||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Catalan Wikipedia. (June 2014)|
View From Jhansi Fort towards the city
|Nickname(s): City of Rani Lakshmi Bai
Gateway to Bundelkhand
Capital of Bundelkhand
Heart of Bundelkhand
|Founded by||Raja of Orchha|
|• Mayor||Mrs. Kiran Verma (Bharatiya Janta Party)|
|• SSP||Mr. A. Satish Ganesh|
|• D.M.||Mr. Gaurav Dayal (I.A.S.)|
|Elevation||285 m (935 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Mega City||1,998,603|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||♂ 0.892 : ♀ 1.000|
|Avg. summer temperature||47 °C (117 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||4.0 °C (39.2 °F)|
Jhansi ( pronunciation (help·info); Hindi: झाँसी; Urdu: جھانسی) is a historic city of northern India, located in the region of Bundelkhand on the banks of the Pahuj or Pushpavati River, in the extreme south of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi District and Jhansi Division. This district is on the banks of the Betwa River. The original walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighbouring rock. From 1817 to 1854 Jhansi was the capital of the princely state of Jhansi which was ruled by Maratha rajas.
The city is situated between the rivers Pahuj and Betwa between North longitudes 24°11' and 25°57'and East latitudes 78°10'and 79°25'. It has an average elevation of 284 metres (935 feet). It is about 415 kilometres (258 mi) from New Delhi and 292 kilometres (181 mi) from Lucknow, and is called the Gateway to Bundelkhand.
Jhansi is well connected to all other major towns in Uttar Pradesh by road and railway networks. The National Highway Development Project has supported development of Jhansi. The north-south corridor connecting Kashmir to Kanyakumari passes through Jhansi as does the East-West corridor; consequently there has been a sudden rush to infrastructure and real estate development in the city. A greenfield airport development has been planned.
According to a legend the Raja of Orchha was sitting on the roof of his palace with his friend, the Raja of Jaitpur, and asked the latter whether he could discern this new fort that he had built on Bangara hill, and he replied that he could see it 'jhainsi' (meaning rather indistinct). This name 'Jhainsi' in course of time became corrupted to 'Jhansi'. It was one of the most strategically situated forts of central India being built on an elevated rock rising out of the plain and commanding the city and the surrounding country.
In the 18th century the town of Jhansi served as the capital of a Maratha province and later the Princely State of Jhansi from 1804 till 1853 when the territory became a part of British India.
jhansi coins minted in the mint name'BALWANTNAGAR'.No coin is found in the name of jhansi.Maratha rulers issued the coins in the name of mougal ruler with special mint symbols of their ruling period.
According to the 2011 census, Jhansi has a population of 8,30,293;[clarification needed] its urban agglomeration a population of 8,30,311[clarification needed]. Of the total population 91.5% are Hindus, 7.5% are Muslims, 0.5% are Christians and the rest 0.5% are Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists, as per 2001 census (religious data for 2011 census as yet not revealed). Jhansi city has 85th rank among the most populated cities of India, according to the 2011 census. The literacy rate of Jhansi is 63.81%, much lower than the national average.
According to the Indian Census of 2001 there were 21,917 people in Jhansi Cantonment, of whom 56% were male and 44% female (men 12,264; women 9,653; children 2,612). The rate of literacy was 76%.
Jhansi is located at 25.4333 N 78.5833 E. It has an average elevation of 284 metres (935 feet). Jhansi lies on the plateau of central India, an area dominated by rocky relief and minerals underneath the soil. The city has a natural slope in the north as it is on the south western border of the vast Tarai plains of Uttar Pradesh and the elevation rises on the south.
The land is suitable for species of citrus fruit and crops include wheat, pulses, peas, and oilseeds. The region relies heavily on Monsoon rains for irrigation purposes. Under an ambitious canal project (the Rajghat canal), the government is constructing a network of canals for irrigation in Jhansi and Lalitpur and some part of Madhya Pradesh. The trade in agricultural products (including grain and oilseeds) is of great economic importance. The city is also a centre of brassware manufacture.
Being on a rocky plateau, Jhansi experiences extreme temperatures. Winter begins in October with the retreat of the Southwest Monsoon (Jhansi does not experience any rainfall from the Northeast Monsoon) and peaks in mid-December. The mercury generally reads about 4 degrees minimum and 21 degrees maximum. Spring arrives by the end of February and is a short-lived phase of transition. Summer begins by April and summer temperatures can peak at 47 degrees in May. The rainy season starts by the third week of June (although this is variable year to year). Monsoon rains gradually weaken in September and the season ends by the last week of September. In the rainy season, the average daily high temperature hovers around 36 degrees Celsius with high humidity. The average rainfall for the city is about 900 mm per year, occurring almost entirely within the three-and-a-half months of the Southwest Monsoon. In summer Jhansi experiences temperatures as high as 45-47 degrees and in winter the temperatures fall as low as 0-1 degrees (recorded in winter 2011).
|Climate data for Jhansi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23
|Average low °C (°F)||7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||17
|Source: Jhansi Weather, Jhansi Climate|
The early 17th century fort was made by Raja Bir Singh on top of a hill known as Bangara as an army stronghold. The Karak Bijli tank is within the fort. There is also a museum which has a collection of sculpture and provides an insight into the history of Bundelkhand.
In the Government Museum there are collections of weapons, statues, dresses and photographs that represent the Chandela dynasty and a picture gallery of the Gupta period. There are also terracottas, bronzes, manuscripts, paintings and coins. The museum is closed on Mondays and second Saturday of every month.
The Rani Mahal was the palace of Rani Lakshmi Bai and has now been converted into a museum. It houses a collection of archaeological remains of the period between the 9th and 12th centuries AD.
Temples: Iskcon Temple, Laxmi Temple; Shri Kali Temple; Karguan Jain Temple.--Christian churches: Shrine of St. Jude Church; St Antony's Cathedral.--Gangadhar Rao-Ki-Chhatri (tomb).--Laxmi Bai Park; Narayan Bagh; Jari Ka Math; Barua Sagar & Fort; Garhmau Lake.
Agriculture and Food Processing Industries Minister declared the foundation of Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University at Jhansi. Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University Bill, 2012 was passed by the Parliament last year as informed by the Minister. This bill aims to meet the needs of Bundelkhand region. The jurisdiction of the University will be over Bundelkhand region, with 7 districts in Uttar Pradesh and 6 districts in Madhya Pradesh falling under it. 2 colleges will be established initially at Jhansi. Later, 2 colleges will be set up in Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh will have colleges for agriculture & horticulture and forestry. Madhya Pradesh will have colleges for veterinary & animal sciences and fisheries. The core objective of the University is to impart education in various fields of agriculture and allied sciences, to boost connections with national and international educational institutes and to undertake research in agriculture and programmes of extension education in Bundelkhand region.
Bundelkhand University is a public university founded in 1975 which has professional, technical and vocational study programmes along with facilities for research. The university has among others these Affiliated Colleges:
There are also the SR Group of Institutions, Jhansi; Dr Shri Radhakrishnan Inter College Jhansi.; Lord Mahakaleshwar Inter College.
Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical college Hospital Jhansi was established in 1968, is named after the "Jhansi ki Rani" Maha Rani Laxmi Bai. The aim is to provide medical care to poor people of the region, Bundelkhand. The college admits 100 students each year for medical course and nearly 54 post graduate student in various specialties. College is actively involved in various national health programs, e.g. Maternal and Child health, Integrated Child Development Scheme, Family Welfare, Pulse Polio Immunization program etc.
Campus of Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical college Hospital Jhansi –
The college building spread over a walled area of 380 acres, and this is perhaps the biggest medical college campus in the country. The building grouped into 3 blocks namely administration and teaching block, hospital block, residential block.
Jhansi has two radio stations: 92.7 Big FM and 103.0 Air FM.
Many national and local newspapers are published in Jhansi both in Hindi and English:
|Jan Seva Mail||Hindi|
|Jan Jan Jagran||Hindi|
The city is well connected to other parts of India by railways and major highways.
Jhansi Junction has its own Division of the Indian North Central Railways. It is well connected by train services to all parts of the country, including four metropolitan cities. There are direct trains to Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata (Howrah), Chennai, Bangalore (Bengaluru), Hyderabad, Nagpur, Agra Gwalior, Trivandrum, Indore, Ahmedabad, Udaipur, Pune, Jammu, Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Mahoba, Khajuraho, Gaya, Jalgaon, Bhusaval, Jabalpur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Bandra and other major towns. A list of all train services passing through Jhansi Junction can be found here.
Jhansi Junction is a major railway junction of Indian Railways: a major intercity hub and a technical stoppage for many superfast trains in India. Jhansi has its own division in the North Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. It lies on the main Delhi-Chennai and Delhi-Mumbai lines. The station code is JHS.
The railway station was built by the British in the late 1880s. After a long survey of three places the current site was selected for the station. The station has a massive fort-like building painted in maroon and off white.
The station had three platforms in the beginning. Platform One is 2,525 feet (770 m) long making it the fifth longest in the world so could easily handle two trains at a time. Platforms two and three are also long enoungh to do this. The first Shatabdi Express of India started between New Delhi and Jhansi. Earlier Jhansi used to be a part of Central railways zone headquartered at Mumbai but now comes under NCR headquartered at Allahabad.
Jhansi Junction is linked with many industrial and important cities of India by direct trains like New Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Jammu, Agra, Bhubaneshwar, Ahmedabad, etc.
Jhansi Junction is served by 4 broad gauge routes:
There is a proposal for installation of escalators in the railway junction for elderly or incapacitated passengers.
Jhansi Junction has 7 platforms, 4 broad over-bridges. Due to heavy usage, two new platforms are planned, increasing the total to 11. Five pairs of the Rajdhani Express as well as the Bhopal - New Delhi Shatabdi Express pass through Jhansi.Three pairs of Duronto Express also have their technical stoppages at Jhansi. All state Sampark Krantis passing through Jhansi have official stops at Jhansi. In all more than 150 trains stop at Jhansi Junction everyday.
The station also features a restaurant, air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned waiting rooms, a cyber cafe, and tourist information offices of both the Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh governments. Outside the station also there is a passenger complex and canteen.
Jhansi is located at the junction of these National Highways: NH-12A; NH-25; NH-26; NH-75; and NH-76. Thus, Jhansi commands a strategic position in the roadways network as highways in 5 different directions diverge from it.
The proposed north-south and east-west corridors of the Golden-Quadrilateral Highway project pass and cross each other only in Jhansi and the city is also well connected to Kanpur, Lucknow and Madhya Pradesh by road. The four lane national highway is at the last stage of its completion, giving a boom in infrastructure and other sectors in Jhansi and nearby areas;[when?] the greenery near this highway is attractive.
Jhansi Airport is a military aviation base built in the British era used by the Indian army and political visitors. Though there are provisions for private aircraft to land, there are no civil aviation operations. There had been a demand to make it operational for commercial purposes in the 1990s and again in the 2000s. The Uttar Pradesh government announced the construction of an all new civil aviation base to support tourism in Bundelkhand in April 2011. The Indian army maintains an objection to extension of the military aviation. So, the government has examined three different places other than army aviation base for the airport in Jhansi. Gwalior Airport is the nearest airport from Jhansi.
Jhansi district has the headquarters of the 31st Indian Armoured Division of the Indian Army, stationed at Jhansi-Babina. It is an armoured division which has equipment like the T-72 and T-90 tanks, and the BMP-2 armoured personnel carrier.
The Jhansi Cantonment was the site of the accommodation for British civil and military personnel in the period of British rule in India. Within the cantonment is Sacred Heart Church, a Roman Catholic church built early in the 20th century.
Sports stadiums in Jhansi are Major Dhyanchand Stadium; Railway Stadium; and LVM Sports Place
Two novels by John Masters are set in the fictional town of Bhowani. According to the author, writing in the Glossary to the earlier novel, Nightrunners of Bengal, Bhowani is an "imaginary town. To get a geographical bearing on the story it should be imagined to be about where Jhansi really is - 25.27 N., 78.33 E." Nightrunners of Bengal is set during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 at "Bhowani" (the title alludes to the mysterious distribution of "chapatis" to village headmen which preceded the revolt). Bhowani Junction is set in 1946/47 the eve of independence and in both novels the main character is Colonel Rodney Savage, a British army officer and part of a succession of such men from the same family.
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