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1
Oral History of John Backus
Oral History of John Backus
::2013/09/26::
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2
John Backus - New Atlantic Ventures
John Backus - New Atlantic Ventures
::2009/11/25::
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3
7th Session of Turingg100 | Life and Work of Dr. John Backus | Dr. Abhijat Vichare
7th Session of Turingg100 | Life and Work of Dr. John Backus | Dr. Abhijat Vichare
::2013/02/07::
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Help for John Backus
Help for John Backus
::2014/03/19::
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Interview with John Backus
Interview with John Backus
::2014/01/29::
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John Backus - VITROS® Microslide Technologies / Assays
John Backus - VITROS® Microslide Technologies / Assays
::2013/06/21::
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1977 - John Backus
1977 - John Backus
::2014/03/03::
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John Backus Gives a Venture Perspective on Tech Trends
John Backus Gives a Venture Perspective on Tech Trends
::2013/02/26::
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TRABALHO DE ALP0001: JOHN BACKUS
TRABALHO DE ALP0001: JOHN BACKUS
::2012/08/08::
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10
Up to US: NYU Interviews Professor David Backus
Up to US: NYU Interviews Professor David Backus
::2013/02/16::
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11
Robert Herjavec on False Encouragement
Robert Herjavec on False Encouragement
::2013/05/05::
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backus
backus
::2014/04/12::
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Maria Eugenia Contreras - Backus
Maria Eugenia Contreras - Backus
::2013/11/19::
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The Jim Backus Show - Woman
The Jim Backus Show - Woman'sTouch
::2013/02/20::
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Kevin O
Kevin O'Leary is Upset for Capitalism
::2012/12/26::
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Bob the Eye Licking Madman!
Bob the Eye Licking Madman!
::2012/07/15::
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Bob the Eye Licking Madman, Goes to Work
Bob the Eye Licking Madman, Goes to Work
::2012/07/15::
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Coding Keypad
Coding Keypad
::2013/03/07::
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interview backus 7
interview backus 7
::2013/06/07::
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SUICIDAL BATMAN PRANK (Omegle Funny Moments & Stunts)
SUICIDAL BATMAN PRANK (Omegle Funny Moments & Stunts)
::2014/04/08::
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BACKUS RECONOCE A DEPORTISTAS
BACKUS RECONOCE A DEPORTISTAS
::2010/01/14::
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backus 1
::2012/05/15::
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N Permutation - PLL
N Permutation - PLL
::2007/07/23::
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Interview with Linus Pauling, part 2
Interview with Linus Pauling, part 2
::2014/01/29::
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YOGSKIM VLOG Special! The Road to Rezzed 2014!
YOGSKIM VLOG Special! The Road to Rezzed 2014!
::2014/04/08::
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BACKUS
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::2010/10/25::
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Part I - Introduction/ Policy Spotlight for Entrepreneurs
Part I - Introduction/ Policy Spotlight for Entrepreneurs
::2010/11/18::
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Minecraft: Diamonds in the Rough: Party Parkour!
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::2014/03/05::
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::2008/01/07::
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6th Session of Turing100 | Life & Work of Jim Gray | Dr.Anand Deshpande
6th Session of Turing100 | Life & Work of Jim Gray | Dr.Anand Deshpande
::2013/01/23::
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A NEW EXPERIENCE! Gaming house 2.0 in the making
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::2014/03/22::
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The Gay Roommate - Multimodal Essay
The Gay Roommate - Multimodal Essay
::2013/03/18::
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Clean Sweep Game Animation - VRC 2009-2010 (updated)
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::2009/08/27::
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Part III- Entrepreneurs and Visas, Education
Part III- Entrepreneurs and Visas, Education
::2010/11/18::
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ENIAC: The First Computer
ENIAC: The First Computer
::2011/08/19::
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Interview with Edward Teller
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::2014/01/29::
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2012 09 01 12 54 34 531
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::2012/09/02::
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Hit and Run again..I have the worst luck ever. QUIT SMASHING INTO MY CAR WITH SHIT WTF!
Hit and Run again..I have the worst luck ever. QUIT SMASHING INTO MY CAR WITH SHIT WTF!
::2013/12/04::
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Warlords of Draenor!
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::2014/03/09::
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Gus Backus - Short On Love - 1963
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::2010/08/17::
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::2013/11/20::
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::2010/09/05::
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Warlords of Draenor! Blizzard Updates | Sundays Discussion! [Cobrak] #20
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::2014/03/02::
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Gus Backus - He! Alter John
Gus Backus - He! Alter John
::2014/04/17::
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Jim Backus & Friends : Delicious
Jim Backus & Friends : Delicious
::2010/12/19::
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Reddit Interviews Day[9]!  (Part 1)
Reddit Interviews Day[9]! (Part 1)
::2010/10/29::
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Arturia MiniBrute Tour
Arturia MiniBrute Tour
::2012/01/18::
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Sun
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Standing Sound Waves
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::2010/09/10::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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John Backus
Born (1924-12-03)December 3, 1924
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Died March 17, 2007(2007-03-17) (aged 82)
Ashland, Oregon
Fields Computer Science
Institutions IBM
Alma mater Columbia University
Known for Speedcoding
FORTRAN
ALGOL
Backus-Naur form
Function-level programming
Notable awards ACM Turing Award
Draper Prize

John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist. He directed the team that invented the first widely used high-level programming language (FORTRAN) and was the inventor of the Backus-Naur form (BNF), a widely used notation to define formal language syntax. He also did research in function-level programming and helped to popularize it.

The IEEE awarded Backus the W.W. McDowell Award in 1967 for the development of FORTRAN.[1] He received the National Medal of Science in 1975,[2] and the 1977 ACM Turing Award “for profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages.”[3]

Life and career[edit]

Backus was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and grew up in nearby Wilmington, Delaware. He studied at the The Hill School in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, and was apparently not a diligent student.[4] After entering the University of Virginia to study chemistry, he quit and was conscripted into the U.S. Army.[4] He began medical training at Haverford College[5] and, during an internship at a hospital, he was diagnosed with a cranial bone tumor, which was successfully removed; a plate was installed in his head, and he ended medical training after nine months and a subsequent operation to replace the plate with one of his own design.[6]

After moving to New York City he trained initially as a radio technician and became interested in mathematics. He graduated from Columbia University with a Master's degree in mathematics in 1949, and joined IBM in 1950. During his first three years, he worked on the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC); his first major project was to write a program to calculate positions of the Moon. In 1953 Backus developed the language Speedcoding, the first high-level language created for an IBM computer.[7]

Programming was very difficult at this time, and in 1954 Backus assembled a team to define and develop Fortran for the IBM 704 computer. Fortran was the first high-level programming language to be put to broad use.

Backus made another, critical contribution to early computer science: during the latter part of the 1950s Backus served on the international committees that developed ALGOL 58 and the very influential ALGOL 60, which quickly became the de facto worldwide standard for publishing algorithms. Backus developed the Backus-Naur Form (BNF), in the UNESCO report on ALGOL 58. It was a formal notation able to describe any context-free programming language, and was important in the development of compilers. This contribution helped Backus win the Turing Award.

Though the Backus Normal Form was discovered independently by John Backus, Panini, a grammarian from India who lived sometime between 4th and 7th century BCE, presented a notation which is equivalent in its power to that of Backus and has many similar properties. [8]

Backus later worked on a "function-level" programming language known as FP which was described in his Turing Award lecture "Can Programming be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?". Sometimes viewed as Backus's apology for creating FORTRAN, this paper did less to garner interest in the FP language than to spark research into functional programming in general. An FP interpreter was distributed with the 4.2BSD Unix operating system. FP was strongly inspired by Kenneth E. Iverson’s APL, even using a non-standard character set. Backus spent the latter part of his career developing FL (from "Function Level"), a successor to FP. FL was an internal IBM research project, and development of the language essentially stopped when the project was finished (only a few papers documenting it remain), but many of the language's innovative, arguably important ideas have now been implemented in versions of the J programming language.

Backus was named an IBM Fellow in 1963,[9] and was awarded a degree honoris causa from the Henri Poincaré University in Nancy (France) in 1989[10] and a Draper Prize in 1993.[11] He retired in 1991 and died at his home in Ashland, Oregon on March 17, 2007.[4]

Awards and honors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "W. Wallace McDowell Award". Retrieved April 15, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b "The President's National Medal of Science: John Backus". National Science Foundation. Retrieved March 21, 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "ACM Turing Award Citation: John Backus". Association for Computing Machinery. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b c Lohr, Steve (March 20, 2007). "John W. Backus, 82, Fortran Developer, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2007. 
  5. ^ "Inventor of the Week Archive John Backus". February 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2011. 
  6. ^ Grady Booch (interviewer) (September 25, 2006). "Oral History of John Backus" (pdf). Retrieved August 17, 2009. 
  7. ^ Allen, F.E. (September 1981). "The History of Language Processor Technology in IBM". IBM Journal of Research Development 25 (5): 535–548. doi:10.1147/rd.255.0535. 
  8. ^ http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Panini.html
  9. ^ a b "John Backus". IBM Archives. Retrieved March 21, 2007. 
  10. ^ a b "John Backus". Retrieved April 15, 2008. 
  11. ^ a b "Recipients of the Charles Stark Draper Prize". Retrieved March 26, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 28, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Fellow Awards 1997 Recipient John Backus". Retrieved April 15, 2008. 

External links[edit]

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