Nazi occupation - Lodz, Poland

Channel: DocsOnline   |   2012/04/11
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Nazi occupation - Lodz, Poland
Nazi occupation - Lodz, Poland
::2012/04/11::
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Nazis establish Jewish ghetto in Lodz, Poland
Nazis establish Jewish ghetto in Lodz, Poland
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Remembeing  Nazi Death Camps Auschwitz  Birkenau   Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek,  Sobibor , Treblinka
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Warsaw Ghetto  Uprising   Remembered  April 19th 1943
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2.  From Bad to Worse 1940 - 1941 (Part 2 of 11)
2. From Bad to Worse 1940 - 1941 (Part 2 of 11)
::2011/09/23::
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A child lies on the street in the Warsaw Ghetto, May 1941. Photo by Nazi officer P.K. Zermin, now in German Federal Archive

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland were established during World War II in hundreds of locations across occupied Poland.[1][2][3] Most Jewish ghettos had been created by Nazi Germany between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine and segregate Poland's Jewish population of about 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation. In smaller towns, ghettos often served as staging points for Jewish slave-labor and mass deportation actions, while in the urban centers they resembled walled-off prison-islands described by some historians as little more than instruments of "slow, passive murder," with dead bodies littering the streets.[4] In most cases, the larger ghettos did not correspond to traditional Jewish neighborhoods, and non-Jewish Poles and members of other ethnic groups were ordered to take up residence elsewhere. Smaller Jewish communities with populations under 500 were dissolved immediately following the invasion.[5]

The Holocaust[edit]

The liquidation of the Jewish ghettos across Poland was closely connected with the construction of highly secretive death camps built in early 1942 by various German companies, for the sole purpose of annihilating a people.[6][7] The Nazi extermination program depended on killing centers as much as on the effectiveness of their railways. Rail transport enabled the SS to run industrial-scale mass-extermination facilities and, at the same time, openly lie to their victims about the "resettlement" program. Jews were transported to their deaths in Holocaust trains from liquidated ghettos of all occupied cities, including Litzmannstadt, the last ghetto in Poland to be emptied in August 1944.[6][8][9][10] In some larger ghettos there were armed resistance attempts, such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Białystok Ghetto Uprising and the Łachwa Ghetto uprising, but in every case they failed against the overwhelming German military force, and the remaining Jews were either executed or deported to the extermination camps.[4][11][12][13][14] By the time Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe was liberated by the Red Army, not a single Jewish ghetto in Poland was left standing.[15] Only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil with the assistance of their Polish neighbors, a fraction of their prewar population of 3,500,000.[16][17]

Partial liquidation of the Białystok Ghetto, 15–20 August 1943. Jewish men with their hands up, surrounded by military unit

In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone."[15] The list of locations of the Jewish ghettos within the borders of pre-war and post-war Poland is compiled with the understanding that their inhabitants were either of Polish nationality from before the invasion, or had strong historical ties with Poland. Also, not all ghettos are listed here due to their transient nature. Permanent ghettos were created only in settlements with rail connections, because the food aid (paid by the Jews themselves) was completely dependent on the Germans, making even the potato-peels a hot commodity.[18] Throughout 1940 and 1941, most ghettos were sealed off from the outside, walled off or enclosed with barbed wire, and many Jews found leaving them were shot. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), or 7.2 persons per room.[19] The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 inmates.[20] In documents and signage, the Nazis usually referred to the ghettos they created as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, meaning "Jewish Quarter". By the end of 1941, most Polish Jews were already ghettoized, even though the Germans knew that the system was unsustainable; most inmates had no chance of earning their own keep, and no savings left to pay the SS for further deliveries.[18] The quagmire was resolved at the Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942 near Berlin, where the "Final Solution" (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was set in place.[21]

List of Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland[edit]

The settlements listed in the Polish language,[3] including major cities, had all been renamed after the 1939 joint invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union. Renaming everything in their own image had been one way in which the invaders sought to redraw Europe's political map. All Polish territories were confiscated as either Nazi zones of occupation (i.e. Bezirk Bialystok, Provinz Ostpreußen, Reichskommissariat Ostland, etc.), or Soviet brand-new extensions to the two fledging western republics (i.e. West Belarus), soon overrun again in Operation Barbarossa.[3] The Soviet Ukraine and Byelorussia witnessed the genocide of Poles just prior to invasion, resulting in the virtual absence of ethnic Poles in the USSR along the pre-war border with Poland since the Great Terror.[22][23]

For a chronological list of names and ghetto operations, please use table-sort buttons. The locations in both other languages are available through active links.
# Ghetto location in prewar
and postwar Poland  
Number of
Jews confined  
Date of
creation  
Date of
liquidation  
Deportation route  
Only 38 days after the 1939 Nazi German Invasion of Poland, the first large ghetto of World War II was set up at Piotrków Trybunalski on October 8, 1939.[24]
Within months, the most populous Jewish ghettos in World War II included the Łódź Ghetto (set up in April 1940), and the Warsaw Ghetto (October 1940)
1   Aleksandrów Lódzki 3,500    1939   Dec 1939     to Głowno ghetto
2   Bełżyce 4,500    Jun 1940   May 1943     to Budzyń ghetto, Sobibor and Majdanek
3   Będzin Ghetto 7,000[3]–28,000[25]  Jul 1940   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz (7,000).[26]
4   Błonie 2,100    Dec 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,100)
5   Bodzentyn 700    1940   Sep 1942     to Suchedniów ghetto → Treblinka.[27]
6   Brześć Kujawski 630    1940   Apr 1942     to Łódź Ghetto, Chełmno extermination camp
7   Brzeziny 6,000–6,800    Feb 1940   May 1942     to Łódź Ghetto, Chełmno extermination camp
8   Brzozów 1,000    1940   Aug 1942     to Belzec extermination camp
9   Bychawa 2,700    1940   Apr 1941     to Belzyce
10   Chęciny 4,000    1940 – Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
11   Dąbrowa Górnicza 4,000–10,000    1940   Jun 1943     to Auschwitz
12   Dęblin 3,300–5,800    Apr 1940   Oct 1942     to Sobibor and Treblinka
13   Działoszyce 15,000?    Apr 1940   Oct 1942     to Płaszów and Bełżec extermination camp
14   Gąbin 2,000–2,300    1940   Apr 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
15   Głowno 5,600    May 1940   Mar 1941     to Łowicz ghetto and Warsaw Ghetto (5,600)
16   Gorlice (labor camp 1st) ?    1940   1942     to Buchenwald, Muszyna, Mielec, see Gorlice
17   Góra Kalwaria 3,300    Jan 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (3,000), 300 killed locally
18   Grodzisk Mazowiecki 6,000    1940 – Jan 1941   Oct 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000)
19   Grójec 5,200–6,000    Jul 1940   Sep 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 6,000) → Treblinka
20   Izbica Kujawska 1,000    1940   Jan 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
21   Jeżów 1,600    1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,600)
22   Jędrzejów 6,000    Mar 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
23   Kazimierz Dolny 2,000–3,500    1940 – Apr 1941   Mar 1942     to Sobibor, and Treblinka
24   Kobyłka 1,500    Sep 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
25   Koło 2,000–5,000    Dec 1940   Dec 1941     to Treblinka (2,000) and Chełmno
26   Koniecpol 1,100–1,600    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
27   Konin 1,500?    Dec 1939   1940 – Mar 1941     to Zagórów & other ghettos, many killed locally
28   Kozienice 13,000    Jan 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
29   Koźminek 2,500    1940   Jul 1942      to Chełmno
30   Krasnystaw 2,000    Aug 1940   Oct 1942     to Belzec
31   Krośniewice 1,500    May 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
32   Kutno 7,000    Jun 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno
33   Legionowo 3,000    1940   1942     to Treblinka
34   Łańcut 2,700    Dec 1939   Aug 1942     to Belzec
35   Łask 4,000    Dec 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
36   Łowicz 8,000–8,200    1940   Mar 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all, including labor camp)[28]
37   Łódź Ghetto 200,000    8 Feb 1940   Aug 1944     to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camp
38   Marki ?    1940 – Mar 1941   1942     to Warsaw Ghetto
39   Mielec 4,000–4,500    1940   Mar 1942     to Belzec
40   Mińsk Mazowiecki 5,000    Oct 1940   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
41   Mława 6,000–6,500    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka and Auschwitz
42   Mogielnica 1,500    1940   28 Feb 1942     to Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka.[29]
43   Mordy 4,500    Nov 1940   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
44   Muranów 445,000    1940   1942     see also Warsaw Ghetto (all) → Treblinka[30]
45   Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki 2,000–4,000    1940 – Jan 1941   Dec 1942     to Pomiechówek ghetto → Auschwitz
46   Nowy Korczyn 4,000    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
47   Opoczno 3,000–4,000    Nov 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
48   Otwock 12,000–15,000    Dec 1939   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, and Auschwitz
49   Pabianice 8,500–9,000    Feb 1940   May 1942     to Łódź GhettoChełmno extermination camp
50   Piaseczno 2,500    1940   Jan 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,500)
51   Piotrków Trybunalski Ghetto 25,000[31]  8 Oct 1939[24] 14 / 21 Oct 1944     to Majdanek and Treblinka (22,000),[31] killed locally
52   Płock 7,000–10,000    1939–1940   Feb 1941     to Działdowo ghetto
53   Płońsk 12,000    Sep 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka, Auschwitz
54   Poddębice 1,500    Nov 1940   Apr 1942     to Treblinka(?)
55   Pruszków 1,400    1940   1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 1,400)
56   Przedbórz 4,000–5,000    Mar 1940   Oct 1942     to Belzec and Treblinka
57   Puławy 5,000    Nov – Dec 1939   1940     to Opole LubelskieSobibor
58   Radomsko 18,000–20,000    1939 – Jan 1940   21 Jul 1943     to Treblinka extermination camp (18,000)
59   Radzymin 2,500    Sep 1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
60   Serock 2,000    Feb 1940   Dec 1940     to other ghettos
61   Sieradz 2,500–5,000    Mar 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
62   Sierpc 500–3,000    1940   Feb 1942     to Warsaw GhettoTreblinka
63   Skaryszew 1,800    1940   Apr 1942     to Szydlowiec
64   Skierniewice 4,300–7,000    Dec 1940   Apr 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 7,000)
65   Sochaczew 3,000–4,000    Jan 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 3,000)
66   Stalowa Wola 2,500    1940   Jul 1942     to Belzec
67   Stryj    12,000    1940–1941   Jun 1943     to Belzec
68   Szadek 500    1940   1940     to other ghettos
69   Szczebrzeszyn 4,000    1940 – Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Belzec, also killed locally
70   Tomaszów Mazowiecki 16,000–20,000    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka (16,000), with 4,000 killed locally
71   Turek 5,000    1940   Oct 1941     to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 5,000)
72   Tyszowce 1,500–2,000    1940   Sep 1942     to Belzec
73   Uchanie 2,000    1940   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
74   Ulanów 500    1940   Oct 1942     to other ghettos
75   Uniejów 500    1940   Oct 1941     to Kowale Pańskie ghetto (all 500)
76   Warka 2,800    1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 2,800)
77   Warta 1,000–2,400    Feb 1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
78   Warsaw Ghetto 450,000    Oct – 15 Nov 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka (300,000), and Majdanek
79   Włocławek 4,000–13,500    Oct 1940   Apr 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
80   Włodawa 6,000    1940–1942   Apr 1943     to Sobibor
81   Włoszczowa 4,000–6,000    Jul 1940   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
82   Wodzisław 4,000    Jun 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
83   Wołomin 3,000–5,500    1940–1942   Apr 1943     to Treblinka
84   Wyszogród 2,700–3,000    Dec 1940   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
85   Zagórów 2,000–2,500    Jul 1940   Oct 1941     all killed locally
86   Zduńska Wola 8,300–10,000    1940   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
87   Żychlin 2,800–4,000    Jul 1940   Mar 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
88   Żyrardów 3,000–5,000    Dec 1940   Feb 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto (all 5,000)
Year 1941: on June 22 Germany entered the Soviet occupation zone under the codename Operation Barbarossa.
The creation of new Jewish ghettos and the mass executions on-site by mobile killing squads intensified.
89   Augustów 4,000    Oct 1941   Jun 1942     to Treblinka and Auschwitz, many killed locally
90   Bełchatów 5,500–6,000    Mar 1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
91   Biała Podlaska 7,000–8,400    Jul 1941   Sep 1942     to Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka
92   Biała Rawska 4,000    Sep 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
93   Białystok Ghetto 40,000–50,000    26 Jul 1941   Nov 1943     to Majdanek, Treblinka
94   Biłgoraj 2,500–3,000    1941–1942   Nov 1942     to Belzec
95   Bobowa 658?[32]  Oct 1941   Aug 1942     to Gorlice and Biecz ghettos
96   Bochnia 14,000–15,000    Mar 1941   Sep 1943     to Szebnie, Belzec and Auschwitz
97   Brześć Litewski Ghetto 18,000    16 Dec 1941   Oct 1942     all executed locally (5,000 before ghetto was set up)[33]
98   Busko Zdrój 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
99   Chełm 8,000–12,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
100   Chmielnik 10,000–14,000    Apr 1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
101   Chodel 1,400    Jun 1941   1942     to other ghettos
102   Chrzanów 8,000    Nov 1941   Feb 1943     to Auschwitz
103   Ciechanowiec 4,000    1941   Nov 1941     to Treblinka
104   Ciepielów 600    Dec 1941   15 / 29 Oct 1942[34]    to Treblinka, Polish rescuers killed 6 Dec 1942.[35]
105   Czeladź 800    Nov 1941   Feb 1943     to Auschwitz
106   Częstochowa Ghetto 48,000    9 Apr 1941   22 Sep – 9 Oct 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp
107   Ćmielów 1,500–2,000?[36]  1941   Oct (end) 1942     to Treblinka (900),[34] murdered locally
108   Dąbie 900    1941   Dec 1941     to Chełmno extermination camp
109   Dobre 500–1,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
110   Drohiczyn 700    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bransk and Bielsk ghettos
111   Drzewica 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
112   Dubienka 2,500–3,000    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     to other ghettos
113   Głogów Małopolski 120?    1941   1942     to Rzeszów ghetto, 5,000 executed in local forest
114   Gniewoszów (open type) 6,580[37]  Dec 1941   Nov 1942     to Zwoleń (5,000); 1,000 → Treblinka
115   Goniądz 1,000–1,300    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze ghetto
116   Gorlice 4,500    Oct 1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
117   Gostynin 3,500    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
118   Grajewo 3,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze ghetto
119   Hrubieszów (open type) 6,800–10,000    Jun 1941 – May 1942   May – Nov 1943     to Sobibor and Budzyn, killed locally, 2,000 fled.[38]
120   Iłża 1,900–2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
121   Inowłódz 500–600    1941   Aug 1942     to Tomaszow Mazowiecki ghetto
122   Iwacewicze 600    1941[39]  14 Mar 1942     to Słonim ghetto, all killed locally
123   Izbica Ghetto (lubelskie) 12,000–22,700[40]  1941[41]  2 Nov 1942     to Belzec and Sobibor, 4,500 killed locally
124   Jasło 2,000–3,000    1941   Aug 1942     to other ghettos
125   Jedwabne 100–130    Jul 1941   Nov 1941     to Łomża GhettoTreblinka, with 340 killed locally.[42]
126   Kalisz 400    1941   1942     to other ghettos
127   Kałusz 6,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec, several hundred executed locally
128   Karczew 700    Mar 1941   Oct 1941     to Warsaw Ghetto
129   Kielce 27,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka, with 6,000 killed locally
130   Kłobuck 2,000    1941   Jun 1942     to Auschwitz
131   Knyszyn 2,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Bialystok Ghetto
132   Kobryn 8,000    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     all killed locally
133   Kock 2,500–3,000    Jun 1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
134   Kodeń ?    Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Miedzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto
135   Kolbuszowa 2,500    1941   Sep 1942     to Belzec
136   Koluszki 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
137   Końskie 10,000    1941   Jan 1943     to Treblinka
138   Korczyn 2,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
139   Kraków Ghetto 20,000 (pop. 68,500)    Mar 1941   Mar 1943     to Belzec and Płaszów; 48,000 expelled in 1940.[43]
140   Kraśnik 5,000–6,000    1940–1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec
141   Krynki 3,500–6,000    Jun – Nov 1941   Nov 1942     all killed locally
142   Książ Wielki 200?[44]  1941   Nov 1942     to Miechow ghetto
143   Kunów 500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
144   Limanowa 2,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
145   Lipsk 3,000    Dec 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
146   Lubartów Ghetto 3,269–4,500    Jun 1941   Oct 1942     to Bełżec extermination camp
147   Lublin Ghetto 30,000–40,000    24 Mar 1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec (30,000)[45] and Majdanek (4,000)
148   Lwów Ghetto 115,000–160,000    Jun – Nov 1941   Jun 1943     to Belzec and Janowska concentration camp
149   Łapy 600    Jun – Jul 1941   Nov 1942     to Białystok Ghetto
150   Łaskarzew 1,300    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
151   Łęczyca 3,000–4,300    1941   Jun 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp, many killed locally
152   Łomża Ghetto 9,000–11,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to Auschwitz, many killed locally
153   Łosice 5,500–6,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
154   Łuków 10,000[3]  1941   Oct – Nov 1942     to Treblinka (7,000 on 5 Oct 1942 and 3,000 on 7 Nov)[46]
155   Maków Mazowiecki 3,500–5,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
156   Michałowo 1,500    1941   Nov 1942     to Bialystok Ghetto
157   Miechów 4,000    1941   1942     to Belzec (1,000 killed locally)
158   Nowe Miasto 3,700    1941   22 Oct 1942     to Treblinka (3,000),[46] killed locally
159   Nowogródek 6,000?[44]  Jun 1941   Oct 1942     all killed locally
160   Nowy Sącz 20,000    Aug 1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec extermination camp
161   Nowy Targ 2,500    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
162   Nowy Żmigród 1,300    1941   Jul 1942     all killed locally
163   Olkusz 3,000–4,000    1941   Jun 1942     to Auschwitz
164   Opatów Ghetto 10,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
165   Opole Lubelskie 8,000–10,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Sobibor and Poniatowa ghetto
166   Osiek 500    1941   Jun 1942     to Ożarów ghetto → Treblinka [47]
167   Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski 16,000    Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
168   Ozorków 3,000–5,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Lodz GhettoChełmno extermination camp
169   Pajęczno 3,000    1941   1942     to Lodz Ghetto
170   Parczew 7,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
171   Piątek ?    1941   Jul 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
172   Pilzno 788?[32]  1941   Jun 1942     to Belzec
173   Pińczów 3,000–3,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
174   Pionki (labor camp) 682[48]  1941   Aug 1942     to Zwoleń ghetto → Treblinka
175   Połaniec 2,000    1941   1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
176   Praszka ?    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
177   Rabka 300    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
178   Radom Ghetto 30,000–32,000    Mar 1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp
179   Radomyśl Wielki 1,300?[32]  1941   1942     to Bełżec
180   Radoszyce 3,200?[49]  1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
181   Radzyn Podlaski 2,000–3,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
182   Rajgród 1,200    1941   Nov 1942     to Bogusze
183   Rawa Mazowiecka 4,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
184   Rejowiec 3,000    1941   1943     to Auschwitz, Sobibor and Majdanek
185   Ropczyce 800    1941   Jul 1942     to Belzec
186   Ryki 1,800–3,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka and Sobibor
187   Rymanów 1,600?[32]  1941   Aug 1942     to Krakow Ghetto, Belzec, killed locally
188   Sędziszów Małopolski 2,000    1941   Jan 1942     to Belzec
189   Siedlce 12,000–18,000    Jun – Aug 1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka
190   Siemiatycze 7,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Sobibor
191   Sieniawa 3,000    1941   1942     all killed locally
192   Siennica 700?    1941   15 Sep 1942     to Treblinka (700)[46]
193   Skarżysko-Kamienna 3,000    1941   1942     to Treblinka (2,500), the rest killed locally
194   Skrzynno ?    1941   Oct 1942     to Opoczno ghetto
195   Słonim 22,000    Jul 1941   15 Jul 1942[50]    all killed locally (Jul-41: 1,200; Nov: 9,000; Jul-42: 10,000)
196   Słuck 3,000–8,500    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     all killed locally
197   Sokołów Małopolski 3,000    1941   Jul 1942     to Belzec
198   Sokołów Podlaski 4,000–7,000    Jun 1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
199   Sokółka 8,000–9,000    Jun 1941   Nov 1942     to KiełbasinTreblinka
200   Solec 800    1941   Dec 1942     to Tarlow ghetto
201   Starachowice 6,000    Apr 1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
202   Stary Sącz 1,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
203   Staszów 7,000    1941   Dec 1942     to Treblinka
204   Stopnica 5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Treblinka, many killed locally
205   Strzemieszyce Wielkie 1,800[51]  1940–1941   May – 15 Jun 1942     to Będzin Ghetto (500), Auschwitz (1,400)
206   Strzyżów 1,300[51]  1941   26 / 28 Jun 1942     to Rzeszów ghetto, killed locally → Belzec
207   Suchedniów 5,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Treblinka
208   Sulejów 1,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
209   Szczuczyn 2,000    1941   Jul – Nov 1942     to Bogusze transit camp, killed locally
210   Śniadowo 650    1941   Nov 1942     to Zambrow ghetto
211   Tarczyn 1,600    1941   Feb 1942     to Treblinka
212   Tarnobrzeg (ghetto & camp) 500[52]  Jun 1941   Jul 1942     to Dębica ghetto → Belzec
213   Tarnogród 2,600–5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Belzec (from ghetto & camp), many killed locally
214   Tarnopol 25,000    Jul – Aug 1941   Jun 1943     to Belzec extermination camp
215   Tarnów 40,000    Mar 1941   Sep 1943     10,000 killed locally, Belzec (10,000), Auschwitz
216   Tomaszów Lubelski 1,400–1,500    1941   Oct 1942     to Belzec
217   Tyczyn ?    1941   Jul 1942     to Belzec
218   Wadowice 1,400[53]  1941   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz
219   Wąwolnica 2,500    1941   May 1942     to Belzec
220   Węgrów 6,000–8,300    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
221   Wieliczka 7,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Belzec
222   Wielun 4,200–7,000    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp, killed locally
223   Wieruszów 1,400    1941   Aug 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
224   Wilno Ghetto 30,000–80,000[3]  Sep 1941   Sep 1943     all killed locally (21,000 before ghetto was set up)[54]
225   Wiślica 2,000    1941   Oct 1942     to Jedrzejow ghetto
226   Wolbrom 3,000–5,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Belzec, many killed locally
227   Wysokie Mazowieckie 5,000    1941   Nov 1942     to Zambrow ghetto
228   Zabłudów 1,800[55]  Jul 1941   2 Nov 1942     10th Calvary camp near BiałystokTreblinka (1,400)
229   Zambrów 3,200–4,000    1941   Jan 1943     to Auschwitz, mass killings locally
230   Zawiercie 5,000–7,000    1941   Oct 1943     to Auschwitz (5,000)
231   Zelów ?    1941   Sep 1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
232   Zwoleń (open type) 6,500–10,000[56]  1941   29 Sep 1942     to Treblinka extermination camp (8,000)[57]
233   Żarki 3,200    1941   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
234   Żelechów 5,500–13,000    1941   Sep 1942     to Treblinka
Year 1942: on January 20, Reinhard Heydrich, at the Wannsee conference in Berlin, informed senior Nazi officials that "the final solution of the Jewish question"
was deportation from the ghettos and subsequent mass extermination of the Jews, and discussed plans for implementation.
Six death factories were built by German firms in occupied Poland within two-to-six months.
235   Andrychów 700    Sep 1942   Nov 1943     to Auschwitz concentration camp
236   Annopol ?    Jun 1942   Oct 1942     to Kraśnik ghetto
237   Baranów Sandomierski 2,000    Jun 1942   Jul 1942     to Dębica ghetto, (all)
238   Biecz 700–800    Apr 1942   Aug 1942     to Belzec
239   Czortków 4,000    Apr 1942   Sep 1943     to Belzec
240   Dąbrowa Tarnowska 2,400–3,000    Oct 1942   Sep 1943     to Belzec and Auschwitz
241   Dębica 1,500–4,000    1942   Mar 1943     to Belzec
242   Drohobych Ghetto 10,000    Mar 1942   Jun 1943     to Belzec
243   Dubno 9,000?    Apr 1942   Oct 1942     all killed locally
244   Frysztak 1,600[32]  1942   18 Aug 1942     to Jasło ghetto → killed in Warzyce forest
245   Hrubieszów (labor camp) 200[38]  May 1942   May 1943     to Budzyn, killed locally, see Hrubieszów (6,800)
246   Jasienica Rosielna 1,500    1942   Aug 1942     to Belzec
247   Kołomyja (ghetto & camp) 18,000    1942   Feb 1943     to Belzec, many killed locally
248   Koprzywnica 1,800    1940   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
249   Kowale Pańskie 3,000–5,000    1939–1942   1942     to Chełmno extermination camp
250   Kowel 17,000    May 1942   Oct 1942     all killed locally
251   Kraśnik (ghetto & camp) 5,000    1940–1942   Nov 1942     to Belzec
252   Krosno 600–2,500    Aug 1942   Dec 1942     to Belzec
253   Lesko 2,000    1942   Sep 1942     to Belzec
254   Lubaczów 4,200–7,000    Oct 1942   Jan 1943     to Sobibor, many killed locally
255   Łachwa Ghetto 2,350    4 Apr 1942   Sep 1942     killed locally, 1,500 in an uprising.[20]
256   Łęczna 3,000    Jun 1942   Nov 1942     to Sobibor, many killed locally
257   Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto 20,000    28 Aug 1942   18 Jul 1943[58]    to Treblinka (17,000), many hundreds killed locally.[59]
258   Ożarów 4,500    Jan 1942   Oct 1942     to Treblinka
259   Przemyśl 22,000–24,000    Jul 1942   Sep 1943     to Belzec, Auschwitz, Janowska
260   Przeworsk 1,400?[32]  Jul 1942   Oct 1942     to Belzec
261   Przysucha 2,500–5,000    Jul – 15 Aug 1942   27 / 31 Oct 1942[60]    to Treblinka (5,000)[61]
262   Sambor 8,000–9,000    Mar 1942   Jul 1943     to Belzec, many killed locally
263   Sosnowiec Ghetto 12,000    Oct 1942   Aug 1943     to Auschwitz
264   Starachowice (labor camp) 13,000    1942   1942     to Treblinka, see also Starachowice ghetto
265   Stryj 4,000–12,000    1942   Jun 1943     all killed locally
266   Sucha Beskidzka 400[62]  1942   1943     to Auschwitz
267   Szydłów 1,000    Jan 1942   Oct 1942     to Chmielnik ghetto
268   Tarnogród (labor camp) 1,000    1942   1942     see Tarnogród ghetto → Belzec
269   Tomaszów M. (labor camp) 1,000    1942   May 1943     to Starachowice,[63] see also Tomaszów M. ghetto
270   Tuchów 3,000    Jun 1942   Sep 1942     to Belzec
271   Zdzięcioł Ghetto 4,500    22 Feb 1942   30 Apr – 6 Aug 1942     killed locally during Zdzięcioł massacres

Aftermath[edit]

Originally captioned "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs," this Stroop Report photo shows SS man Josef Blösche pointing his gun at people during the Uprising.

The ghetto inhabitants – most of whom were killed during Operation Reinhard – possessed Polish citizenship before the Nazi–Soviet invasion of Poland, which in turn enabled over 150,000 Holocaust survivors registered at CKŻP to take advantage of the later repatriation agreements between the governments of Poland and the Soviet Union, and legally emigrate to the West to help form the nascent State of Israel.[64] Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah without visas or exit permits upon the conclusion of World War II.[65] By contrast, Stalin forcibly brought Soviet Jews back to USSR along with all Soviet citizens, as agreed to in the Yalta Conference.[66]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987.
  2. ^ Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Prawnicze, 1960.  (Polish)
  3. ^ a b c d e f The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  (English). Some figures might require further confirmation due to their comparative range. Accessed June 21, 2011.
  4. ^ a b Michael Berenbaum, The World Must Know, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2006, p. 114.
  5. ^ "The War Against The Jews." The Holocaust Chronicle, 2009. Chicago, Il. Accessed June 21, 2011.
  6. ^ a b Dwork, Deborah and Robert Jan Van Pelt,The Construction of Crematoria at Auschwitz, W.W. Norton & Co., 1996.
  7. ^ Cecil Adams, "Did Krups, Braun, and Mercedes-Benz make Nazi concentration camp ovens?"
  8. ^ Jewish Virtual Library, Łódź. Overview of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto's history. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  9. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Online Exhibition: Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto
  10. ^ University of Minnesota, Majdanek Death Camp
  11. ^ Kraków Ghetto including photographs, at www.krakow-poland.com.
  12. ^ About Kraków Ghetto with valuable historical photographs. (Polish)
  13. ^ "Schindler's Krakow," with modern-day photographs of the WWII relics.
  14. ^ The Kraków Ghetto complete with contemporary picture gallery, at JewishKrakow.net
  15. ^ a b Edward Victor, "Ghettos and Other Jewish Communities." Judaica Philatelic. Accessed June 20, 2011.
  16. ^ Richard C. Lukas, Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust, University Press of Kentucky 1989 - 201 pages. Page 13; also in Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944, University Press of Kentucky, 1986, Google Print, p.13.
  17. ^ Gunnar S. Paulsson, "The Rescue of Jews by Non-Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland," Journal of Holocaust Education, Vol.7, Nos.1&2, 1998, pp.19-44. Published by Frank Cass, London.
  18. ^ a b Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen, "The Ghettos of Poland." The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 2002.
  19. ^ Warsaw Ghetto, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Washington, D.C.
  20. ^ a b Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  21. ^ François Furet, Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews. Schocken Books (1989), p. 182; ISBN 0-8052-4051-9
  22. ^ "A letter from Timothy Snyder of Bloodlands: Two genocidaires, taking turns in Poland". The Book Haven. Stanford University. December 15, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  23. ^ Tomasz Sommer (2010). "Execute the Poles: The Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, 1937-1938. Documents from Headquarters". Warsaw: 3S Media. p. 277. ISBN 83-7673-020-7. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b First Jewish ghetto established in Piotrkow Trybunalski: October 8, 1939. Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
  25. ^ Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, "Zagłada Żydów w Będzinie w świetle relacji" (Extermination of Jews in the light of testimony).  (Polish) According to 1946 research by Wojewódzka Żydowska Komisja Historyczna in Katowice, wrote Maciej i Ewa Szaniawscy, there were around 30,000 Jews in Będzin following the invasion, including those who came in from neighbouring settlements. Between October 1940 and May 1942, the first 4,000 Jews were deported. In May 1942 additional 2,000 and in August, 5,000 more. Deportations between August 1942 and mid June 1943 amounted to additional 5,000. On 22 June 1943 the next transport of 5,000 Jews departed to Auschwitz, and finally, between 1–3 August 1943, the remaining 8,000 were sent away. The dispersed Jews who stayed, amounting to 1,000 persons, were deported between early October 1943 and July 1944. In total, about 28,000 Jews are believed to have been deported from the Będzin Ghetto. This information however, is not confirmed by the two main sources of the remaining data nor the Jewish Historical Institute, listing only 7,000 victims.
  26. ^ Będzin in the Jewish Historical Institute community database. Warsaw.
  27. ^ Iwona Pogorzelska, Bodzentyn od 1869 roku do niepodległości. Polska.pl. Accessed June 16, 2011.
  28. ^ "Getto w Łowiczu," at Miejsca martyrologii, Wirtualny Sztetl. Instytut Adama Mickiewicza.  (Polish)
  29. ^ "Cmentarz żydowski w Mogielnicy (Jewish cemetery in Mogielnica)," at Kirkuty.xip.pl.
  30. ^ Angelika Lasiewicz-Sych, "An Essay of Traces of the Past," published in Kultura Współczesna nr 4 (38) 2003
  31. ^ a b Piotrków Trybunalski – Getto w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of the Polish Jews. Accessed July 1, 2011.
  32. ^ "Brześć – History". Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. p. 12. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  33. ^ a b Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. "Appendix A." Page 395.
  34. ^ "Życie za Życie" (Righteous of Ciepielów who paid the ultimate price)." Urząd Gminy w Ciepielowie.  (Polish). Accessed July 6, 2011.
  35. ^ "Ćmielów – Historia," Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich Wirtualny Sztetl (Museum of the History of the Polish Jews). Accessed July 6, 2011.
  36. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean (2012). "Gniewoszów". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b The Hrubieszow Genealogy Group. ShtetLinks Project. Accessed June 30, 2011.
  38. ^ "Getto w Iwacewiczach". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 
  39. ^ (Polish) Getta tranzytowe w dystrykcie lubelskim (Transit ghettos in Lublin district). Pamięć Miejsca. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  40. ^ "Izbica. History". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 3 of 6. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  41. ^ The 90th session of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Stenograph, part 2.2. A Report by Leon Kieres, president of the Institute of National Remembrance, for the period from July 1, 2,000 to June 30, 2001. Donald Tusk presiding. See statement by Senator Jadwiga Stokarska.  (Polish)
  42. ^ Kraków – History. Page 3. Virtual Shtetl, Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 12, 2011.
  43. ^ a b Jack Kugelmass, Jonathan Boyarin, Zachary M. Baker, From a ruined garden: the memorial books of Polish Jewry, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  44. ^ Jack Fischel, The Holocaust, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, pg. 58; in Google Books.
  45. ^ a b c "Treblinka Death Camp Day-by-Day," at Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (www.HolocaustResearchProject.org). Accessed June 30, 2011.
  46. ^ "Osiek. History of Jewish community". Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  47. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean. "Pionki by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 278–279. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
  48. ^ Piotr Berghof, "Radoszyce, wspomnienie o żydowskich mieszkańcach miasteczka."  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  49. ^ Słonim – History. Jewish community. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews.  (Polish) Accessed July 7, 2011. The prewar Polish city of Słonim was overrun by the Red Army in September 1939 and confiscated as part of Western Belarus. The influx of refugees from Nazi-occupied Poland increased its Jewish population to 27,000. Over 1,000 were deported to Siberia by the NKVD. Following German invasion of USSR, the ghetto was set up in August 1941, but mass executions began already on 17 July (1,200 men shot just outside the city). A second shooting action took place on 14 November 1941 with 9,000 killed. The ghetto was burned to the ground with all its inhabitants between 29 June and 15 July 1942 following a revolt. Only about 500 managed to escape.
  50. ^ a b Shmuel Spector, Geoffrey Wigoder (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. NYU Press. p. 1255. ISBN 0-8147-9356-8. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Tarnobrzeg. Warto zobaczyć" (Tarnobrzeg worth seeing), Wydawnictwo Bezdroża. Accessed June 27, 2011.
  52. ^ Wadowice – Historia. Wirtualny Sztetl.  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  53. ^ "Chronology of Vilna Ghetto," at Vilnaghetto.com without additional confirmation of quantitative data. Accessed June 24, 2011.
  54. ^ "The Deportation of the Zabludow Jews to Treblinka Death Camp." 2003 Tilford Bartman, Jerusalem, Israel.
  55. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee, Christopher Browning, Martin Dean. "Radom Region by Jolanta Kraemer". The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0-253-35599-0. Retrieved April 9, 2012. 
  56. ^ Daniel Blatman. Translated from the Hebrew by Judy Montel (Summer 2003). "Zwolen". Pinkas HaKehillot, Polen, Volume VII (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1999), pages 187-189. Kielce-Radom SIG Journal Volume 7, Number 3. pp. 8–9. 
  57. ^ "The History of Miedzyrzec Podlaski." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia Area in Israel. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  58. ^ "Mezritch (Międzyrzec) Podlaski in the Jewish sources." Association of Immigrants of Mezritch Depodalsia. Accessed June 16, 2011.
  59. ^ Przysucha, województwo Mazowieckie, Polska. Haapalah Index and Source Database. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  60. ^ Przysucha – History. Virtual Shtetl. Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Accessed July 5, 2011.
  61. ^ Gmina Sucha Beskidzka, powiat suski. Targeo.  (Polish). Accessed June 27, 2011.
  62. ^ Stefan Krakowski, Tomaszow Mazowiecki, Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed June 24, 2001.
  63. ^ Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak (2001). Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 138. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8. Retrieved May 11, 2011. 
  64. ^ Devorah Hakohen, Immigrants in turmoil: mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions... Syracuse University Press, 2003 - 325 pages. Page 70. ISBN 0-8156-2969-9
  65. ^ Arieh J. Kochavi, Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948. Page 15. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2620-0 Accessed June 20, 2011.
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