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Invasion of Kuwait - Explained
Invasion of Kuwait - Explained
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Plethrons
In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait
In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: NTT Channel Turkey
Kuwait: The class of 1990
Kuwait: The class of 1990
Published: 2010/08/03
Channel: Al Jazeera English
CNN Report 1st Day of Invasion on Kuwait
CNN Report 1st Day of Invasion on Kuwait
Published: 2008/03/11
Channel: bo9agr
THE LIBERATION OF KUWAIT
THE LIBERATION OF KUWAIT
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: KWTTV1
Wikileaks Reveals Saddam And Bush Negotiated Before Kuwait Invasion
Wikileaks Reveals Saddam And Bush Negotiated Before Kuwait Invasion
Published: 2014/02/24
Channel: Wealax News
Early Aug 1990 Coverage of Crisis in the Gulf
Early Aug 1990 Coverage of Crisis in the Gulf
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: Josh Burdick
WORLDS FUNNEST Information Minister claims US Military was defeated by Iraqi Army
WORLDS FUNNEST Information Minister claims US Military was defeated by Iraqi Army
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: ArmedForcesUpdate
20th Century Battlefields - Gulf War (1991) full video
20th Century Battlefields - Gulf War (1991) full video
Published: 2012/08/01
Channel: LPH
Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait
Published: 2011/11/07
Channel: alhendal1999
How Saddam Hussein Came to Power in Iraq, Why He Invaded Kuwait (1991)
How Saddam Hussein Came to Power in Iraq, Why He Invaded Kuwait (1991)
Published: 2016/08/16
Channel: Azat Yolcu
Iraq Invades Kuwait - 8/2/1990
Iraq Invades Kuwait - 8/2/1990
Published: 2012/05/01
Channel: Mr. Snyder
The truth behind the 1991 Gulf War invasion
The truth behind the 1991 Gulf War invasion
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: WeAreChangeCFL
1990 Kuwait Invasion: Air India Crew Narrate their Experience
1990 Kuwait Invasion: Air India Crew Narrate their Experience
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: The Quint
Why America Invaded Iraq
Why America Invaded Iraq
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: PragerU
Iraq/Kuwait - Saddam Profile
Iraq/Kuwait - Saddam Profile
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
The State of Kuwait marks 23rd anniversary of Iraqi invasion
The State of Kuwait marks 23rd anniversary of Iraqi invasion
Published: 2013/10/06
Channel: MOI Kuwaitnews
Iraq - Saddam Denies 1991 Defeat
Iraq - Saddam Denies 1991 Defeat
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Call to Arms - Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait 1990
Call to Arms - Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait 1990
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: The Shermanator
Flames of Kuwait - Gulf War 1990
Flames of Kuwait - Gulf War 1990
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: MrMidoraven
Jordan/Kuwait/Iraq - Iraq Update
Jordan/Kuwait/Iraq - Iraq Update
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
IRAQ: SADDAM HUSSEIN
IRAQ: SADDAM HUSSEIN'S WARNING TO SAUDI & KUWAIT
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
KUWAIT BBC interview 1990 Dec  part1
KUWAIT BBC interview 1990 Dec part1
Published: 2013/12/19
Channel: Hermann Simon
KUWAIT: IRAQ INVASION ANNIVERSARY
KUWAIT: IRAQ INVASION ANNIVERSARY
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Iraq Invades Kuwait 1990 - Ultimate War Mod - Call to Arms
Iraq Invades Kuwait 1990 - Ultimate War Mod - Call to Arms
Published: 2015/12/08
Channel: Raptor
Iraq invades kuwait
Iraq invades kuwait
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: alerocks12345lol
The
The '91 Uprising - The story behind the 1991 Uprising in Iraq
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Ahlulbayt: Documentaries
Invasion hurts Iraq-Kuwait relations
Invasion hurts Iraq-Kuwait relations
Published: 2010/08/02
Channel: Al Jazeera English
[Wars] The Iraq-Kuwait War (1990): Every Day
[Wars] The Iraq-Kuwait War (1990): Every Day
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: GalacticPenguinTV
America Tells Saddam No Opinion On Invading Kuwait
America Tells Saddam No Opinion On Invading Kuwait
Published: 2014/07/13
Channel: iftaab bostan
[Wars] Iraq-Kuwait War (1990): Every Day
[Wars] Iraq-Kuwait War (1990): Every Day
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: GalacticPenguinTV
Conflict: Desert Storm: Walkthrough on Hard - Mission 1 - The Invasion of Kuwait
Conflict: Desert Storm: Walkthrough on Hard - Mission 1 - The Invasion of Kuwait
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: Dead MC81
Iraq Invasion of Kuwait (Kuwait Perspective)
Iraq Invasion of Kuwait (Kuwait Perspective)
Published: 2013/06/09
Channel: Stefanie Dzierlatka
Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: WikiWikiup
kuwait war 1 hour from start - cnn vhs
kuwait war 1 hour from start - cnn vhs
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: mjimih
[Devil
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Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: The SlyGaming
23rd Anniversary of Saddam
23rd Anniversary of Saddam's Invasion of Kuwait
Published: 2013/08/02
Channel: MediaoneTV Live
AIRLIFT Real Life Stories | 1990 Kuwait AIRLIFT | MOORTUZA BORSADI | T-Series
AIRLIFT Real Life Stories | 1990 Kuwait AIRLIFT | MOORTUZA BORSADI | T-Series
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: T-Series
Iraq Invade Kuwait (1990)
Iraq Invade Kuwait (1990)
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Royal Broadcasting Society
غزو الكويت .. Invasion of Kuwait 1990
غزو الكويت .. Invasion of Kuwait 1990
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Omar Tamam
KUWAIT: ANNIVERSARY OF AIR WAR
KUWAIT: ANNIVERSARY OF AIR WAR
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
The Persian Gulf War 1990 to 1991 Ep2 of 2 - Part 1 of 3
The Persian Gulf War 1990 to 1991 Ep2 of 2 - Part 1 of 3
Published: 2010/08/24
Channel: lumaix
Kuwait Invasion Remembered
Kuwait Invasion Remembered
Published: 2010/03/30
Channel: TheBlackTraveler
1991 - Iraq Invasion over Kuwait
1991 - Iraq Invasion over Kuwait
Published: 2009/04/18
Channel: WatchMojo.com
Tea Talk- 24 years of Kuwait invasion (Part2) Epi67-2
Tea Talk- 24 years of Kuwait invasion (Part2) Epi67-2
Published: 2014/07/16
Channel: MediaoneTV Live
Saddam Hussein invaded kuwait
Saddam Hussein invaded kuwait
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: Mew Limsitthikul
Persian Gulf War 1990-1991 - Persischen Golfkrieg | جنگ خلیج پارس - حرب الخليج الفارسی
Persian Gulf War 1990-1991 - Persischen Golfkrieg | جنگ خلیج پارس - حرب الخليج الفارسی
Published: 2014/07/05
Channel: PDN
George H.W. Bush - Address on Iraq
George H.W. Bush - Address on Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait (August 8, 1990)
Published: 2008/07/01
Channel: MCamericanpresident
"Highway of Death" Iraqi Army Armed Retreat from Kuwait 1991
"Highway of Death" Iraqi Army Armed Retreat from Kuwait 1991
Published: 2009/04/19
Channel: jaglavaksoldier
George Galloway Justified Saddam
George Galloway Justified Saddam's invasion of Kuwait
Published: 2009/07/16
Channel: GeorgeGallowsWay
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Invasion of Kuwait
Part of the Gulf War and the Persian Gulf Conflicts
Date 2–3 August 1990
(2 days)
Location Kuwait
Result

Iraqi victory

Belligerents
Iraq Kuwait
Commanders and leaders
Saddam Hussein Jaber III
Strength
88,000[1][2][3]

Kuwaiti Army 16,000[4]
Kuwaiti Air Force 2,200[4]
Kuwaiti Navy 1,800[4]

Kuwait National Guard
Kuwait Police

US contractors[5]
Casualties and losses
39 aircraft (est.)
295 killed, 361 wounded
≈120 tanks and other armored vehicles[6]
4 ships sunk
57 aircraft lost[7]
At least 8 aircraft captured (Mirage F1s)
4,200 killed[8][dead link]
12,000 captured
≈200 tanks destroyed/captured
850+ other armored vehicles destroyed/captured[9][10][11][12]
17 ships sunk, 6 captured[13][14][15]

The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. This invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations[16] led to military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States. These events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat.

In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion.[17] Some feel there were several reasons for the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay more than US$14 billion that had been borrowed to finance the Iran–Iraq war, and Kuwaiti production of a large amount of petroleum which kept revenues down for Iraq.[8] The invasion started on 2 August 1990, and within two days most of the Kuwait Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to neighboring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. The State of Kuwait was annexed, and Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq.

Dispute over the financial debt[edit]

When the Iran-Iraq War broke out, Kuwait initially stayed neutral and also tried mediating between Iran and Iraq. In 1982, Kuwait along with other Arab states of the Persian Gulf supported Iraq in order to curb the Iranian Revolutionary government. In 1982–1983, Kuwait began sending significant financial aid to Iraq. Kuwait's large-scale economic assistance to Iraq often triggered hostile Iranian actions against Kuwait. Iran repeatedly targeted Kuwaiti oil tankers in 1984 and fired weapons at Kuwaiti security personnel stationed on Bubiyan island in 1988.[18] During the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwait functioned as Iraq's major port once Basra was shut down by the fighting.[19] However, after the war ended, the friendly relations between the two neighbouring Arab countries turned sour for several economic and diplomatic reasons that culminated in an Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

By the time the Iran–Iraq War ended, Iraq was not in a financial position to repay the US$14 billion it borrowed from Kuwait to finance its war and requested that Kuwait forgive the debt.[8] Iraq argued that the war had prevented the rise of Iranian hegemony in Kuwait. However, Kuwait's reluctance to pardon the debt created strains in the relationship between the two countries. During late 1989, several official meetings were held between the Kuwaiti and Iraqi leaders but they were unable to break the deadlock between the two.

Alleged economic warfare and slant drilling[edit]

In 1988 Iraq's Oil Minister, Issam al-Chalabi, stressed a further reduction in the crude oil production quota of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members so as to end the 1980s oil glut.[20] Chalabi argued that higher oil prices would help Iraq increase its revenues and pay back its US$60 billion debt.[20] However, given its large downstream petroleum industry, Kuwait was less concerned about the prices of crude oil and in 1989, Kuwait requested OPEC to increase the country's total oil production ceiling by 50% to 1.35 million bpd.[21] Throughout much of the 1980s, Kuwait's oil production was considerably above its mandatory OPEC quota and this had prevented a further increase in crude oil prices.[21] A lack of consensus among OPEC members undermined Iraq's efforts to end the oil glut and consequently prevented the recovery of its war-crippled economy.[22] According to former Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz, "every US$1 drop in the price of a barrel of oil caused a US$1 billion drop in Iraq's annual revenues triggering an acute financial crisis in Baghdad".[19] It was estimated that between 1985 and 1989, Iraq lost US$14 billion a year due to Kuwait's oil price strategy.[23] Kuwait's refusal to decrease its oil production was viewed by Iraq as an act of aggression against it.

The increasingly tense relations between Iraq and Kuwait were further aggravated when Iraq alleged that Kuwait was slant-drilling across the international border into Iraq's Rumaila field. The dispute over Rumaila field started in 1960 when an Arab League declaration marked the Iraq–Kuwait border 2 miles north of the southernmost tip of the Rumaila field.[24] During the Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi oil drilling operations in Rumaila declined while Kuwait's operations increased. In 1989, Iraq accused Kuwait of using "advanced drilling techniques" to exploit oil from its share of the Rumaila field. Iraq estimated that US$2.4 billion worth of Iraqi oil was "stolen" by Kuwait and demanded compensation.[25] Kuwait dismissed the accusations as a false Iraqi ploy to justify military action against it. Several foreign firms working in the Rumaila field also dismissed Iraq's slant-drilling claims as a "smokescreen to disguise Iraq's more ambitious intentions".[24]

On 25 July 1990, only a few days before the Iraqi invasion, OPEC officials said that Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates had agreed to a proposal to limit daily oil output to 1.5 million barrels, thus potentially settling differences over oil policy between Kuwait and Iraq.[26] At the time of the settlement, more than 100,000 Iraqi troops were deployed along the Iraq–Kuwait border, and American officials expressed little indication of decline in tensions despite the OPEC settlement.[27]

Iraqi hegemonic claims[edit]

The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain.

Many westerners believed that Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was largely motivated by its desire to take control over the latter's vast oil reserves. The Iraqi government justified its invasion by claiming that Kuwait was a natural part of Iraq carved off as a result of British imperialism. After signing the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, the United Kingdom split Kuwait from the Ottoman territories into a separate sheikhdom. The Iraqi government also argued that the Kuwaiti Emir was a highly unpopular figure among the Kuwaiti populace. By overthrowing the Emir, Iraq claimed that it granted Kuwaitis greater economic and political freedom.[8]

Kuwait had been loosely under the authority of the Ottoman vilâyet of Basra, and although its ruling dynasty, the Al Sabah family, had concluded a protectorate agreement in 1899 that assigned responsibility for its foreign affairs to Britain, it did not make any attempt to secede from the Ottoman Empire. For this reason, its borders with the rest of Basra province were never clearly defined or mutually agreed.

Iraqi–American relations[edit]

April Glaspie's first meeting with Saddam Hussein

On 25 July 1990, April Glaspie, the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, asked the Iraqi high command to explain the military preparations in progress, including the massing of Iraqi troops near the border.

The American ambassador declared to her Iraqi interlocutor that Washington, “inspired by the friendship and not by confrontation, does not have an opinion” on the disagreement between Kuwait and Iraq, stating "we have no opinion on the Arab–Arab conflicts".

She also let Saddam Hussein know that the United States did not intend "to start an economic war against Iraq". These statements may have caused Saddam to believe he had received a diplomatic green light from the United States to invade Kuwait.[28][29]

According to Richard E. Rubenstein, Glaspie was later asked by British journalists why she had said that, her response was "we didn't think he would go that far" meaning invade and annex the whole country. Although no follow-up question was asked, it can be inferred that what the U.S. government thought in July 1990 was that Saddam Hussein was only interested in pressuring Kuwait into debt forgiveness and to lower oil production.[30]

Invasion[edit]

An Iraqi Type 69 tank on display at the site of the Al-Qurain Martyrdom.
A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.

On 2 August 1990 at 2:00 am,[31] local time, Iraq launched an invasion of Kuwait with four elite Iraqi Republican Guard divisions (1st Hammurabi Armoured Division, 2nd al-Medinah al-Munawera Armoured Division, 3rd Tawakalna ala-Allah Mechanized Infantry Division and 4th Nebuchadnezzar Motorized Infantry Division) and Iraqi Army special forces units equivalent to a full division. The main thrust was conducted by the commandos deployed by helicopters and boats to attack Kuwait City (see Battle of Dasman Palace), while the other divisions seized the airports and two airbases.

In support of these units, the Iraqi Army deployed a squadron of Mil Mi-25 helicopter gunships, several units of Mi-8 and Mi-17 transport helicopters, as well as a squadron of Bell 412 helicopters. The foremost mission of the helicopter units was to transport and support Iraqi commandos into Kuwait City, and subsequently to support the advance of ground troops. The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) had at least two squadrons of Sukhoi Su-22, one of Su-25, one of Mirage F1 and two of MiG-23 fighter-bombers. The main task of the IQAF was to establish air superiority through limited air strikes against two main air bases of Kuwaiti Air Force, whose aircraft consisted mainly of Mirage F1s and Douglas (T)A-4KU Skyhawks. Meanwhile, certain targets in the capital of Kuwait City were bombed by Iraqi aircraft.

Despite months of Iraqi sabre-rattling, Kuwait did not have its forces on alert and was caught unaware. The first indication of the Iraqi ground advance was from a radar-equipped aerostat that detected an Iraqi armour column moving south.[32] Kuwaiti air, ground, and naval forces resisted, but were vastly outnumbered. In central Kuwait, the 35th Armoured Brigade deployed approximately a battalion of Chieftain tanks, BMPs, and an artillery battery against the Iraqis and fought delaying actions near Al Jahra (see Battle of the Bridges), west of Kuwait City.[33] In the south, the 15th Armoured Brigade moved immediately to evacuate its forces to Saudi Arabia. Of the small Kuwaiti Navy, two missile boats were able to evade capture or destruction.

Kuwait Air Force aircraft were scrambled, but approximately 20% were lost or captured. An air battle with the Iraqi helicopter airborne forces was fought over Kuwait City, inflicting heavy losses on the Iraqi elite troops[citation needed], and a few combat sorties were flown against Iraqi ground forces. The remaining 80% were then evacuated to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, some aircraft even taking off from the highways adjacent to the bases as the runways were overrun. While these aircraft were not used in support of the subsequent Gulf War, the "Free Kuwait Air Force" assisted Saudi Arabia in patrolling the southern border with Yemen, which was considered a threat by the Saudis because of Yemen–Iraq ties.[8]

Iraqi troops attacked Dasman Palace, the Royal Residence, resulting in the Battle of Dasman Palace. The Kuwaiti Emiri Guard, supported by local police and M-84 tanks managed to repel an airborne assault by Iraqi Special Forces, but the Palace fell after a landing by Iraqi Marines (Dasman Palace is located on the coast). The Kuwaiti National Guard, as well as additional Emiri Guards arrived, but the palace remained occupied, and Republican Guard tanks rolled into Kuwait City after several hours of heavy fighting.[34]

The Emir of Kuwait, Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah had already fled into the Saudi desert. His younger half brother, Sheikh Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, was shot and killed by invading Iraqi forces as he attempted to defend Dasman Palace after which his body was placed in front of a tank and run over, according to an Iraqi soldier who was present and deserted after the assault.[35]

Towards the end of the first day of the invasion, only pockets of resistance were left in the country. By August 3, the last military units were desperately fighting delaying actions at choke points and other defensible positions throughout the country until out of ammunition or overrun by Iraqi forces. Ali al-Salem Air Base of the Kuwaiti Air Force was the only base still unoccupied on August 3, and Kuwaiti aircraft flew resupply missions from Saudi Arabia throughout the day in an effort to mount a defense. However, by nightfall, Ali al-Salem Air Base had been overrun by Iraqi forces. From then on it was only a matter of time until all units of the Kuwaiti Military were forced to retreat or be overrun.

Kuwaiti resistance movement[edit]

Kuwaitis founded a local armed resistance movement following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait.[36][37][38] Most of the Kuwaitis who were arrested, tortured, and executed during the occupation were civilians. The Kuwaiti resistance's casualty rate far exceeded that of the coalition military forces and Western hostages.[39] The resistance predominantly consisted of ordinary citizens who lacked any form of training and supervision.[39]

Aftermath[edit]

More than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces, causing massive environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.[40]
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Aerial view of oil wells on fire

After the Iraqi victory, Saddam Hussein installed Alaa Hussein Ali as the Prime Minister of the "Provisional Government of Free Kuwait" and Ali Hassan al-Majid as the de facto governor of Kuwait.[41] The exiled Kuwaiti royal family and other former government officials began an international campaign to persuade other countries to pressure Iraq to vacate Kuwait. The UN Security Council passed 12 resolutions demanding immediate withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, but to no avail.[42]

Following the events of the Iraq–Kuwait war, about half of the Kuwaiti population,[43] including 400,000 Kuwaits and several thousand foreign nationals, fled the country. The Indian government evacuated over 170,000 overseas Indians by flying almost 488 flights over 59 days.[44] Alaa Hussein Ali was placed as head of a puppet government in Kuwait, prior to its brief annexation into Iraq.

During the 7-month occupation, the forces of Saddam Hussein looted Kuwait's vast wealth and there were also reports of violations of human rights.[45] A 2005 study revealed that the Iraqi occupation had a long-term adverse impact on the health of the Kuwaiti populace.[46]

International condemnation and Gulf War[edit]

Ground troop movements from February 24–28th 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
American tanks from the 3rd Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm.

After Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait and Saddam Hussein deposed the Emir of Kuwait, Jaber Al-Sabah, he installed Ali Hassan al-Majid as the new governor of Kuwait.[47]

The Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait was unanimously condemned by all major world powers. Even countries traditionally considered to be close Iraqi allies, such as France and India, called for immediate withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait.[48][49] Several countries, including the USSR and China, placed arms embargoes on Iraq.[48] NATO members were particularly critical of the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait and by late 1990, the United States had issued an ultimatum to Iraq to withdraw its forces from Kuwait by 15 January 1991 or face war.[27]

On 3 August 1990, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 660 condemning the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and demanding that Iraq unconditionally withdraw all forces deployed in Kuwait.[50]

After a series of failed negotiations between major world powers and Iraq, the United States-led coalition forces launched a massive military assault on Iraq and Iraqi forces stationed in Kuwait in mid-January 1991. By January 16, Allied aircraft were targeting several Iraqi military sites and the Iraqi Air Force was destroyed.[51] Hostilities continued until late February and on February 25, Kuwait was officially liberated from Iraq.[52] On 15 March 1991, the Emir of Kuwait returned to the country after spending more than 8 months in exile.[53] During the Iraqi occupation, about 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed and more than 300,000 residents fled the country.[54][dead link]

Post-Gulf War[edit]

Kuwait Telecommunications Tower also known as the Liberation Tower because it was completed after the defeat of the invasion

In December 2002, Saddam Hussein apologized for the invasion shortly before being deposed in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[55] Two years later, the Palestinian leadership also apologized for its wartime support of Saddam.[56] A longtime ally of Saddam Hussein, in 1990 Yemen's president, Ali Abdullah Saleh backed Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait. After Iraq lost the Gulf War, Yemenis were deported en masse from Kuwait by the restored government.

US troops in Kuwait 2015

The US military continue a strong presence adding 4,000 troops in February 2015 alone.[57] There is also a very strong US civilian presence with an estimated 18,000 American children in Kuwait being taught by 625 US teachers. [58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al Moquatel Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "1990: Iraq invades Kuwait". BBC On This Day. BBC. 2 August 1990. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  3. ^ Johns, Dave (24 January 2006). "1990 The Invasion of Kuwait". Frontline/World. PBS. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c "Kuwait Organization and Mission of the Forces". Country Studies. Library of Congress. January 1993. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  5. ^ John Pike. "Kuwait – Army Equipment". Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  6. ^ "سير العمليات العسكرية للغزو العراقي للكويت", Al Moqatel
  7. ^ House of Lords Judgments – Kuwait Airways Corporation v Iraqi Airways Company and Others on 16 May2002, [2002] UKHL 19
  8. ^ a b c d e Cooper, Tom; Sadik, Ahmad (6 August 2007). "Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990". Air Combat Information Group Journal. Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  9. ^ John Pike. "Iraqi Ground Forces Equipment". Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  10. ^ Jane's Armour and Artillery 2003–2004
  11. ^ Armies of the Gulf War, Gordon L. Rottman, 1993, p.48,49
  12. ^ Tanki v operacii "Shok i trepet", Aleksei Brusilov, Leonid Karyakin, Tankomaster 2003–08(Russian: Танки в операции «Шок и трепет», Алексей Брусилов, Леонид Карякин, Танкомастер 2003–08)
  13. ^ سير العمليات العسكرية للغزو العراقي للكويت, Al Moqatel
  14. ^ "IRAQ: NAVAL THREAT TO US FORCES.". Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  15. ^ المبحث الرابع, إعادة بناء القوات المسلحة لكل من دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي، بعد الحرب, Al Moquatel
  16. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 (Condemning the Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq), S.C. res. 660, 45 U.N. SCOR at 19, U.N. Doc. S/RES/660 (1990) Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. umn.edu. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
  17. ^ Gause, F. Gregory, III (2005). "The International Politics of the Gulf". In Louise Fawcett. International Relations of the Middle East. Oxford: The University Press. pp. 263–274. ISBN 0-19-926963-7. 
  18. ^ "Iran reportedly fires on Kuwaiti island", Lakeland Ledger, 30 March 1988.
  19. ^ a b Stork, Joe; Lesch, Ann M. (1990). "Background to the Crisis: Why War?". Middle East Report. 167 (November–December): 11–18. JSTOR 3012998. 
  20. ^ a b "Iraq strains OPEC consensus", New Strait Times, 8 October 1988
  21. ^ a b "OPEC pressures Kuwait to moderate quota demand", New Strait Times, 7 June 1989
  22. ^ Hindy, Lily (25 January 2008). "Interrogator: Invasion surprised Saddam". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved 17 April 2010. [dead link]
  23. ^ The University of Manitoba – The Manitoban – 5 February 2003
  24. ^ a b Hayes, Thomas C. (3 September 1990). "Confrontation in the Gulf; The Oilfield Lying Below the Iraq-Kuwait Dispute". The New York Times. 
  25. ^ Gregory, Derek (2004). The Colonial Present: Afghanistan, Palestine, Iraq. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 156. ISBN 1-57718-090-9. 
  26. ^ Ibrahim, Youssef M. (26 July 1990). "Iraq Said to Prevail in Oil Dispute With Kuwait and Arab Emirates". The New York Times. 
  27. ^ a b Friedman, Thomas L. (17 December 1990). "Standoff in the Gulf; A Partial Pullout By Iraq is Feared as Deadline 'Ploy'". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2010. 
  28. ^ "Confrontation in the Gulf" Archived 4 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 25 September 1990.
  29. ^ cable 90BAGHDAD4237, SADDAM'S MESSAGE OF FRIENDSHIP TO PRESIDENT BUSH Archived 7 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine., secret US embassy cable, 25 July 1990, released by Wikileaks on 1 January 2011
  30. ^ "Leonard Lopate Show", WNPR, Why Americans Choose War Archived 17 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. 11 November 2010
  31. ^ "The Iraqi Invasion; In Two Arab Capitals, Gunfire and Fear, Victory and Cheers". The New York Times. Kuwait: Reuters. 3 August 1990. 
  32. ^ Gulf States – Kuwait – Regional and National Security Considerations[permanent dead link]. Countrystudies.us. Retrieved on 12 June 2011
  33. ^ Eyewitness, Col. Fred Hart 1 Archived 18 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Users.lighthouse.net. Retrieved on 2011-06-12.
  34. ^ Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at war: Military Effectiveness (1948–91), University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 2002
  35. ^ FRONTLINE/WORLD. Iraq – Saddam's Road to Hell – A journey into the killing fields. PBS Archived 15 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. PBS (24 January 2006). Retrieved on 12 June 2011
  36. ^ "Iran, Israel and the Shi'ite Crescent" (PDF). S. Daniel Abraham Center for Strategic Dialogue. pp. 14–15. 
  37. ^ "Saddam's Security Apparatus During the Invasion of Kuwait and the Kuwaiti Resistance". The Journal of Intelligence History. Winter 2003. pp. 74–75. 
  38. ^ "Two ethnicities, three generations: Phonological variation and change in Kuwait" (PDF). Newcastle University. 2010. 
  39. ^ a b "The Kuwaiti Resistance". Middle East Forum. March 1995. 
  40. ^ Damage Assessment – Kuwait Oil Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Federation of American Scientists.
  41. ^ al-Marashi, Ibrahim (April 9, 2003). The Significance of the "Death" of Ali Hassan al-Majid[permanent dead link]. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.
  42. ^ Iraq Archived 8 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. GlobalSecurity.org.
  43. ^ Kuwait Britannica Archived 11 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Britannica.com (1961-06-19). Retrieved on 2011-06-12.
  44. ^ Rohan Venkataramakrishnan. "The Berlin airlift was remarkable, but the largest civilian evacuation in history is by India". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2015-04-11. 
  45. ^ State of Kuwait Archived 20 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Atlapedia.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-12.
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