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Al Jazeera World - Islamophobia in the USA
Al Jazeera World - Islamophobia in the USA
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Is The United States Islamophobic?
Is The United States Islamophobic?
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: NowThis
United States of Hate: Muslims Under Attack BBC Documentary 2016
United States of Hate: Muslims Under Attack BBC Documentary 2016
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Muslims in Calgary
A Deeper Look at Islamophobia in the U.S. Empire
A Deeper Look at Islamophobia in the U.S. Empire
Published: 2016/01/12
Channel: Empire Files
Islamophobia in America
Islamophobia in America
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: The Economist
Islamophobia Forces Family To Leave America
Islamophobia Forces Family To Leave America
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: The Young Turks
The Georgia Security Force: Islamophobia in the USA
The Georgia Security Force: Islamophobia in the USA
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Young Muslim Americans react to Islamophobia
Young Muslim Americans react to Islamophobia
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: Fusion
Confused Islamophobes Target American Sikhs: The Daily Show
Confused Islamophobes Target American Sikhs: The Daily Show
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: The Daily Show with Trevor Noah
Muslim-American Veterans on Islamophobia and the Military
Muslim-American Veterans on Islamophobia and the Military
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: Fusion
Episode 7: Islamophobia in Trump
Episode 7: Islamophobia in Trump's America
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: The Real William & Mary
Muslim Student Asks About Islamaphobia | Bernie Sanders
Muslim Student Asks About Islamaphobia | Bernie Sanders
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Bernie 2016
Beyond Burkas and Bombers: Anti-Muslim Sentiment in America trailer
Beyond Burkas and Bombers: Anti-Muslim Sentiment in America trailer
Published: 2013/03/22
Channel: Heather N. Perry
Islamophobia in America
Islamophobia in America
Published: 2015/06/18
Channel: Bellafino Productions
Examining Islamophobia in America
Examining Islamophobia in America
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: Center for Global Policy
The Truth of Islamophobia in America
The Truth of Islamophobia in America
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Juliana Tate
Fear Inc.: Behind the $57 Million Network Fueling Islamophobia in the U.S.
Fear Inc.: Behind the $57 Million Network Fueling Islamophobia in the U.S.
Published: 2015/02/11
Channel: seeprogress
Islamophobia in USA ,.  by professor Reza Aslan
Islamophobia in USA ,. by professor Reza Aslan
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Ariana Guess
Islamophobia in the USA | Student Cam 2017 | By Abood AlSubee
Islamophobia in the USA | Student Cam 2017 | By Abood AlSubee
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Abdulrahim AlSubee
USA:
USA: 'March against Sharia' faced off by counter protest, decrying Islamophobia
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: Ruptly TV
The Stream - United and divided: Muslim-Americans under Trump
The Stream - United and divided: Muslim-Americans under Trump
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Struggling to Hide Her Faith, Exposing Islamophobia | Muslim & American Ep. 1
Struggling to Hide Her Faith, Exposing Islamophobia | Muslim & American Ep. 1
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: Mashable News
United States Islamophobia’s Patient Zero
United States Islamophobia’s Patient Zero
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Watching the Hawks RT
Muslim Bullying Social Experiment (Islamophobia Social Experiment)
Muslim Bullying Social Experiment (Islamophobia Social Experiment)
Published: 2015/10/12
Channel: Joey Salads
Q25   Rubio   Islamophobia in America
Q25 Rubio Islamophobia in America
Published: 2016/02/07
Channel: Debate Highlights
Islamophobia spreads in America
Islamophobia spreads in America
Published: 2011/03/09
Channel: RT America
The Psychology Behind Bias and Islamophobia in the US | Muslim & American Ep. 2
The Psychology Behind Bias and Islamophobia in the US | Muslim & American Ep. 2
Published: 2016/02/10
Channel: Mashable News
U.S. Muslims describe dealing with Islamophobia
U.S. Muslims describe dealing with Islamophobia
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: CBS Evening News
Challenging the Rise of Islamophobia in America: An Honest Conversation
Challenging the Rise of Islamophobia in America: An Honest Conversation
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: ICNYU
American Muslims See Islamophobia as Election Issue
American Muslims See Islamophobia as Election Issue
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: VOA News
Muslims Debate Donald Trump, Immigration Ban and Islamophobia in Republican Party
Muslims Debate Donald Trump, Immigration Ban and Islamophobia in Republican Party
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: Democracy Now!
USA: Hundreds of American Muslims rally against IS and Islamophobia
USA: Hundreds of American Muslims rally against IS and Islamophobia
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Ruptly TV
Islamophobia Debates - 09 - Who Sponsors Islamophobia in the United States
Islamophobia Debates - 09 - Who Sponsors Islamophobia in the United States
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: Media Discourse
Islamophobia in America - booming reality
Islamophobia in America - booming reality
Published: 2010/07/27
Channel: RT America
Islamophobia in India and the USA
Islamophobia in India and the USA
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: US India Policy Institute
Trump says
Trump says 'there is a problem' with Muslims in America today
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Video: CAIR-Georgia Director Interviewed for Al Jazeera Documentary on
Video: CAIR-Georgia Director Interviewed for Al Jazeera Documentary on 'Islamophobia in the USA'
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: I Hooper
Islamophobia in America: Muslim kicked off Southwest Airlines plane for changing seats - TomoNews
Islamophobia in America: Muslim kicked off Southwest Airlines plane for changing seats - TomoNews
Published: 2016/04/18
Channel: TomoNews US
Islam In America: Islamophobia in the United States
Islam In America: Islamophobia in the United States
Published: 2011/05/12
Channel: Gerard F
Islamophobia in America
Islamophobia in America
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Aliyah Rasheed
United States: Is There a Rise in Islamophobia? (France 24)
United States: Is There a Rise in Islamophobia? (France 24)
Published: 2015/09/25
Channel: Todd Green
Islamophobia in America 2015
Islamophobia in America 2015
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: The Sun
Islamophobia in America
Islamophobia in America
Published: 2015/05/11
Channel: cconnolly16
Islamophobia Poster Boy: US vet detained again
Islamophobia Poster Boy: US vet detained again
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: RT America
Islamophobia in United States
Islamophobia in United States
Published: 2012/11/05
Channel: SuperSheenTV
"A Disturbing Increase in Islamophobia": U.S. Mosques Threatened, Canadian Mosque Set on Fire
"A Disturbing Increase in Islamophobia": U.S. Mosques Threatened, Canadian Mosque Set on Fire
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Democracy Now!
Islamophobia in America
Islamophobia in America
Published: 2015/12/01
Channel: Kelly Knorr
American Islamophobia
American Islamophobia
Published: 2011/01/11
Channel: Pat Condell
America
America's Surge of Islamophobia
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: TheRealNews
Islamophobia in America: Interview with Professor Jeff Kenney
Islamophobia in America: Interview with Professor Jeff Kenney
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: Tyler Murphy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Islamophobia in the United States relates to the increase of anti-Muslim sentiment in the United States from the late 20th century onwards, and its associated ramifications. The FBI hate crime statistics from 2000 lists anti-Muslim physical assaults spiking in the year 2001 after 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as notably in 2015.[1]

In employment[edit]

In hiring[edit]

A 2013 Carnegie Mellon University study found that, nationally, Muslims had "13% fewer callbacks" than Christians after submitting identical job applications to the same establishments.[2] The study also concluded that discrepancies between callbacks for Muslims and Christians were larger "in counties with a high fraction of Republican voters," with Christians getting almost four times as many return calls in these constituencies. On the other hand, there was no discernible hiring discrimination against Muslims in Democratic counties.[3] Biases were larger on the state level, with Christians getting more than seven times as many callbacks than Muslims in Republican states. Democratic states, once again, showed "no significant callback biases." The study added that "employers in older counties are significantly less likely to call back the Muslim candidate compared to the Christian candidate"[4]

In 2008, Abercrombie & Fitch refused to hire a Muslim woman who wore a headscarf, claiming it violated the company's "look policy." In the 2015 case, EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, the Supreme Court ruled that this practice violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[5]

In the workplace[edit]

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) recorded 1,490 claims of bias against Muslims in the workplace in 2009, which was an increase from 1,304 in 2008 and 697 in 2004. Mary Jo O’Neill, regional attorney for the Phoenix district office of the EEOC, asserted that "There is a hatred, an open hatred, and a lack of tolerance for [workers] who are Muslim."[6]

In 2017, the government of New York City charged Pax Assist with discrimination after refusing requests by Muslims employees to change the times of their breaks to coincide with iftar. The company responded "We don’t care about Ramadan. We’ll give you a break on our time, not your time."[7]

In education[edit]

At Columbus Manor School, a suburban Chicago elementary school with a student body nearly half Muslim Arab American, school board officials have considered eliminating holiday celebrations after Muslim parents complained that their culture's holidays were not included. Local parent Elizabeth Zahdan said broader inclusion, not elimination, was the group's goal. "I only wanted them modified to represent everyone," the Chicago Sun-Times quoted her as saying. "Now the kids are not being educated about other people." [8]However, the district's superintendent, Tom Smyth, said too much school time was being taken to celebrate holidays already, and he sent a directive to his principals requesting that they "tone down" activities unrelated to the curriculum, such as holiday parties.

In airports[edit]

Immigration[edit]

Some publishers have noted the presence of Islamophobia during immigration proceedings. Nonetheless, such forms of xenophobia has been said to primarily affect the male members of the Muslims population and has also been said to have enveloped the Arab community in the U.S. often culminating in deportations, revocations of visa, and dispiriting interrogations at American airports.[9] This purportedly occurs because Muslim women are seen as less of a threat than Muslim men.[10]

In politics[edit]

When Herman Cain supported opposition to the construction of a mosque in Murfreesboro, and the appointment of a Muslim in his cabinet, it was described as islamophobic by some outlets.[11]

In June 2017, Jeff Sieting, the village president of Kalkaska, Michigan, shared Facebook posts in calling for the killing of "every last Muslim" and for nuclear weapons to be used on the world's 10-largest Muslim-majority cities. In July, after condemnation by several constituents, Sieting refused to apologize and said his comments were protected by the First Amendment.[12]

Stereotypes[edit]

Hate crimes[edit]

Some publishers have opined that the increase in hate crimes against Muslims was an Islamophobic abuse with an ethnocentric trait. This is because many of its proponents do not distinguish between Arabs and Muslims and think all Arabs are Muslim by shapeshifting the Muslim faith into an ethnoreligion.[13] This is in contrast to decreasing hate crimes against other racial groups, such as blacks, Asians and Latinos with the exception of Jews.[13]

Ibrahim Hooper, the communications director at the Council on American-Islamic Relations attributes the spike in recent anti-Muslim attacks to the Charlie Hebdo shooting, as well as the coverage" 'radical Islam' on the news while not using the word "radical" for non-Muslim faiths.[14][15] According to a report by CNN[16] and a survey from the Council on American–Islamic Relations there have been over 63 acts of vandalism and anti Muslim behavior in 2015 from January through December 3.

Arson[edit]

The Quba Islamic Institute in Houston, Texas, was set alight at 5am on the 13 February 2015. Some media reports described it as an Islamophobic attack.[17]

Assault[edit]

Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in September 2007 in what authorities call a bias crime.[18] Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpetrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in which she was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said.[18]

Vandalism[edit]

A Muslim school in the Northeastern U.S. state of Rhode Island was vandalised with graffiti bearing "Now this is a Hate crime", indicating that the perpetrators were wary of the hateful nature. The incident was described by some media outlets as "Islamophobic".[19]

Organizations[edit]

Some commentators have criticized individual American New Atheists such as Sam Harris and Christopher Hitchens for making Islamophobic statements.[20][21][22] Commenting on Greenwald's response to Harris, Jerome Taylor, writing in The Independent, has stated that, "Like Chomsky, who has also been a vocal critic of New Atheism, he [Greenwald] blames writers like Harris for using their particularly anti-Islamic brand of rational non-belief to justify American foreign policies over the last decade.[23][24] Two educators at universities in Utah have claimed that these American atheist activists invoke Samuel Huntington's 'clash of civilizations' theory to explain the current political contestation and that this forms part of a trend toward "Islamophobia [...] in the study of Muslim societies".[25][verification needed]

Commentary[edit]

Part of the study of Islamophobia has involved historians, scholars and educators writing about institutional violence against American Muslims and incitement of violence against foreign Muslims.[26] Edward Said in his book Orientalism describes how the West is taught about the East through a Westernized lens and that most of the East's history is written in Europe by European historians, instead of specialized scholars of Eastern history.[27] When applied, Orientalism serves as a way of using demeaning representations of the East to assert the cultural and political superiority of the West over inferior Muslims.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Anti-Muslim assaults reach 9/11-era levels, FBI data show". Pew Research Center. 2016-11-21. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  2. ^ Acquisti & Fong 2012, p. 3.
  3. ^ Acquisti & Fong 2012, p. 4.
  4. ^ Acquisti & Fong 2012, p. 22.
  5. ^ LeVine, Marianne (1 June 2015). "Supreme Court rules against Abercrombie in hijab case". Politico. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  6. ^ Tahmincioglu, Eve (13 September 2010). "Muslims face growing bias in the workplace". NBC News. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  7. ^ Kochman, Ben (26 January 2017). "City charges Queens wheelchair service company discriminated against Muslim employees during Ramadan". New York Daily News. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  8. ^ Citation Needed
  9. ^ Figueroa, Tiffani B. "All Muslims are Like That: How Islamophobia is Diminishing Americans' Right to Receive Information." Hofstra L. Rev. 41 (2012): 467.
  10. ^ Elia, Nada. "Islamophobia and the" privileging" of Arab American women." NWSA Journal 18.3 (2006): 155-161.
  11. ^ Peter Beinart. "The GOP's Islamophobia Problem". The Atlantic. 
  12. ^ "Michigan official stands by call for killing of all Muslims". ABC News. 12 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Disha, Cavendish and King, "Historical Events and Spaces of Hate: Arabs and Muslims in Post-9/11 America", Social Problems
  14. ^ "Hate Crimes and Hate Speech" Colin Daleida, Mashable, February 17, 2015.
  15. ^ "The Islamophobia Stirred Up By Abbott and Bolt" Julian Burnside, The Guardian, February 27, 2015.
  16. ^ "Threats, harassment, vandalism at mosques reach record - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2015-12-12. 
  17. ^ Nasheman. "US: Houston Muslim school burned down in what investigators say is likely an arson attack". Nasheman. 
  18. ^ a b "MUSLIM BIZ GAL BEATEN". New York Post. 16 September 2007. 
  19. ^ "US: Nonprofit Muslim School Vandalized in Rhode Island". 
  20. ^ [1] Unholy war: Atheists and the politics of Muslim-baiting, First Press, Apr 3, 2013
  21. ^ [2] Sam Harris, the New Atheists, and anti-Muslim animus, Glen Greenwald, The Guardian, April 3, 2013
  22. ^ [3] Scientific racism, militarism, and the new atheists, Murtaza Hussain, Aljazeera, April 2, 2013
  23. ^ [4] Atheists Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens and Sam Harris face Islamophobia backlash, Jerome Taylor, The Independent, April 12, 2013.
  24. ^ Emilsen, William (August 2012). "The New Atheism and Islam". The Expository Times. 123 (11): 521. doi:10.1177/0014524612448737. 
  25. ^ Jacoby, Wade; Yavuz, Hakan (April 2008). "Modernization, Identity and Integration: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Islam in Europe". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 28 (1): 1. doi:10.1080/13602000802080486.  (subscription required)
  26. ^ Garner, Steve and Saher Selod, "The Racialization of Muslims: Empirical Studies of Islamophobia", Critical Sociology 41.1
  27. ^ Said, Edward. "Orientalism". Vintage Books, New York (1978): pp. 17.
  28. ^ Rath, Sura, "Post/past-'Orientalism' Orientalism and Its Dis/re-orientation", Comparative American Studies 2

Sources[edit]

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