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1945 BRITISH DOCUMENTARY  BURMA CAMPAIGN  WORLD WAR II  42464
1945 BRITISH DOCUMENTARY BURMA CAMPAIGN WORLD WAR II 42464
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Japanese troops and tanks advance to Mandalay, Burma,  during World War II. HD Stock Footage
Japanese troops and tanks advance to Mandalay, Burma, during World War II. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: CriticalPast
WWII RARE COLOR FILM BURMA 2 of 3 JAPAN RETREATS FROM INDIA
WWII RARE COLOR FILM BURMA 2 of 3 JAPAN RETREATS FROM INDIA
Published: 2008/12/31
Channel: RALPHLAURINO
Burmese Campaign in World War II - The Stilwell Road (1945)
Burmese Campaign in World War II - The Stilwell Road (1945)
Published: 2012/02/08
Channel: Jonny
Dr Ba Maw Speech After Japanese Occupation at Burma
Dr Ba Maw Speech After Japanese Occupation at Burma
Published: 2012/09/18
Channel: MrSizarwin
Japanese occupation of Burma Top  #7 Facts
Japanese occupation of Burma Top #7 Facts
Published: 2016/02/02
Channel: Rishika Janaki
The Japanese Invasion of Malaya
The Japanese Invasion of Malaya
Published: 2008/02/11
Channel: zxwar
Japanese occupation of Singapore
Japanese occupation of Singapore
Published: 2009/07/04
Channel: prasanchok
1942 1 Rupee from World War II Japanese Occupation of Burma
1942 1 Rupee from World War II Japanese Occupation of Burma
Published: 2012/02/10
Channel: TheCurrencyMan
RANGOON - The Real Story
RANGOON - The Real Story
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: Fantastic Facts
VLOG The Japanese occupation of Burma
VLOG The Japanese occupation of Burma
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: lishko movchan
Japanese Invasion Of Burma.m4v
Japanese Invasion Of Burma.m4v
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: TRIDENTSPLASHROX06
Japanese occupation of Burma Top # 7 Facts
Japanese occupation of Burma Top # 7 Facts
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Duryodhan Trivedi
Living under Japanese occupation WW2 pt1
Living under Japanese occupation WW2 pt1
Published: 2010/03/04
Channel: nowaytono
1942 10 Rupees from World War II Japanese Occupation of Burma
1942 10 Rupees from World War II Japanese Occupation of Burma
Published: 2012/02/10
Channel: TheCurrencyMan
Japanese Invasion of Burma~ Flores
Japanese Invasion of Burma~ Flores
Published: 2011/06/15
Channel: Julia Branoff
BURMA WW2, THE WAR YEARS 1944
BURMA WW2, THE WAR YEARS 1944
Published: 2011/05/17
Channel: TOPCAMERAMAN
WW2 - Japanese Invasion of China | The Second Sino-Japanese War | 1937-45 | World War II Documentary
WW2 - Japanese Invasion of China | The Second Sino-Japanese War | 1937-45 | World War II Documentary
Published: 2013/10/15
Channel: The Best Film Archives
No Prisoners - The Fall of Singapore
No Prisoners - The Fall of Singapore
Published: 2014/02/04
Channel: Dave Lyneham
Burma Campaign 1942
Burma Campaign 1942
Published: 2014/03/13
Channel: War Footage
Japanese invasion of Indochina_French Audio_Eng subbed
Japanese invasion of Indochina_French Audio_Eng subbed
Published: 2015/08/11
Channel: Siao Bai
Chinese veteran recounts fight against Japanese occupation
Chinese veteran recounts fight against Japanese occupation
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: CGTN America
Natives celebrate their restoration under Japanese occupation in Burma during the...HD Stock Footage
Natives celebrate their restoration under Japanese occupation in Burma during the...HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/05/10
Channel: CriticalPast
Battle of Kohima and Imphal World war 2 Forgotten martyrs
Battle of Kohima and Imphal World war 2 Forgotten martyrs
Published: 2014/06/22
Channel: cwvideomaker
Burma Photo Mapping Mission 1944-04 US Army Air Forces; World War II
Burma Photo Mapping Mission 1944-04 US Army Air Forces; World War II
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Banknote of the Week : 1944 Burma 100 Rupees, Japanese Occupation WWII Money
Banknote of the Week : 1944 Burma 100 Rupees, Japanese Occupation WWII Money
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: World Numismatic News
British and Indian combat troops capture Mandalay, Burma from Japanese as troops ...HD Stock Footage
British and Indian combat troops capture Mandalay, Burma from Japanese as troops ...HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/06/16
Channel: CriticalPast
British Occupation of Burma
British Occupation of Burma
Published: 2013/03/18
Channel: Isaac Steele
1942 5 Rupees from World War II Japanese Occupation of Burma
1942 5 Rupees from World War II Japanese Occupation of Burma
Published: 2012/02/10
Channel: TheCurrencyMan
Japan Surrenders To Lord Louis - 1945
Japan Surrenders To Lord Louis - 1945
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: British Movietone
War In Burma - Japanese P.O.W.S (1943)
War In Burma - Japanese P.O.W.S (1943)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
World War 2 Burma (Ambush)
World War 2 Burma (Ambush)
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: Henry Joyce
Burma Independence 1942
Burma Independence 1942
Published: 2012/09/21
Channel: MrSizarwin
History of China - China During the Second Sino-Japanese War | Full Length Documentary Film
History of China - China During the Second Sino-Japanese War | Full Length Documentary Film
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: The Best Film Archives
Kokang  under  Burma  occupation
Kokang under Burma occupation
Published: 2010/01/23
Channel: Khurtai Maisoong
Gold Hid in Sites from Japanese Invasion WWII in Myanmar
Gold Hid in Sites from Japanese Invasion WWII in Myanmar
Published: 2013/08/15
Channel: NTDTV
World War II • Burma Campaign // ВМВ • Бирманская кампания
World War II • Burma Campaign // ВМВ • Бирманская кампания
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: Anton Komogortsev
Japanese troops invade Mandalay, Burma and battle enemy during World War II. HD Stock Footage
Japanese troops invade Mandalay, Burma and battle enemy during World War II. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: CriticalPast
US Troops in India Supplied by Air Drops 1943 OWI Newsreel World War II Burma Campaign
US Troops in India Supplied by Air Drops 1943 OWI Newsreel World War II Burma Campaign
Published: 2014/03/25
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Burma - 1942 to 1974 overrun by the Japanese during WW2
Burma - 1942 to 1974 overrun by the Japanese during WW2
Published: 2011/12/23
Channel: Green Wood
Japanese airplane found at Burma Jungle - Kohima Arakan
Japanese airplane found at Burma Jungle - Kohima Arakan
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: luisfilipe1983
Generals At War : The Battle of Singapore
Generals At War : The Battle of Singapore
Published: 2012/04/11
Channel: Carlos Matute
Burma Jungle War w/Japan; Arabs Form Desert Unit 1944/4/3
Burma Jungle War w/Japan; Arabs Form Desert Unit 1944/4/3
Published: 2006/09/17
Channel: UniversalNewsreels
Vintage World War II Japanese Occupation Phillippine Notes
Vintage World War II Japanese Occupation Phillippine Notes
Published: 2012/06/21
Channel: BlueRidgeSilverhound
Japanese Invasion of the Philippines 1941
Japanese Invasion of the Philippines 1941
Published: 2008/07/28
Channel: gilbertoy69
Burma Tours
Burma Tours
Published: 2014/08/16
Channel: Tours Videos
ww2 1942 Japanese bank note for occupied burma memorabilia
ww2 1942 Japanese bank note for occupied burma memorabilia
Published: 2013/07/03
Channel: markjones445
WWII FALL OF SINGAPORE 1941 1 of 3 RARE COLOR FILM
WWII FALL OF SINGAPORE 1941 1 of 3 RARE COLOR FILM
Published: 2008/08/28
Channel: RALPHLAURINO
VDO: Seventy years since Rangoon reclaimed
VDO: Seventy years since Rangoon reclaimed
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: DVBTVenglish
Japanese Invasion in WW2
Japanese Invasion in WW2
Published: 2012/05/06
Channel: Dinkaroo2
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Japanese occupation of Burma was the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was occupied by the Empire of Japan. The Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, and trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). The Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent.[1][2]

In 1942 Japan invaded Burma and nominally declared the colony independent as the State of Burma on 1 August 1943. A puppet government led by Ba Maw was installed. However, many Burmese began to believe the Japanese had no intention of giving them real independence.[1][2]

Aung San, father of future opposition leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi, and other nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organisation in August 1944, which asked the United Kingdom to form a coalition with other allies against the Japanese. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence. Under Japanese occupation, 170,000 to 250,000 civilians died.[1][2]

Background[edit]

Some Burmese nationalists saw the outbreak of World War II as an opportunity to extort concessions from the British in exchange for support in the war effort. Other Burmese, such as the Thakin movement, opposed Burma's participation in the war under any circumstances. Aung San with other Thakins founded the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in August 1939.[3] Aung San also co-founded the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP), renamed the Socialist Party after World War II. He was also instrumental in founding the Freedom Bloc by forging an alliance of Dobama Asiayone, ABSU, politically active monks and Ba Maw's Poor Man's Party.[3]

After Dobama Asiayone called for a national uprising, an arrest warrant was issued for many of the organisation's leaders including Aung San, who escaped to China. Aung San's intention was to make contact with the Chinese Communists but he was detected by the Japanese authorities who offered him support by forming a secret intelligence unit called the Minami Kikan, headed by Colonel Suzuki with the objective of closing the Burma Road and supporting a national uprising.[3]

Aung San briefly returned to Burma to enlist twenty-nine young men who went to Japan with him to receive military training on Hainan, China, and they came to be known as the "Thirty Comrades". When the Japanese occupied Bangkok in December 1941, Aung San announced the formation of the Burma Independence Army (BIA) in anticipation of the Japanese invasion of Burma in 1942.[3]

For Japan's military leadership, the conquest of Burma was a vital strategic objective upon the opening of hostilities with Britain and the United States. Occupation of Burma would interrupt a critical supply link to China. Also, the Japanese knew that rubber was one of the few militarily vital resources that the United States was not self-sufficient in. It was thought critical that the Allies be denied access to Southeast Asian rubber supplies if they were ever to accept peace terms favourable to Japan.

Japanese occupation[edit]

Japanese army at Shwethalyaung Buddha.

The BIA formed a provisional government in some areas of the country in the spring of 1942, but there were differences within the Japanese leadership over the future of Burma. While Colonel Suzuki encouraged the Thirty Comrades to form a provisional government, the Japanese military leadership had never formally accepted such a plan. Eventually, the Japanese Army turned to Ba Maw to form a government.[3]

During the war in 1942, the BIA had grown in an uncontrolled manner, and in many districts officials and even criminals appointed themselves to the BIA. It was reorganised as the Burma Defence Army (BDA) under the Japanese but still headed by Aung San. While the BIA had been an irregular force, the BDA was recruited by selection and trained as a conventional army by Japanese instructors.[3]

Ba Maw was afterwards declared head of state, and his cabinet included both Aung San as War Minister and the Communist leader Thakin Than Tun as Minister of Land and Agriculture as well as the Socialist leaders Thakins Nu and Mya. When the Japanese declared Burma, in theory, independent in 1943, the Burma Defence Army (BDA) was renamed the Burma National Army (BNA).[3]

The flag of the State of Burma, used 1943-5.

It soon became apparent that Japanese promises of independence were merely a sham and that Ba Maw was deceived. As the war turned against the Japanese, they declared Burma a fully sovereign state on 1 August 1943, but this was just another façade. Disillusioned, Aung San began negotiations with Communist leaders Thakin Than Tun and Thakin Soe, and Socialist leaders Ba Swe and Kyaw Nyein which led to the formation of the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) in August 1944 at a secret meeting of the CPB, the PRP and the BNA in Pegu. The AFO was later renamed the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL),[3] and roundly opposed the Japanese fascism, proposing a fairer and more equal society.[4]

Thakins Than Tun and Soe, while in Insein prison in July 1941, had co-authored the Insein Manifesto which, against the prevailing opinion in the Dobama movement, identified world fascism as the main enemy in the coming war and called for temporary co-operation with the British in a broad allied coalition which should include the Soviet Union. Soe had already gone underground to organise resistance against the Japanese occupation, and Than Tun was able to pass on Japanese intelligence to Soe, while other Communist leaders Thakins Thein Pe and Tin Shwe made contact with the exiled colonial government in Simla, India.[3]

Massacre during the occupation[edit]

The Japanese had entered the Kalagong village and rounded up all the inhabitants for questioning by the members of the 3rd Battalion, 215th Regiment and the OC Moulmein Kempeitai of the Imperial Japanese Army. These units had been ordered by Major General Seiei Yamamoto, chief of staff of the 33rd Army. An estimated 600 Burmese villagers died in the Kalagong massacre.

End of the occupation[edit]

The destruction of Rangoon in the aftermath of World War II.

There were informal contacts between the AFO and the Allies in 1944 and 1945 through the British Force 136. On 27 March 1945, the Burma National Army rose up in a country-wide rebellion against the Japanese.[3] 27 March had been celebrated as 'Resistance Day' until the military renamed it 'Tatmadaw (Armed Forces) Day'. Aung San and others subsequently began negotiations with Lord Mountbatten and officially joined the Allies as the Patriotic Burmese Forces (PBF). At the first meeting, the AFO represented itself to the British as the provisional government of Burma with Thakin Soe as Chairman and Aung San as a member of its ruling committee.[3]

The Japanese were routed from most of Burma by May 1945. Negotiations then began with the British over the disarming of the AFO and the participation of its troops in a post-war Burma Army. Some veterans had been formed into a paramilitary force under Aung San, called the Pyithu yèbaw tat or People's Volunteer Organisation (PVO), and were openly drilling in uniform.[3] The absorption of the PBF was concluded successfully at the Kandy conference in Ceylon in September 1945.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556
  2. ^ a b c Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 (Werner Gruhl is former chief of NASA's Cost and Economic Analysis Branch with a lifetime interest in the study of the First and Second World Wars.)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Martin Smith (1991). Burma - Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London and New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 49,91,50,53,54,56,57,58–59,60,61,60,66,65,68,69,77,78,64,70,103,92,120,176,168–169,177,178,180,186,195–197,193,,202,204,199,200,270,269,275–276,292–3,318–320,25,24,1,4–16,365,375–377,414. 
  4. ^ Robert H. Taylor (1987). The state in Burma. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 284. 

Further reading[edit]

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