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New 'Tilt' Ride in Hancock Tower
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: Chicago Tribune
John Hancock Observatory
John Hancock Observatory
Published: 2012/09/28
Channel: Hoosier Tim's Travel Videos
John Hancock Tilt - Chicago
John Hancock Tilt - Chicago
Published: 2015/04/03
Channel: lucolson
Chicago
Chicago's John Hancock Tower revealed Cruisin' Illinois
Published: 2008/05/16
Channel: WGN News
Starting removal of John Hancock Building west antenna
Starting removal of John Hancock Building west antenna
Published: 2014/08/07
Channel: L1irnwrkr
The endless amenities on the Hancock
The endless amenities on the Hancock's 44th floor
Published: 2012/07/30
Channel: YoChicago
SYND 26-2-74 WINDOW PANES FALL OUT OF BOSTON SKYSCRAPER
SYND 26-2-74 WINDOW PANES FALL OUT OF BOSTON SKYSCRAPER
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: AP Archive
Boston History in a Minute: John Hancock Tower
Boston History in a Minute: John Hancock Tower
Published: 2015/08/03
Channel: Ye Olde Tavern Tours
John Hancock Tower Observation Deck Tour HD
John Hancock Tower Observation Deck Tour HD
Published: 2011/05/31
Channel: RileyRichardz
360 Chicago Chicago (Formerly the John Hancock Observatory)
360 Chicago Chicago (Formerly the John Hancock Observatory)
Published: 2014/10/13
Channel: HealthBeautyLifeShow
Life After People - John Hancock Tower
Life After People - John Hancock Tower
Published: 2017/02/04
Channel: SC2Hayasui Videos
WATCH!! Fire Reported on 50th Floor of Chicago
WATCH!! Fire Reported on 50th Floor of Chicago's Famed John Hancock Tower
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: Express News
The Hancock Tower is one wicked Boston landmark
The Hancock Tower is one wicked Boston landmark
Published: 2014/12/12
Channel: AIANational
A high-floor southeast corner 3-bedroom at the Hancock
A high-floor southeast corner 3-bedroom at the Hancock
Published: 2009/09/20
Channel: YoChicago
Skyscraperman a.k.a. SpiderDan scales John Hancock Center with Spider-Man
Skyscraperman a.k.a. SpiderDan scales John Hancock Center with Spider-Man's Stan Lee interview
Published: 2009/01/14
Channel: skyscraperdefense
Life After People - John Hancock Center
Life After People - John Hancock Center
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: SC2Hayasui Videos
New Sky-High Tilt Attraction in Chicago
New Sky-High Tilt Attraction in Chicago
Published: 2014/05/14
Channel: GeoBeats News
Construction of the John Hancock Building, 1947
Construction of the John Hancock Building, 1947
Published: 2012/11/07
Channel: travelfilmarchive
My Boston with Gary Johnson: The John Hancock Tower
My Boston with Gary Johnson: The John Hancock Tower
Published: 2016/02/02
Channel: Architectural Record
High Rise Worker POV | Atop The John Hancock Building
High Rise Worker POV | Atop The John Hancock Building
Published: 2015/03/16
Channel: YouView
Elevators at the John Hancock Center Skydeck (Going UP - Otis)
Elevators at the John Hancock Center Skydeck (Going UP - Otis)
Published: 2008/11/28
Channel: Elevation Productions by musicfreakcc
Experience Tilt
Experience Tilt
Published: 2014/03/13
Channel: 360 Chicago
John Hancock Building antenna
John Hancock Building antenna
Published: 2013/08/14
Channel: L1irnwrkr
360 Chicago John Hancock Compilation 2017
360 Chicago John Hancock Compilation 2017
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: rejanolg official
Otis Ultra-High Speed Traction Elevators @ John Hancock Center in Chicago IL
Otis Ultra-High Speed Traction Elevators @ John Hancock Center in Chicago IL
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: WI Sirens And Elevators
Hancock unveils Tilt!
Hancock unveils Tilt!
Published: 2014/05/08
Channel: Chicago Sun-Times
LEGO Architecture - Willis Tower | John Hancock Center | Empire State Building
LEGO Architecture - Willis Tower | John Hancock Center | Empire State Building
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: StupidSystemus
Mystery Image On John Hancock Tower Is Art
Mystery Image On John Hancock Tower Is Art
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Jordanems Network
Chicago TILT (HD) - 360 CHICAGO on the magnificent mile
Chicago TILT (HD) - 360 CHICAGO on the magnificent mile
Published: 2014/05/15
Channel: buidoi555
weird creature spotted on john hancock building chicago november 2016
weird creature spotted on john hancock building chicago november 2016
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: finn bjornerud
John Hancock Tower, Boston
John Hancock Tower, Boston
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: momoshowpalace
View from the John Hancock Tower in Boston
View from the John Hancock Tower in Boston
Published: 2010/04/03
Channel: slayerdiabolus
Willis Tower Vs. John Hancock!
Willis Tower Vs. John Hancock!
Published: 2011/08/02
Channel: schenbo
Rosie Destroys The John Hancock Center/ Sent to Syria
Rosie Destroys The John Hancock Center/ Sent to Syria
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: StefieB
John Hancock Building Chicago Signature room restaurant 95th Floor
John Hancock Building Chicago Signature room restaurant 95th Floor
Published: 2013/01/06
Channel: NJRE
Ride Along: John Hancock Center Parking Garage
Ride Along: John Hancock Center Parking Garage
Published: 2013/01/04
Channel: Toby Witt
John Hancock Tower During Construction
John Hancock Tower During Construction
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Matt Bowling
John Hancock Tower (Chicago) at Night
John Hancock Tower (Chicago) at Night
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: balsamwoods
TOURING THE CHICAGO SKYDECK OBSERVATORY JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING SKYCRAPER
TOURING THE CHICAGO SKYDECK OBSERVATORY JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING SKYCRAPER
Published: 2013/08/16
Channel: donaldroszz
Redevelopment authority gives OK to new John Hancock building
Redevelopment authority gives OK to new John Hancock building
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: Jordanems Network
Boston
Boston's Tallest Building! John Hancock Tower @ Night Time
Published: 2013/02/16
Channel: RandomVideos ByThomas
Chicago Skyline Views & 360 Chicago TILT & Observation Deck @ John Hancock Tower (HD)
Chicago Skyline Views & 360 Chicago TILT & Observation Deck @ John Hancock Tower (HD)
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: TravelTouristVideos
Sunset in Chicago from John Hancock Tower (96th Floor The Signature Lounge)
Sunset in Chicago from John Hancock Tower (96th Floor The Signature Lounge)
Published: 2013/01/01
Channel: Nm Ca
Tilting at Chicago
Tilting at Chicago's John Hancock Observartory
Published: 2014/08/11
Channel: Leandro Ariel
John Hancock Tower chicago
John Hancock Tower chicago
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: ARNY ACOSTA
Mirador John Hancock Observatory Tower Chicago, Illinois
Mirador John Hancock Observatory Tower Chicago, Illinois
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: Guía Low Cost
John Hancock Center Chicago - Observatory elevators
John Hancock Center Chicago - Observatory elevators
Published: 2012/06/24
Channel: Todor Krecu
Sky view of Lake Shore Drive and John Hancock Building 7
Sky view of Lake Shore Drive and John Hancock Building 7
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: VirtualAmazingGrace
Eating at Signature Restaurant Hancock Tower Chicago
Eating at Signature Restaurant Hancock Tower Chicago
Published: 2010/10/06
Channel: machomikemd
Minecraft - John Hancock Center Tutorial | Part 1
Minecraft - John Hancock Center Tutorial | Part 1
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: MannyMurph
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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200 Clarendon Street
John Hancock Tower.jpg
A view of Hancock Place from the Charles River
John Hancock Tower is located in Boston
John Hancock Tower
John Hancock Tower is located in Massachusetts
John Hancock Tower
John Hancock Tower is located in the US
John Hancock Tower
Location within Boston
General information
Type Office
Location 200 Clarendon Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02116, United States
Coordinates 42°20′57.4″N 71°04′29.2″W / 42.349278°N 71.074778°W / 42.349278; -71.074778Coordinates: 42°20′57.4″N 71°04′29.2″W / 42.349278°N 71.074778°W / 42.349278; -71.074778
Construction started 1968
Completed 1976
Owner Boston Properties
Height
Roof 790 ft (240.8 m)
Technical details
Floor count 60
Floor area 2,059,997 sq ft (191,380.0 m2)
Design and construction
Architect Henry N. Cobb of I.M. Pei & Partners
Developer John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company

200 Clarendon Street, (previously John Hancock Tower)[1] and colloquially known as The Hancock, is a 60-story, 790-foot (240 m) skyscraper in Boston. The tower was designed by Henry N. Cobb of the firm I. M. Pei & Partners and was completed in 1976.[2] In 1977, the American Institute of Architects presented the firm with a National Honor Award for the building, and in 2011 conferred on it the Twenty-five Year Award.[3] It has been the tallest building in Boston for more than 40 years, and is also the tallest building in New England.

The street address is 200 Clarendon Street, but occupants use both "Hancock Place" and "200 Clarendon Street" as mailing addresses for offices in the building. John Hancock Insurance was the main tenant of the building when it opened, but the company announced in 2004 that some offices would relocate to a new building at 601 Congress Street, in Fort Point, Boston.

The tower was originally named for the insurance company that occupied it. The insurance company, in turn, was named for John Hancock, whose large and conspicuous signature on the Declaration of Independence made his name so famous in the U.S. that a colloquialism for a signature is "a John Hancock."[4]

Architecture[edit]

Tall, narrow glass structures were a goal of modernist architecture since Mies Van Der Rohe proposed a glass skyscraper for Berlin. Such buildings as Gordon Bunshaft's Lever House, Mies' Seagram Building in New York City, and Frank Lloyd Wright's Johnson Wax Headquarters attempted this goal, but many of these designs retained structural artifacts that prevented a consistent, monolithic look.[citation needed]

In 1972, Cobb's design of the 200 Clarendon Tower took the glass monolith skyscraper concept to new heights. The tower is an achievement in minimalist, modernist skyscraper design.[citation needed]

Minimalism was the design principle behind the tower. The largest possible panes of glass were used. There are no spandrel panels, and the mullions are minimal. Cobb added a geometric modernist twist by using a parallelogram shape for the tower floor plan. From the most common views, this design makes the corners of the tower appear very sharp. The highly reflective window glass is tinted slightly blue, which results in the tower having only a slight contrast with the sky on a clear day. As a final modernist touch, the short sides of the parallelogram are marked with a deep vertical notch, breaking up the tower's mass and emphasizing its verticality. In late evening, the vertical notch to the northwest catches the last light of the sky, while the larger portions of glass reflect the darkening sky.

A major concern of the architects while designing the tower was its proximity to Boston's Trinity Church, a prominent National Historic Landmark. Their concern led them to redesign the tower's plans, as there was a public outcry when it was revealed that the Hancock Tower would cast its shadow on the church.[5]

Characteristics

Engineering flaws[edit]

The building was a much-anticipated landmark designed by a well-respected architect, but was known in the 1970s for its engineering flaws as well as for its architectural achievement. The opening of the building was delayed from 1971 to 1976, and the total cost is rumored to have increased from $75 million to $175 million. It was an embarrassment for the firm, for modernist architects, and for the architecture industry.[6]

During the excavation for the tower's foundation, temporary steel retaining walls were erected to create a space in which to build. The walls warped, giving way to the clay and mud fill of the Back Bay which they were supposed to hold back. The inward bend of the retaining walls damaged utility lines, the sidewalk pavement, and nearby buildings—including the historic Trinity Church across St. James Avenue. Trinity Church won an $11 million lawsuit to pay for repairs.[7]

There were problems with the innovative use of blue reflective glass in a steel tower: Entire 4' × 11', 500-lb (1.2 × 3.4 m, 227 kg) windowpanes detached from the building and crashed to the sidewalk hundreds of feet below. Police closed off surrounding streets whenever winds reached 45 mph (72 km/h). Under the direction of Frank H. Durgin of MIT's Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel a scale model of the entire Back Bay and an aeroelastic model of the John Hancock Tower were built and tested in the wind tunnel to identify the problem. The research raised questions about the structural integrity of the entire building (due to unanticipated twisting of the structure), but did not account for the loss of the glass panels. An independent laboratory eventually confirmed that the failure of the glass was due to oscillations and repeated thermal stresses caused by the expansion and contraction of the air between the inner and outer glass panels which formed each window; the resilient bonding between the inner glass, reflective material, and outer glass was so stiff that it was transmitting the force to the outer glass (instead of absorbing it), thus causing the glass to fail.[8]

John Hancock Tower, 2013

In October 1973, I.M. Pei & Partners announced that all 10,344 window panes would each be replaced by single paned, heat-treated panels at a total cost between $5 million and $7 million.[8][7] Approximately 5,000 of the original glass panes were removed intact, and were later reused by artists.[9]

During the many months it took to diagnose and repair the building, sheets of plywood replaced many of the missing glass windows of the building, earning it the nicknames "Plywood Palace" and "Plywood Ranch" (the same name as a local lumber yard chain at the time). Bostonians joked that the Hancock Tower was "the world's tallest plywood building".

The building's upper-floor occupants suffered from motion sickness when the building swayed in the wind. To stabilize the movement, contractors installed a tuned mass damper on the 58th floor.[10] As described by Robert Campbell, architecture critic for The Boston Globe:

Two 300-ton weights sit at opposite ends of the 58th floor of the Hancock. Each weight is a box of steel, filled with lead, 17 feet square by 3 feet high. Each weight rests on a steel plate. The plate is covered with lubricant so the weight is free to slide. But the weight is attached to the steel frame of the building by means of springs and shock absorbers. When the Hancock sways, the weight tends to remain still, allowing the floor to slide underneath it. Then, as the springs and shocks take hold, they begin to tug the building back. The effect is like that of a gyroscope, stabilizing the tower. The reason there are two weights, instead of one, is so they can tug in opposite directions when the building twists. The cost of the damper was $3 million. The dampers are free to move a few feet relative to the floor.

The John Hancock Tower seen from the Prudential Tower; on the left is Copley Square (and Trinity Church), to the upper left is the Boston Common, on the right is the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) and to the top right is Logan International Airport.

According to Campbell, engineers discovered that—despite the mass damper—the building could have fallen over under a certain kind of wind loading. The structure was assessed as more unstable on its narrow sides than on the big flat sides. Some 1,500 tons of diagonal steel bracing, costing $5 million, were added to prevent such an event.[10]

History[edit]

An observation deck with spectacular views of Boston was a popular attraction. However, it was closed after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.[11] Because of the closure of the John Hancock Tower's observation deck, the highest observation deck open to the public in Boston is in the Prudential Tower.

A mural, by the French photographer and artist JR, being installed between the 44th and 50th floors of the building in September 2015.
A mural, by the French photographer and artist JR, being installed between the 44th and 50th floors of the building in September 2015

The building's owners cite security as the reason for the continued closure. They have rented the deck for private functions and have expressed intent to replace it with more office space. Boston city officials contend that security concerns are moot, since most similar attractions have long since reopened. In addition, they note that a public observation deck was a requirement for the original building permits to gain public benefit from the high tower. However, they have not been able to locate the documentation of this requirement.[12]

In 2006, Broadway Partners acquired Hancock Place for $1.3 billion. By 2009, they had defaulted on the loans they used to buy the building, and it fell into foreclosure.[13] On March 30, 2009, Hancock Place was sold at auction for $660 million ($20 million was new equity and the $640 million of in-place debt was assumed by the buyer)[14] to a consortium of Normandy Real Estate Partners and Five Mile Capital Partners. The companies had been slowly increasing their investment over the previous months.[15] In October 2010, Boston Properties acquired the John Hancock Tower for $930 million.[16] As part of the purchase agreement, the name "Hancock Tower" would expire along with John Hancock's lease in 2015.[7]

View of the John Hancock Tower at blue hour

The company that built the Hancock Tower and two earlier, similarly named buildings is known loosely as "John Hancock Insurance", or simply "John Hancock". It was known as "The John Hancock Life Insurance Company" in the 1930s and "The John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company" in the 1940s. As of 2000, the company owning the buildings was John Hancock Financial Services, Inc. with various subsidiaries such as The John Hancock Variable Life Insurance Company and Signator Investors, Inc. In 2003, Manulife Financial Corporation of Toronto acquired the company, but it still uses the name "John Hancock Financial Services, Inc." and those of various subsidiaries.

The name change from "John Hancock" to "200 Clarendon" took place in mid-2015, when the eponymous company's lease expired. It had been stipulated in the leasing contract that the building would retain the name John Hancock only so long as John Hancock Financial was an occupant.[1]

In popular culture[edit]

About a year after the falling windows problem was resolved, novelist John Updike wrote in a story,[10]

The TV series Fringe, shows the building as the location of FBI Headquarters. However, the actual FBI Boston headquarters are located at One Center Plaza.[17]

In September 2015, the French photographer and artist JR created a 150-by-86-foot (46 by 26 m) tall mural of a man wearing shorts, between the 44th and 50th floors of the building. According to the property manager, the mural was the final piece in a three-part series of temporary public art projects at the building.[18][19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Logan, Tim. "So, what should we call the John Hancock Tower now?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2016-01-19. 
  2. ^ "John Hancock Tower". Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  3. ^ "Twenty Five Year Award Recipients". American Institute of Architects. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  4. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary". Retrieved 2017-04-24.  "John Hancock n. Informal: A person's signature. [After John Hancock (from the prominence of his signature on the Declaration of Independence).]
  5. ^ Farragher, Thomas (24 September 2006). "Hancock Tower at 30: 60 stories and countless tales". The Boston Globe. boston.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  6. ^ Wiseman, Carter (1 September 1990). I.M. Pei: A Profile in American Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams. pp. 139–153. ISBN 978-0810937093. 
  7. ^ a b c Goodison, Donna (July 31, 2015). "Hancock signs off as name of tower". The Boston Herald. Retrieved January 19, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Levy, Matthys; Salvadori, Mario (1992). Why Buildings Fall Down. W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 203–205. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  9. ^ "How Art Springs Forth From Broken Windows". The New York Times. NYTimes.com. 3 January 1988. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  10. ^ a b c Campbell, Robert (3 March 1995). "Builder Faced Bigger Crisis Than Falling Windows". The Boston Globe. The Pulitzer Prizes. Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  11. ^ Colletti, Carolyn (14 September 2001). "Hancock Tower observatory is shut permanently". The Boston Globe. boston.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  12. ^ Park, Madison (15 June 2005). "Searching for an answer on 60th floor". The Boston Globe. boston.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  13. ^ Gross, Daniel; Stuart Johnson (5 September 2009). "The Skyscraper That Ate a Billion Dollars: Boston's Hancock Tower and the coming commercial real estate crisis". Slate. 
  14. ^ Yu, Hui-Yong; Green, Peter S. (31 March 2009). "Hancock Tower Sells at About Half Price to Normandy". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  15. ^ Ross, Casey (31 March 2009). "Hancock Tower sells for $660m at auction". The Boston Globe. boston.com. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  16. ^ "Boston Properties buys Boston tower for $930M". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  17. ^ Gallagher, Tina (14 September 2011). "'Fringe' Trivia: 10 Things You Didn't Know About Your Favorite Show". Yahoo!. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  18. ^ Annear, Steve (2015-09-24). "Mystery solved: mural on ex-Hancock Tower the work of French artist". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2015-09-25. 
  19. ^ Smee, Sebastian (September 25, 2015). "With Hancock piece, the public gets an imposing and intriguing gift". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2015-09-25. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Prudential Tower
Tallest Building in Boston
1976–Present
241 m
Succeeded by
None

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