^ E. Linacre and B. Geerts. Movement of the South Pacific convergence zone Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  4. ^ Semyon A. Grodsky; James A. Carton (2003-02-15). "The Intertropical Convergence Zone in the South Atlantic and the Equatorial Cold Tongue" (PDF). University of Maryland, College Park. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  5. ^ Djurić, D: Weather Analysis. Prentice Hall, 1994. ISBN 0-13-501149-3.
  6. ^ Patrick A. Harr. Tropical Cyclone Formation/Structure/Motion Studies. Office of Naval Research Retrieved on 2006-11-26. Archived November 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ C.-P. Chang, J.E. Erickson, and K.M. Lau. Northeasterly Cold Surges and Near-Equatorial Disturbances over the Winter MONEX Area during December 1974. Part I: Synoptic Aspects. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  8. ^ "Q & A Turbulences" 1.June.2009 The Guardian
  9. ^ action faction

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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