|Regions with significant populations|
|Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and other urban areas|
|Related ethnic groups|
Iranians in the Netherlands form one of the newer and larger populations of Iranians (Persians) in Europe.
Iranians/Persians in the Netherlands are sometimes referred to by hyphenated terms such as "Dutch-Iranians", "Iranian-Dutch", "Dutch-Persian", or "Persian-Dutch". Similar terms Iraanse Nederlanders, Nederlandse Iraniërs, and Perzische-Nederlanders may be found in Dutch-language media. However, one scholar who uses the term "Dutch-Iranians" also expresses reservations over the validity of such a "hyphenated notion of identity" in the Dutch context, in comparison to the less problematic term "Iranian American".
Though other European countries such as Germany and France have had Persian communities since the early 20th century, the Iranian population in the Netherlands is of relatively recent provenance; virtually all came to the country after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The overall migration was quite significant relative to the whole size of Iranian emigration to Europe; from 1990–1999, the Netherlands was Europe's second most-popular destination for Iranian asylum seekers, behind Germany. However, from 1981 to 2001, only 1,292 were formally recognised as "invited refugees" (Uitgenodigde vluchtelingen), the vast majority in the period 1987-1990.
For a total of 30,617 persons (16,758 men, 13,855 women). This represented nearly double the 1996 total of 16,478 persons. Numerically, most of the growth was in the foreign-born segment of the population, whose numbers increased from 14,628 over the period in question; however, the rate of growth was fastest in the locally-born segment of the population, which almost tripled in size from 1,850 persons.
Iran is a largely Muslim country, a fact reflected in the backgrounds of Iranian migrants to the Netherlands. However, most migrants do not continue to practise their religion. Those who do often find themselves viewed as threats and suffer exclusion from Dutch society; this trend strengthened with the growth of political Islam in the 1980s.
In 2007, Ehsan Jami, a Dutch politician of Persian descent, criticised the Islamic prophet Muhammad, describing him as a "criminal". Together with Loubna Berrada (founder of the Advisory Committee for Integration, part of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy), Jami founded the Central Committee for Ex-Muslims in 2007. The organisation, supported by Afshin Ellian, aims to support apostates from Islam. On 4 August 2007, Jami was attacked in his hometown Voorburg by three men. The attack is widely believed to be linked to his activities for the committee. The national anti-terrorism coordinator's office, the public prosecution department, and the police decided during a meeting on 6 August that "additional measures" were necessary for the protection of Jami, who has subsequently received extra security.
Due to the Iranian government's nuclear activities, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1737, which among other matters called on UN member states to prevent Iranian students from receiving specialised training which might be of use to the nuclear programme of Iran, the Dutch government implemented a variety of restrictions on Iranian students in the Netherlands.
However, there were controversial happenings regarding Iranian students in the Netherlands. At the recommendation of the government, the University of Twente went so far as to halt its admissions of students from Iran entirely, stating that it could not ensure they would have no access to nuclear-related information. However, the government later backed away from this policy. In July, they announced that Iranian students could be admitted but would be restricted from taking certain courses and visiting certain places related to the development of nuclear weapons. In response, a group of Iranian students filed suit against the government, alleging that the restrictions violated the prohibition against all forms of discrimination established by Article 1 of the Constitution of the Netherlands.
The first serious conflicts between the Persian government (Pahlavi regime) and students in the Netherlands goes back to 1970s. In 1974, a group of Persians (based in the Netherlands and other European countries) occupied the Embassy of Persia [Iran] in Wassenaar. Another group occupied the embassy in August 1978, and were arrested by the police. Their lawyer stated to Dutch daily Nieuwsblad van het Noorden that "Wassenar Police gives information to Persia".
The early migration of political activists and their applications for asylum in the Netherlands following the 1979 Iranian Revolution had a major effect on the development of the Iranian community; the suspected links between the Islamic Republic embassies in Europe and the murders of prominent exiles such as the France-based former prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar, as well as rumours of information leaks to the Iranian embassy in The Hague from within the Dutch government, led to suspicion by Iranians both towards their fellow Iranians and towards the Dutch authorities. In 1996, Dutch daily Trouw revealed that one fairly prominent man in the Iranian community in Amsterdam, Mahmoed Jafhari (known by the alias "Anoosh"), had been working for the Iranian intelligence service to gather information on exiles; he had recorded on tape every conversation held in his house with his fellow Iranians, a fact which was discovered only after his death. The social environment created by that event has resulted in numerous difficulties for later academic research.
Since the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests, the Persian (Iranian) community in the Netherlands organised many solidarity demonstrations in Amsterdam, The Hague, Delft and Groningen. In January 2010, when the Islamic Republic Embassy in The Hague organized a "Peace Concert" at Rotterdam's De Doelen Concert Hall, it had to be stopped in the middle, because of physical confrontations between angry protesters and the embassy agents.
In April 2010 a group of Persian and Dutch protesters occupied parts of Islamic Republic Embassy in the Hague in protest to Iran's oppressive and violent policies. During this act of protest, the flag of the Islamic Republic has been lowered and replaced with a banner bearing an image of Neda Agha Soltan, the woman who was shot to death in Tehran's street protests after the disputed June presidential elections.
In June 2010 the Dutch TV Channel NOS organized a visit for Ezzatollah Zarghami, director of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, to its headquarters in Hilversum. Radio Zamaneh revealed this news, creating a wave of anger in the Persian community. The Hague-based Iranian Progressive Youth Network also published a press release entitled "NOS Welcomes the Terrorist". The event was canceled a few days before the visit. The whole affair was reported in mainstream Dutch media such as NRC Handelsblad.
It has emerged that a Dutch-Iranian woman has been in prison in Iran since late 2009 year on suspicion of subversion. Zahra Bahrami (Sarah Baahrami) is said to have been tortured while in custody. On 24 August 2010 The Dutch foreign ministry said she could face the death penalty. The Dutch ambassador in Tehran was not being allowed to offer her assistance. The Netherlands had put two lawyers on the case, but Iranian authorities didn't wait on the appeal of the case and hanged Bahrami on Januari 29, 2011 without further trail.
In 2004 the Dutch Parliament agreed with the proposal for allocating 15 million Euros to set up a television station, which would broadcast in Persian language. This was the first time that an EU country had been involved in establishing a Persian television station on its own. The decision caused a negative reaction from Iranian government. In the end, the project was stopped and the budget was divided between various projects, of which the main one is Radio Zamaneh.
The Persian-language Radio Zamaneh began operating in Amsterdam in August 2006 with support from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Islamic Republic of Iran has on various occasions criticised the Netherlands for funding the station. During the 2009 public unrest and demonstrations in Iran, Majid Ghahremani, Iranian ambassador to The Netherlands, accused the Dutch government of interfering in Iran's internal affairs. At the same time, a Dutch foreign ministry spokeswoman told Reuters that they had decided to continue to provide funding to the radio station, with the aim of improving the situation of human rights in Iran.
The Dutch government also supports Shahrzad News, a Persian and English-language website which mostly focuses on women's issues. Since early 2010, TehranReview, which publishes articles on Iran in both English and Persian, has also been receiving financial support from the Dutch government. Rooz Online also receives financial support from Dutch government.
In January 2010 also Persian Dutch Network has been registered in Amsterdam to introduce Persian culture to Dutch people and make two nations more close to each other. PDN has also released various videos of cultural events, social gatherings and political demonstrations of Persian community in Holland on the Internet.
Iranians in the Netherlands have founded relatively few community organisations compared to Turkish or Moroccan migrants; this may be due to the general atmosphere of distrust and divisiveness among Iranians abroad. In contrast to other migrant groups, there is little sense of community among them. Possibly as a result of this, many Iranians have redirected their ideological energies into participation in mainstream Dutch politics; prominent examples include politician Farah Karimi of the GreenLeft party or commentator and professor Afshin Ellian.
Women tend to report far lower levels of discrimination than men. However, they still often confront mainstream stereotypes of Muslim women, such as the idea that they are victims of domestic violence in need of emancipation from Muslim men.
||This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (August 2010)|
Persian-language books section at the Amsterdam Public Library
A Persian carpet Gallery in Old center Amsterdam, July 2010
A Persian Restaurant in Amsterdam, 2006
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